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Encyclopedia > Rollo of Normandy
Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square.
Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square.

Rollo (c. 860 - c. 932) was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. He is also in some sources known as Robert of Normandy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 1438 KB) Summary Photo of Rollo statue depicted among the 6 dukes of Normandy in the town square of Falaise. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 1438 KB) Summary Photo of Rollo statue depicted among the 6 dukes of Normandy in the town square of Falaise. ... Events First attack on Constantinople by Swedish Vikings (the Rus, see Varangians). ... Events Foundation of the St. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia (referred to as Varangians by the Russian Primary... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ...


The name Rollo is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from Scandinavian name Hrólf (cf. the latinization of Hrólf Kraki into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum). Rollo has multiple meanings. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... may refer to: Rollo of Normandy a number of Vikings This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... Hrólf Kraki (Old Norse), Rolf Kraki or Rolf Krake was a legendary king at Lejre on the isle of Zealand, Denmark, described in several old sagas and other documents such as the Leire chronicle and Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ...

Contents

Historical evidence

Rollo was a Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of St. Quentin, in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum(Latin), tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Denmark, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed. William of Jumièges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum however he states that he was from the Danish town of Fakse. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou, also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga. The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia (referred to as Varangians by the Russian Primary... Dudo, or Dudon was a Norman historian, and dean of St Quentin, where he was born about 965. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... William of Jumièges was a contemporary of the events of 1066, and one of our earliest writers on the subject of the Norman Conquest. ... Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes) is a written work originally created by the monk William of Jumièges just before 1060. ... Fakse is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of Storstrøm. ... Wace (c. ... As quoted on this monument in Saint Helier, Wace informs the reader of the Roman de Rou that he was born in Jersey Roman de Rou is a verse chronicle by Wace in Norman covering the history of the Dukes of Normandy from the time of Rollo of Normandy to... The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown...

Wikisource
Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article:
De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum

Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified this Rollo with a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas that mention a Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker). The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae, written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair, and became a Jarl in Iceland. The nickname of that character came from being so big that no horse could carry him. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Rognvald Eysteinsson is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. ...   is a county in the northernmost part of the Vestlandet region of Norway, and borders the counties of Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Sogn og Fjordane. ... Vestlandet is the geographical region of the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. ... Historia Norvegiæ is a short history of the Norwegian past written by a monk in the second half of the 12th century. ... Harald I (b. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ...


Norway was long considered a fief of the Danish kings, so it may be that Dudo was describing things accurately for his era and later sources meshing likewise, during Norway's independent era of colonialism in the North Atlantic and North America--asserting things from a Norwegian perspective. If Rollo in any way relates with Fakse, it could be that the loggerhead relationship of an insubordinate Norwegian noble raiding Zealand could have been the issue. Thus, Rollo's origins would be both Norwegian and Danish.


The name "Danelaw" in England is taken at face value, but some assert that the Norwegians could not cross the Danish lanes of the North Sea and make their own, even more permanent version--"Normandy", or that the French were ignorant in contradistinction from the English apparent recognition of which nationals were invading their country. Rollo does not figure into Danelaw history or legends at all, while it is quite clear from historical records that the Danelaw inhabitants were in no way, shape or form, partial to the Normans. This is further evidence of the otherwise attested rivalry between the Danes and Norwegians of this period. Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ...


The native Norwegian dynasty sourced originally from Sweden and translations for the Norwegian ethnic word for Norwegian, are English Northman, French Normand. The question of Rollo's Danish or Norwegian origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's 1000-year-anniversary in 1911. Today, historians still disagree on this question, but most would now agree that a certain conclusion can never be reached.


Invasion of France

Statue of Rollo in Rouen
Statue of Rollo in Rouen

In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixels Full resolution (908 × 1402 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rollo of Normandy ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixels Full resolution (908 × 1402 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rollo of Normandy ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Combatants Franks Danes Commanders Odo, Count of Paris Sigfred and Rollo Strength 200 men-at-arms 30,000 The Siege of Paris of 885 to 886 was a Viking siege of Paris, then capital of the kingdom of the West Franks. ... The two kingdoms which came under the rule of Sigurd after the Battle of Brávellir. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their...


Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ...


Rather than pay Rollo to leave, as was customary, the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, understood that he could no longer hold back their onslaught, and decided to give Rollo the coastal lands they occupied under the condition that he defend against other raiding Vikings. Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ...


In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with King Charles, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, and in admission of defeat, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. His warrior then lifted Charles' foot up to his mouth causing him to fall to the ground.[citation needed] The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... This article is about the year 911 A.D.; for the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Settlement

Initially, Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time he and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet. Eventually, however, Rollo's men intermarried with the local women, and became more settled as Frenchmen. At the time of his death, Rollo's expansion of his territory had extended as far west as the Vire River. The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... The River Vire is a river in Normandy in France whose 118 km course crosses the départements of Calvados and Manche, flowing through the towns of Vire, Saint-Lô and Isigny-sur-Mer, finally flowing out into the English Channel. ...


Death

Rollo's grave at the cathedral of Rouen
Rollo's grave at the cathedral of Rouen

Sometime around 927, Rollo passed the fief in Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshipped,[citation needed] and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true god in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, some of his pagan roots surfaced at the end. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1098 KB) Photo by Urban Date: December 2004 License: GFDL Image history of fr:Image:Rollon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1098 KB) Photo by Urban Date: December 2004 License: GFDL Image history of fr:Image:Rollon. ... Rouen Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen) is a Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... This article is about the ruler of Normandy. ... Events Jersey was seized by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy . ... Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (d. ... Norse gods Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including Jotun, the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ...


Legacy

Rollo is a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. Through William, he is a direct ancestor and predecessor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. William I of England (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


The "Clameur de Haro" in the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo. The Clameur De Haro is an ancient legal injunction of restraint employed by a person that believes they are being wronged by another at that moment. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


Genealogy

Image File history File links Cronological_tree_william_I.svg Genealogy of William the conqueror back up to Rollo. ... Image File history File links Cronological_tree_william_I.svg Genealogy of William the conqueror back up to Rollo. ...

See also

Preceded by:
Fiefholder of Normandy (First duke of Normandy) Succeeded by:
William I

Veøya (or Veøy) is an historic island outside Molde, Norway, located in Romsdalsfjord between Sekken and the mainland, at the junction of the three main branches of the fjord. ... Ragnvald Eysteinsson, The Wise (830-890) (Old Norse: Rögnvaldr Mærajarl), Earl of Sunnmøre, Nordmøre and Romsdal, was born in Maer Nord-Trøndelag, Norway and died at the Orkney Islands. ... County Møre og Romsdal District Sunnmøre Municipality NO-1504 Administrative centre Ã…lesund Mayor (2003) Arve Tonning (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 388 98 km² 93 km² 0. ... The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Image File history File links Blason_Normandie. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... This article is about the ruler of Normandy. ...

References and external links

  • Göngu-Hrólfs saga in Old Norse from heimskringla.no
  • D.C. Douglas, "Rollo of Normandy", English Historical Review, Vol. 57 (1942), pp. 414-436
  • Robert Helmerichs, [Rollo as Historical Figure]
  • Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdom under the Carolingians, 751-987, (Longman) 1983
  • Dudonis gesta Normannorum - Dudo of St. Quentin Gesta Normannorum Latin version at Bibliotheca Augustana
  • Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum - An English Translation
  • Gwyn Jones. Second edition: A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press. (1984).
  • William W. Fitzhugh and Elizabeth Ward. Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Smithsonian Institute Press. (2000)
  • Eric Christiansen. The Norsemen in the Viking Age. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. (2002)
  • Agnus Konstam. Historical Atlas of the Viking World. Checkmark Books. (2002)
  • Holgar Arbman. Ancient People and Places: The Vikings. Thames and Husdson. (1961)
  • Eric Oxenstierna. The Norsemen, New York Graphics Society Publishers, Ltd. (1965)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rollo of Normandy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (924 words)
The matter of Rollo's Norwegian or Danish origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's 1000-year-anniversary in 1911.
In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred.
Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time he and his followers had very different ideas.
Rollo Duke of Normandy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (298 words)
Rollo is a Viking leader, a powerful Danish duke at loggerheads with the king of Denmark, who then dies and leaves his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed.
Concluding the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte Rollo pledges feudal allegiance to the king and converts to Christianity.
The plot is based loosely on the historical Rollo of Normandy and the foundation of the Duchy of Normandy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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