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Encyclopedia > Rollback

Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. It was defined as using military force to "roll back" communism in countries where it had taken root. A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...

Contents


Western intervention in Russian Civil War

The western intervention in the Russian Civil War can be considered an attempt at rollback, but it was before this term came to be used. The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ...


Rollback during Cold War

The most important rollback period was during the Cold War when many Americans felt that they were in a life or death struggle against world communism. After the devastation of the Second World War, only an insignificant minority of Americans were prepared to rollback communism throughout the world. A compromise was to use intelligence services and other such efforts to achieve these ends. These attempts began as early as 1945 with attempts in Eastern Europe, including attempts to provide weapons to independence fighters in the Baltic States and Ukraine. The most elaborate effort was against Albania, where a trained force of guerillas were landed by the Americans. The people failed to support these fighters, however, and they were mostly captured or killed. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The following is a partial list of intelligence agencies, past and present. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


After only a few years these uniformly unsuccessful efforts in Europe were abandoned. Later efforts at rollback would be confined to China and the developing world where they never successfully removed an entrenched communist government, but in some cases such as Guatemala helped overthrow governments that were leaning towards the Soviets.


Advocated by U.S. conservatives

The "rollback" movement gained significant ground, however, in the 1980s, as the Reagan administration, urged on by the conservative Heritage Foundation and other influential conservatives, began to channel weapons to anti-communist resistance movements in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Nicaragua and other nations. President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... The Heritage Foundation, a think tank located in Washington, D.C., is an influential public policy research institute whose stated mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. ...


This effort came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine. Critics argued that the Reagan Doctrine led to so-called blowback and an unnecessary intensification of Third World conflict, but in the various rollback battlefields, the Soviet Union made major concessions, and eventually had to retreat from Afghanistan. The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... Blowback is a term used in espionage to describe the unintended consequences of covert operations. ...


As the retreat from the Soviet-Afghan war got under way, the subject nations of the Soviet Union started to prepare for their own independence, though critics of rollback interpret this not as the domino effect of the retreat, but rather as a consequence of Gorbachev's liberalization. Violence broke out as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic sought control of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Two years later, numerous Soviet Socialist Republics declared their laws superior to those of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union collapsed, in some ways was already collapsing as the retreat got under way. The retreat from Afghanistan was directy caused by American stinger missiles, and many would argue indirectly caused by similar military pressures on many battlegrounds throughout the world, though Afghanistan was the only battleground where significant numbers of Russian soldiers were directly being killed by American weapons supplied for that purpose. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. ...


See also

United States Foreign Policy Flag of the United States
Presidential: Proclamation of NeutralityMonroe DoctrineRoosevelt CorollaryTruman DoctrineEisenhower DoctrineKennedy DoctrineJohnson DoctrineNixon DoctrineCarter DoctrineReagan DoctrineClinton DoctrineBush Doctrine

Other: Lodge CorollaryContainmentDomino theoryRollbackStimson DoctrineKirkpatrick DoctrineWeinberger DoctrinePowell DoctrineRumsfeld DoctrineWolfowitz Doctrine Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... FDR redirects here. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice-President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... For other uses, see Ronald Reagan (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America (1989–1993). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Georgy (Georgii) Maximilianovich Malenkov (Russian: , his first name then surname pronounced GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF; January 8 [O.S. December 26, 1901] 1902 – January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician, Communist Party leader and close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Hruščëv; surname commonly romanized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов; 15 June [O.S. 2 June] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just sixteen months later. ... Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Russian: ; September 24, 1911 – March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just thirteen months later. ... (Russian: , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... United States Presidential doctrines are key goals, attitudes, or stances for U.S. foreign affairs outlined by many United States Presidents which were subsequently dubbed their doctrines during the 20th century. ... It has been suggested that Neutrality Proclamation be merged into this article or section. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an amendment) of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... The Truman Doctrine was a United States foreign policy announced by President Harry S. Truman on the 12 March 1947 that the U.S. government would support Greece and Turkey with military and economic aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet orbit. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957 stated the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... The Clinton Doctrine is not a clear statement in the way that many other doctrines were. ... The Bush Doctrine was officially enunciated on September 20, 2002, in a policy document issued by the Bush administration and titled The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. It originated from a set of foreign policies adopted by the President of the United States George W. Bush... The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the US Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in practical power... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it attempted to stop what it called the Domino Effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based Communism, rather than European-American-based Capitalism. ... The domino theory was a 20th Century foreign policy theory that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect. ... The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932 to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes effected by force. ... The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was a political doctrine expounded by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick in the early 1980s which attempted to justify U.S. support for right-wing, anti-Communist dictatorships in the Third World in the context of the Cold War. ... The Weinberger Doctrine was a list of points governing when the United States could commit troops in military engagements. ... General Colin Powell made famous the so-called Powell Doctrine as part of the run up to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. ... The Rumsfeld Doctrine (named after its originator Donald Rumsfeld) is primarily concerned with the transformation of the United States Military. ... Wolfowitz Doctrine is a pseudo-name given to the 1992 Defense Planning Guidance authored by Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis Libby. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rollback - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (588 words)
Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War.
The most important rollback period was during the Cold War when many Americans felt that they were in a life or death struggle against world communism.
Rollback • Stimson Doctrine • Kirkpatrick Doctrine • Weinberger Doctrine • Powell Doctrine • Rumsfeld Doctrine • Wolfowitz Doctrine
Rollback (data management) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (207 words)
In database technologies, a rollback is an operation which returns the database to some previous state.
Rollbacks are important for database integrity, because they mean that the database can be restored to a clean copy even after erroneous operations are performed.
The rollback feature is usually implemented with a transaction log, but can also be implemented via multiversion concurrency control.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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