FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Roland Freisler
Judge Freisler

Roland Freisler (October 30, 1893February 3, 1945) was a prominent and notorious Nazi German judge. He became State Secretary of Adolf Hitler's Reich Ministry of Justice and President of the Volksgerichtshof, a court set up outside constitutional authority. This 'court' handled political crimes against Adolf Hitler's dictatorial regime. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Reich Ministry of Justice (German: Reichsministerium der Justiz) was a Ministry of Germany during the Weimar Republic and subsequently the Nazi period. ... The Volksgerichtshof (German for Peoples Court) was a court established by Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

Contents

Early life

In contrast to most of the Nazi leadership, little beyond basic details is known about Freisler. He was born in Celle, the son of an engineer, and saw active service during World War I. He was an officer cadet in 1914, and by 1915 he was a Lieutenant and was decorated before becoming a prisoner of war in the Russian Empire in October 1915. Celle is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


While interned in Russia, Freisler learned the Russian language, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, developed an interest in Marxism. He returned to Germany in 1920 as a fanatical Communist to study law at University of Jena, becoming a Doctor of Law in 1922. From 1924 he worked as a lawyer in Kassel and also as a city councilor for the Völkisch-Soziale Block. An intern is one who works in a temporary position with an emphasis on education rather than merely employment, making it similar in some respects to an apprenticeship. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis — the synthesis of philosophy and political action — of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (FSU) is located in Jena, Thuringia in Germany and was named for the German writer Friedrich Schiller. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the U.K. and its former colonies. ...


Involvement with the Nazi Party

Even though the Nazis declared themselves arch-enemies of Marxism, Freisler joined the Nazi Party in July 1925. During this period, he served as defense counsel for members of the nascent Party who got into trouble with the law. He was also a delegate to the Prussian Landtag, or state legislature, and later he became a member of the Reichstag. Marxism takes its name from the praxis — the synthesis of philosophy and political action — of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly, with some legislative authority, of a political entity called Land (i. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


In 1927 the Gauleiter of Kurhessen characterized Freisler in the following manner: "Rhetorically he is equal to our best speakers, if not superior to them. Particularly on the broad masses, he has influence, but thinking people mostly reject him deep down. Party Comrade Freisler is only usable as a speaker. He is unsuitable for any leadership post, since he is unreliable and is a moody person." A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ...


In 1933 and 1934 Freisler was State Secretary in the Prussian Ministry of Justice, and in the Reich Ministry of Justice between 1934 and 1942; he represented the latter at the Wannsee Conference, where he stood in for Franz Schlegelberger as regarding the details of the "Final Solution, the murder of the European Jewish peoples". The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on January 20, 1942. ... Louis Rudolph Franz Schlegelberger (born 23 October 1876 in Königsberg, East Prussia, now Kaliningrad, Russia; died 14 December 1970 in Flensburg) was State Secretary in the German Reich Ministry of Justice (RMJ) and served awhile as Justice Minister during the Third Reich. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...


Freisler's mastery of legal texts, mental agility and overwhelming verbal force jelled with strict adherence to the party line and the corresponding ideology, so that he became the most feared judge and the personification of the Nazis' "blood justice." Despite his undisputed legal competence, he could not rise further. According to Uwe Wesel, this can be attributed to two factors:

  • Freisler was regarded as a lone fighter and had no influential patron at his disposal who could have championed him.
  • In the eyes of the Nazi German elite, Freisler was compromised by his brother Oswald's rise to prominence. Oswald Freisler committed offense against the party line by appearing as defense counsel in politically significant trials which the Nazi German regime sought to debase for propaganda purposes. In so doing, he wore his Nazi Party badge in a clearly visible way, which made an unambiguous interpretation of the party's position more difficult. Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels accordingly reproved Roland Freisler and reported the incident to Hitler, who, for his part, decreed the immediate exclusion of Oswald Freisler from the party.

Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...

Presidency of the People's Court

On August 20, 1942, Hitler promoted Otto Thierack to Reich Justice Minister and named Freisler to succeed Thierack as president of the Volksgerichtshof ("People's Court"). This court, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law, had jurisdiction over a rather broad array of "political offenses", which included crimes like black marketeering, work slowdowns, and defeatism. These crimes were viewed by Freisler's court as Wehrkraftzersetzung ("disintegration of defensive capability") and were accordingly punished severely, the death penalty being meted out in numerous cases. August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Otto Georg Thierack (born 19 April 1889 in Wurzen, Saxony; died 22 November 1946 in Sennelager in Paderborn, suicide) was a National Socialist jurist and politician. ... The Volksgerichtshof (German for Peoples Court) was a court established by Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason. ...


Freisler chaired the First Senate of the People's Court, and acted as judge, jury and prosecution embodied into one man. He also acted as court recorder; that way, he was responsible for the composition of written grounds for the sentences, that he wrote up in his own unique fashion, namely in accordance with his own notions of a "National Socialist criminal court." Meanwhile, he introduced judgment advisories with remarks like "Off with his head," and "The beet must be uprooted," and so forth.


The number of death sentences rose sharply under Freisler's stewardship. Approximately 90% of all proceedings ended with sentences of death or life imprisonment, the sentences frequently having been determined before the trial. Between 1942 and 1945 more than 5,000 death sentences were handed out, and of these, 2,600 through the court's First Senate, which Freisler headed. Thus, Freisler alone was responsible, in his three years on the court, for as many death sentences as all other senate sessions of the court together in the entire time the court existed, between 1934 and 1945. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


Freisler was particularly known for cowardly humiliating defendants and barking loudly at them. A number of the trials for defendants in the July 20 Plot before the People's Court were filmed and recorded. In the 1944 trial against Ulrich Wilhelm Graf Schwerin von Schwanenfeld, for example, Freisler screamed so loudly, the technicians who were filming the proceeding had major problems making the defendants' words audible. Count Schwerin, like many other defendants in the plot, was sentenced to death by hanging. Among this and other show trials, Freisler headed the 1943 proceedings against the members of the "White Rose" resistance group. He ordered many of its members to be executed by the barbaric method of beheading. Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Ulrich Wilhelm Graf von Schwerin und von Schwanenfeld (born 21 December 1902 in Copenhagen; died 8 September 1944 in Berlin) was a German landowner, officer, and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. ... Monument to the Weiße Rose in front of the Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a World War II non-violent resistance group in Germany famous for a leaflet campaign in which they called for active opposition to the Nazi regime. ...


Death

During an Allied air raid on Berlin on February 3, 1945, Freisler was fatally struck down by a beam in the cellar of the courthouse. His body was found crushed beneath a fallen masonry column, clutching the file on anti-Hitler conspirator Fabian von Schlabrendorff. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Fabian von Schlabrendorff Fabian von Schlabrendorff (born 1 July 1907 in Halle an der Saale; died 3 September 1980 in Wiesbaden) trained as a lawyer, later joining the German Army. ...


Legacy

Freisler is held up as a notorious and despicable abuser of judicial authority whereas his victims are honored for their role in attempting to uphold decency during a brutal and dictatorial regime. In Munich, two of his victims, Sophie Scholl and her brother Hans Scholl are honored by the naming of the main square in front of the University, Geschwister Schollplatz. Their friend, Christoph Probst is honored by the naming of a street, Chrisoph Probststrasse. Their Professor is honored by the naming of another University square, Professor Huberplatz. Nothing in Germany today honors Freisler. He is condemned totally as a corrupt butcher for one of the most evil regimes known to mankind and for his crimes against humanity. Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Hans Scholl, Sophie Magdalena Scholl, and Christoph Probst, who were executed for participating in the White Rose resistance movement against the Nazi regime in Germany. ... Hans Scholl was born on September 22, 1918, when his father had his first position as mayor of Ingersheim near Crailsheim. ... Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst, executed for participation in a resistance movement against the Nazi regime through White Rose. ...


Trivia

  • Freisler has been portrayed by screen actors at least four times: by Rainer Steffen in the 1984 German television movie Wannseekonferenz, by Brian Cox in the British 1996 television movie Witness Against Hitler, by Owen Teale in the 2001 BBC/HBO film Conspiracy, and by André Hennicke in the 2005 film Sophie Scholl – The Final Days.

Brian Denis Cox, CBE (born June 1, 1946 in Dundee, Scotland) is a Scottish actor, notable for being the first actor to play Hannibal Lecter, a role he took in the Michael Mann film Manhunter (in which the characters surname was spelled Lecktor). Image:Http://www. ... Owen Teale (born 20 May 1961) is a Welsh actor. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... HBO (Home Box Office) is an American premium cable television network. ... Conspiracy is a made-for-TV BBC/HBO motion picture which dramatizes the events that occurred during the Wannsee Conference of 1942. ... André Hennicke (born September 21, 1959) is a German actor. ... Sophie Scholl - The Final Days (German: Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage) is a 2005 German film from director Marc Rothemund. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roland Freisler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (837 words)
Roland Freisler (October 30, 1893 – February 3, 1945) was a prominent Nazi.
Thus, Freisler alone was responsible, in his three years on the court, for as many death sentences as all other senate sessions of the court together in the entire time the court existed, between 1934 and 1945.
During an Allied air raid on Berlin on February 3, 1945, Freisler was fatally struck by a beam in the cellar of the courthouse.
Roland Freisler at AllExperts (821 words)
On August 20 1942, Roland Freisler was named by Hitler to succeed Otto Thieracks, who was promoted to Reich Justice Minister, as president of the Volksgerichtshof, or "People's Court," the court for political offenses.
The broadened jurisdictional competence of the courtallowed Freisler to have an extensive impact.
During an Allied air raid on Berlin on February 3 1945, Freisler was fatally struck by a beam in the courthouse, possibly after choosing to ignore the air raid siren as his body was found crushed beneath a fallen masonry column, clutching the file on anti-Hitler conspirator Fabian von Schlabrendorff.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m