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Encyclopedia > Roland
Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste.
Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste.

Roland (Italian: Orlando, Frankish: Hruodland, Dutch: Roeland, Spanish: Roldán or Rolando, Portuguese: Roldão or Rolando, Catalan: Rotllan or Rotllà, Orlando is now a common name in both Spanish and Portuguese though it is originally Italian) is a character in medieval and Renaissance literature, the chief paladin of Charlemagne and a central figure in the Matter of France. It is thought that the title character of the 12th century Song of Roland, which recounts his final stand against the Muslims during the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, is based on a real person who died in that battle (under different circumstances; Roncevaux was fought against Christian Basques), but the authors of most later chansons de geste and the Renaissance epics Orlando innamorato and Orlando furioso made little attempt to establish historical accuracy. Image File history File links Acap. ... Roland was a Frankish seneschal in Charlemagnes service, killed in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass AD 778. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Renaissance literature refers to European literature that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe during the seventeenth century. ... For other uses, see Paladin (disambiguation). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... Orlando Innamorato is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ...

Contents

History

There exists only one historical mention of a French Roland, found in the section of Vita Karoli Magni on Roncevaux Pass, written by Charlemagne's courtier and biographer Einhard. Here is the relevant passage, in the 9th of 33 chapters (plus a lengthy postscript): Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 826 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 826 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Quedlinburg is a town located near the Harz mountains, in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ...

While he was vigorously pursuing the Saxon war, almost without a break, and after he had placed garrisons at selected points along the border, [Charles] marched into Spain [in 778] with as large a force as he could mount. His army passed through the Pyrenees and [Charles] received the surrender of all the towns and fortified places he encountered. He was returning [to Francia] with his army safe and intact, but high in the Pyrenees on that return trip he briefly experienced the treachery of the Basques. That place is so thoroughly covered with thick forest that it is the perfect spot for an ambush. [Charles's] army was forced by the narrow terrain to proceed in a long line and [it was at that spot], high on the mountain, that the Basques set their ambush. [...] The Basques had the advantage in this skirmish because of the lightness of their weapons and the nature of the terrain, whereas the Franks were disadvantaged by the heaviness of their arms and the unevenness of the land. Eggihard, the overseer of the king's table, Anselm, the count of the palace, and Roland, the lord of the Breton March, along with many others died in that skirmish. But this deed could not be avenged at that time, because the enemy had so dispersed after the attack that there was no indication as to where they could be found. The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the Basque people. ...

Dutton, Paul Edward, ed. and trans. Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard, pp. 21-22. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press, 1998.)

The original Latin text refers to "Hruodlandus Brittannici limitis praefectus". The battle took place on 15 August, AD 778. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ...


Roland was the first official appointed to direct Frankish policy in Breton affairs, as local Franks under the Merovingian dynasty did not pursue any specific relationship beforehand, more passive-aggressive than anything. What is now divided between Normandy and Brittany, their frontier castle districts (e.g. Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine) south of Mont Saint-Michel, was the source of present-day Gallo language and culture that emerged in the likeness of those such as Roland. Roland's successor in Brittania Nova was Guy of the Breton March, who like Roland, was unable to exert French expansion over Brittany and merely sustained a Breton presence in the Carolingian-era Holy Roman Empire. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Vitré (Breton: Gwitreg; Gallo: Vitræ) is a French town and commune, located in the Ille-et-Vilaine département, in Brittany. ... For the car ferry, see MV Mont St Michel. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Guy or Guido (died before 819) was appointed to replace the late Roland as Warden of the Breton March after his death at the Battle of Roncesvalles in 778. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Legend

Roland, Bremen 53°4′33.15″N 8°48′26.30″E / 53.075875, 8.8073056
Roland, Bremen 53°4′33.15″N 8°48′26.30″E / 53.075875, 8.8073056

Roland was a popular legendary figure in medieval Europe. Over the next several centuries, Roland became a "pop icon" in medieval minstrel culture. According to many legends, he was a nephew of Charlemagne (whether or not this was true we do not know), turned his life into an epic tale of the noble Christian killed by Islamic forces, which forms part of the medieval Matter of France. Roland's tale is retold in the eleventh century poem The Song of Roland, where he is equipped with the Olifant (a signalling horn) and an unbreakable sword, enchanted by various Christian relics, named Durendal. See below for his later history in Italian verse, leading to the epic Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto. In the Divine Comedy Dante sees Roland's spirit in the Heaven of Mars together with others who fought for the faith. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roland Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roland Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... A 14th-century olifant. ... Alleged fragment of Durendal in Rocamadour As told in the Matter of France, Durendal or Durandal (Italian: Durlindana) is the sword of Charlemagnes paladin Roland (Orlando in Italian). ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...


In Germany, Roland gradually became a symbol of the independence of the growing cities from the local nobility. In the late Middle Ages many cities sported the display of a defiant Roland statue on their marketplace. The Roland in Wedel was erected in 1450 as symbol of market justice, and the The Roland in front of the town hall of Bremen (1404) is listed together with the town hall on the List of World Heritage Site from the UNESCO since 2004. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Catalonia Roland (or Rotllà, as it is rendered in Catalan) became a legendary giant. Numerous places in Catalonia (both North and South) have a name related to Rotllà. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ...


More recently Roland's tale has been exploited by historians exploring the development of the early-modern Christian understanding of Islamic culture. In 1972 P. M. Holt used Roland's words to begins an essay about Henry Stubbe: Paien ont tort e crestiien ont dreit - 'Pagans are wrong and Christians are right.' Henry Stubbe or Stubbes (born 1632, Lincolnshire, died 1676, Bath), writer and scholar. ...


Orlando

Illustratation to Orlando Furioso: Orlando saving Olimpia
Illustratation to Orlando Furioso: Orlando saving Olimpia

Orlando is the Italian equivalent of the French Roland. The name Orlando/Roland goes back to a Germanic origin, and is said to mean "One who is famous throughout the land". It is also said to be derived from hroth, meaning glory and nantha, meaning audacity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 475 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (958 × 1210 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gustave Doré’s illustration of Ludovico Ariosto’s “Orlando Furioso”. +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 475 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (958 × 1210 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gustave Doré’s illustration of Ludovico Ariosto’s “Orlando Furioso”. +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other...


Italian Renaissance romances

He appeared as a central character in a sequence of verse romances from the fifteenth century onwards, including Morgante by Luigi Pulci, Orlando Innamorato by Matteo Maria Boiardo, and Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto. The Orlandino of Pietro Aretino then waxed satirical about the 'cult of personality' of Orlando the hero. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Morgante is an Italian romantic epic by Luigi Pulci which appeared in its final form in 1483. ... Luigi Pulci (15 August 1432 - 1484) was an Italian poet most famous for his Morgante, an epic story of a giant who is converted to Christianity and follows Orlando, all written in a mock-heroic tone. ... Orlando Innamorato is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. ... Matteo Maria Boiardo (c. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... Categories: People stubs | 1492 births | 1556 deaths ...


The Orlando narrative inspired several composers, amongst whom were Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Antonio Vivaldi and George Frideric Handel, who composed an Italian opera with Orlando in the title role, see: Orlando. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Handel opera composed in 1733. ...


Later works

Orlando: A Biography was written in 1928 by Virginia Woolf, and could at first sight be seen as adding yet some more episodes to the adventures of the (by now imaginary) Orlando character, but Woolf's story takes a completely different turn, and is set in a time different from that of the Renaissance Orlandos. Orlando is a novel by Virginia Woolf, first published in 1928. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ...


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Roland’s lineup of award-winning wide-format inkjet printers and integrated printer/cutters ranges from easy-to-use entry-level systems to professional production models.
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Existence of an early Roland poem is indicated by the historian Wace’s statement that Taillefer sang of Roland’s deeds to inflame the men before the Battle of Hastings (1066).
Historically Roland was Charlemagne’s commander on the Breton border; he was killed in a pass in the Pyrenees when Basques cut off the rear guard of the Frankish army returning from its invasion of Spain in 778.
The Roland epopee was long a favorite with French, Spanish, and Italian poets, and Roland was eventually transformed beyond recognition into the Orlando of the Italian Renaissance epics of Boiardo and Ariosto.
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