FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rohan" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rohan
Place from Tolkien's Legendarium
Name Rohan
Other names Riddermark
Description Adopted home of the Rohirrim
Realm(s) Originally a Gondorian province, later independent
 
Lord King of Rohan
Type Kingdom of Men
Middle-earth Portal

Rohan (from Sindarin Rochand), is a fictional realm in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy era of Middle-earth. It is also referred to as Riddermark or The Mark. (The Mark is believed to have been the Mercian name for the Anglian Kingdom of Mercia.) The realm is of significant importance in the author's most famous book, The Lord of the Rings. Rohan can refer to: Rohan, a French commune in Brittany The house of Rohan, a family of French nobility from the Rohan area Henri, duc de Rohan (1579-1638), French soldier, writer and leader of the Huguenots, of the house of Rohan Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise (? 1580-1642... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... A legendarium is a book or series of books consisting of a collection of legends. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rohan. ... Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... This is a list of kings of Rohan from the fictional universe of Middle-earth by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... Image File history File links Arda. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... This article is about the novel. ...


Rohan is a grassland which lies north of its ally Gondor and north-west of Mordor, the realm of Sauron, their enemy (see maps of Middle-earth). It is inhabited by the Rohirrim, a people of herdsmen and farmers who are well-known for their horses and cavalry. Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... For other uses, see Sauron (disambiguation). ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rohan. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


Conceptualized as the "Horse kings of Rohan" allied with Gondor in early drafts of 1939, the Rohirrim took their final form in 1942 when about one third of The Lord of the Rings was completed. Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...

Contents

Location of Anduin in Middle Earth In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ... location of Angmar in Middle-earth marked in red Angmar (Sindarin: Iron-home) is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... location of Arthedain in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arthedain was one of the three kingdoms of Middle-earth that resulted from the breakup of Arnor during the Third Age. ... The Ered Lithui (Sindarin for Mountains of Ash) is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Bay of Belfalas was a large southern bay in the Great Sea. ... Barad-dûr and Mount Doom in Peter Jacksons film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Belegaer, the Great Sea or the Sundering Seas, is the sea of Arda that is west of Middle-earth. ... The Ered Luin or Blue Mountains, also known as Ered Lindon, is the mountain range at the far west of Eriador, in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth. ... Bree is a fictional village in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain. ... Cardolan is a fictional country from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... The Dead Marshes is a fictional place from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe, Middle-earth. ... In the fictional world of J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Dol Guldur, or Hill of Sorcery, was a stronghold of Sauron located in the south of Mirkwood. ... Edoras is the grand mountain top capital city of Rohan. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Lonely Mountain (Sindarin Erebor) is a mountain in the northeast of Rhovanion. ... Eriador (the Lone Lands) is a large region in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Fangorn forest is the habitat of the Ents. ... Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Gulf of Lune was a sea-arm that broke through the range of the Ered Luin into Eriador. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Ered Mithrin or Grey Mountains was a large mountain range to the north of Rhovanion. ... Harad is a town in Saudi Arabia. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings, Helms Deep was a large valley in the north-western Ered Nimrais (White Mountains). ... The Iron Hills are a range of mountains in the north of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth, east of the Lonely Mountain, that are home to a Dwarf mining community. ... Location of Isengard in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Isengard, a translation of the Sindarin Angrenost, was a large fortress. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Ithilien is a region and fiefdom of Gondor. ... The stories of J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places. ... Spoiler warning: In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) in the northwest of Middle-earth. ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, two places are known as Lórien, both exceptionally beautiful. ... The Black Gate or Morannon is a fictional location in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Mount Doom, or Orodruin, is a volcano in Mordor where the One Ring was forged in the Crack of Doom, a fiery chasm within the mountain. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... The Grey Havens in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy Location of the Grey Havens in Middle-earth marked in red The elven ports of Mithlond or the Grey Havens was an Elvish port on the Gulf of Lune in the northwest of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... Location of Minas Morgul in Middle-earth marked in red Minas Morgul, also known by its earlier name Minas Ithil, is a fictional city in J.R.R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth. ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhovanion or Wilderland was a large region of northern Middle-earth. ... Rhudaur is a fictional country from J. R. R. Tolkien universe of Middle-earth. ... Location of Rhûn in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhûn is a large region of eastern Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Sea of Núrnen was an inland sea in Mordor, Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Sea of Rhûn, or the Eastern Sea, is a large saltwater lake or sea in the east of Middle-earth. ... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... The White Mountains, a loose translation of the Sindarin Ered Nimrais Whitehorn Mountains, is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...

Geography

The countryside of Rohan is described as a land of pastures and lush tall grassland which is frequently windswept. It is similar to the Central Asian steppe, the North American Great Plains or the Argentine Pampas. Its climate is of the warm-continental type, and its weather can come from all four directions. The lands of Rohan are frequently described as appearing like "seas of grass." At the time of the War of the Ring, Rohan was roughly a third the size of Gondor, whose borders had slowly been shrinking for centuries. A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel...


Borders

The borders of Rohan are: The rivers Isen and Adorn in the west, where Rohan borders Isengard and the land of the Dunlendings; the White Mountains and the Mering Stream, which separate it from Gondor, in the south; the mouths of Entwash in the east; and the river Limlight in the north. Location of the river Isen in Middle-earth. ... The river Adorn occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... Location of Isengard in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Isengard, a translation of the Sindarin Angrenost, was a large fortress. ... Dunland is a fictional land from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... The White Mountains, a loose translation of the Sindarin Ered Nimrais Whitehorn Mountains, is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Entwash was a great river in Rohan, notable for its huge inland delta. ... In Tolkiens Middle-earth, the river Limlight (from Elvish Limlîht) was a stream rising in the eastern Misty Mountains near Treebeards dwellings. ...


Cities

The capital of Rohan is the hill fort of Edoras which lies close to the slopes of the White Mountains. Another large city is Aldburg, capital city of the Eastfold and original city of Eorl the Young. A third notable city is Snowbourne, named after the river which runs nearby it. It is similar in appearance to the hill-fort of Edoras. Dunharrow is a refuge in the White Mountains. Helm's Deep is a valley in the White Mountains in which the Hornburg, a major fortress of Rohan, is located. Edoras is the grand mountain top capital city of Rohan. ... Aldburg (OE. Old Fortress) is one of the oldest settlements of J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth in Rohan, It is recorded it was built by Eorl in the region known as the Folde, some miles to the southeast of Edoras. ... Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ... Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... Edoras is the grand mountain top capital city of Rohan. ... Dunharrow is a fictional place from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings, Helms Deep was a large valley in the north-western Ered Nimrais (White Mountains). ... The White Mountains, a loose translation of the Sindarin Ered Nimrais Whitehorn Mountains, is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...


Culture

The banner of Rohan, as rendered in Peter Jackson's movies; the sun is an embellishment on the book's description of a "white horse upon green". The symbol may have derived from the Uffington White Horse
The banner of Rohan, as rendered in Peter Jackson's movies; the sun is an embellishment on the book's description of a "white horse upon green". The symbol may have derived from the Uffington White Horse

The Dúnedain of Gondor believed that the Rohirrim were distantly related to them (having descended from the Atanatári or Edain of the First Age) and described them as Middle Men, that being inferior to the Númenóreans in both culture and descent, but superior to the Men of Darkness who had worshipped and served Sauron — and this is stated as fact in The Lord of the Rings, but contradicted in later writings. Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... As seen from an altitude of 2000 feet, from the cockpit of a glider The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylised hillfigure, 374 feet (110m) long, cut out of the turf on the upper slopes of Uffington Castle, an Iron Age hill fort near The Ridgeway, in southern England. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Dúnedain (singular: Dúnadan) were a fictional race of Men descended from the Númenóreans that survived the fall of their island kingdom and came to Eriador in Middle-earth, led by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Atanatári is a Quenya term which means Fathers of Men, and is used to describe the forefathers of the Edain. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Edain were those Men (humans) who made their way into Beleriand in the First Age, and were friendly to the Elves. ... This article is about the novel. ...


In any case, they did not go to Beleriand like the Edain who were later rewarded with the island of Númenor by the Valar. The ancestors of the Rohirrim were known as the Éothéod and were given the province of Calenardhon by Gondor after the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Beleriand was the region of northwestern Middle-earth during the First Age. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J.R.R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Battle of the Field of Celebrant was a fierce battle fought on the the Field of Celebrant, which ultimately led to the creation of the kingdom of Rohan. ...


The people of Rohan were tall, fair, pale, and mostly had blue eyes and blond hair which they wore long and braided. They were by nature stern, fierce and grave yet generous.

They are proud and willful, but they are true-hearted, generous in thought and deed; bold but not cruel; wise but unlearned, writing no books but singing many songs, after the manner of the children of Men before the Dark Years.The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers

The Rohirrim had had contacts with Elves in their ancient history, and knew of Eru (God), but like the Dúnedain they did not worship him in any temples. They seem to have venerated the Vala Oromë the Hunter, whom they called Béma. This article is about the novel. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Oromë is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe, Middle-earth. ...


In response to a query about clothing styles in Middle-earth, Tolkien wrote:

The Rohirrim were not "medieval", in our sense. The styles of the Bayeux Tapestry (made in England) fit them well enough, if one remembers that the kind of tennis-nets [the] soldiers seem to have on are only a clumsy conventional sign for chainmail of small rings.[1] The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ...

Horses and warfare

The Rohirrim were famous as skilled cavalry and breeders.


The armies of Rohan were almost exclusively horsemen, divided into irregular units termed éoreds. Rohan's armies were more of a very well-trained militia called upon in times of war, with the actual standing army relatively small. They are described as armed with long spears, longswords, light helms, round shield, and mail armour.


In time of war, every able man was obliged to join the Muster of Rohan. They were also bound by the Oath of Eorl to help Gondor in times of peril, and the latter asked for their aid through the giving of the Red Arrow. Also, the Rohirrim could be notified to aid Gondor by the lighting of the warning beacons of Gondor, a line of beacon fires on the White Mountains that were constantly manned. In times of war, the starting beacon at Amon Din would be lit, until the last one could be noticed in Edoras. In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, the Oath of Eorl is the alliance sworn between the Middle-earth nations of Rohan and Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Red Arrow was a way Gondor summoned its allies in time of need. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ...


Among the horses of the Rohirrim were the famed mearas, the noblest and fastest horses who have ever roamed Arda; Felaróf was the greatest of all mearas. The Mearas were a breed of wild horses in the north of Middle-earth in the J.R.R. Tolkien legendarium. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... Horses are an important element in the fantasy world of Middle-earth created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


It was because of the close affiliation with horses, both in war and peace, that they received their now famous name. Rohirrim (or more properly Rochirrim) is Sindarin for "Horse-lords," and Rohan (or Rochand) means "Land of the Horse-lords." These names were devised by Hallas, son of Cirion the Steward. Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Hallas is in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth the thirteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Cirion, son of Boromir I, was the twelfth ruling Steward of Gondor. ...


Language

The Rohirrim's language is Rohirric. It is, like the languages of all Men, akin to Adûnaic, the language of the Edain. The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Adûnaic (language of the west) was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age. ...


The Rohirrim call their homeland the Ridenna-mearc, the Riddermark or Éo-marc, the Horse-mark, also simply the Mark and call themselves the Eorlingas, the Sons of Eorl. In the original Rohirric the name for their land is Lôgrad, with the element "lô-"/"loh-" corresponding to Anglo-Saxon "éo", horse. Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ...


Rohirric bears a similar relationship to Westron, the Common Speech of Middle-earth, as that of Old English to modern English, and so Tolkien rendered Rohirric names and phrases into Old English (Anglo-Saxon), just as the Common Speech is translated into English. Examples include words such as mearas (another Old English word for "horses", which survives into Modern English as "mares") and éored. Tolkien was a philologist, with a special interest in Germanic languages. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many archaic Hobbit names bear similarities to Rohirric, since the ancestors of the Shire hobbits lived on the upper reaches of the Anduin, close to the ancestors of the Rohirrim, and there was apparently a good deal of linguistic cross-fertilization. The name Hobbit itself is believed to be derived from the Rohirric Holbytlan (hole builders). These names are also translations of the original Westron Kuduk (Hobbit) and Rohirric kûd-dûkan (hole dweller). In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... Location of Anduin in Middle Earth In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ...


History

In the thirteenth century of the Third Age (T.A.), the Kings of Gondor made close alliances with the Northmen of Rhovanion, a people said in The Lord of the Rings to be akin to the Three Houses of Men (later the Dúnedain) from the First Age. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhovanion or Wilderland was a large region of northern Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Edain were those Men (humans) who made their way into Beleriand in the First Age, and were friendly to the Elves. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Dúnedain (singular: Dúnadan) were a fictional race of Men descended from the Númenóreans that survived the fall of their island kingdom and came to Eriador in Middle-earth, led by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the First Age began with the awakening of the Elves, and ended with the final overthrow of Morgoth by the combined armies of Valinor and Beleriand. ...


In the twenty-first century, a remnant tribe of such Northmen calling itself the Éothéod moved from the valleys of Anduin to the north west of Mirkwood, clearing out what remained of the recently defeated witch kingdom of Angmar, east of the Misty Mountains. While there, some dispute arose between them and the Dwarves over the treasure-hoard of Scatha the dragon. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... Location of Anduin in Middle Earth In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... location of Angmar in Middle-earth marked in red Angmar (Sindarin: Iron-home) is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... Scatha, known as Scatha the Worm, was a dragon in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth. ...


Later, in 2509, Cirion the Steward of Gondor sent summons to the Éothéod for aid in throwing off a combined invasion of Men from the north east of Middle-earth, and Orcs from Mordor. In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Cirion, son of Boromir I, was the twelfth ruling Steward of Gondor. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... This Tolkien article or section may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe perspective. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ...


Eorl the Young, king of the Éothéod, answered the summons, and arrived unexpected at a decisive battle at the Field of Celebrant, routing the orc army, and then decimating it as it fled. Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ...


As a reward, Eorl was given the plains of Calenardhon, and he moved his kingdom there. This land had earlier been part of Gondor proper, but had been devastated by the plague of 1636, and the survivors to a large extent slain in the invasion mentioned above. In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle_earth, Calenardhon was the place which became Rohan. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Great Plague was a disastrous pestilence. ...


The first line of kings lasted for 249 years, until the ninth king Helm Hammerhand died. His sons had been killed earlier, and his nephew Fréaláf Hildeson began the second line of kings, which lasted until the end of the Third Age. In J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Helm Hammerhand was the ninth King of Rohan and last King of the first line. ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Fréaláf Hildeson was the tenth King of Rohan, and the first King of the second line. ...


In 2758, Rohan was invaded by Dunlendings under Wulf, son of Freca, of mixed Dunland and Rohan blood. The King, Helm Hammerhand, took refuge in the Hornburg until aid from Gondor and Dunharrow (a refuge of the Rohirrim) arrived a year later and defeated the invaders. location of Dunland in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Dunland was a place in north-west Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... Dunharrow is a fictional place from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ...


It was soon after this that Saruman arrived and took over Isengard, and was welcomed as a strong ally, since it would take Rohan close to 200 years to recover its strength after the invasion. Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Location of Isengard in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Isengard, a translation of the Sindarin Angrenost, was a large fortress. ...


In 3014, Saruman began using his influence to weaken the King, Théoden, as part of a campaign to invade or take over the kingdom. In 3019, he launched a great invasion of Rohan, with victory in the two first battles (at the Fords of Isen; Théoden's son, Théodred was killed during these attacks) and defeat at the Battle of the Hornburg, where the Huorns came to the aid of the Rohirrim. In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Fords of Isen were fords in the river Isen, guarded by the Rohirrim. ... Theodred Théodred (T.A. 2978-3019) is a fictional character in The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Combatants Isengard Rohan Commanders Saruman Théoden, Aragorn, Gandalf, Éomer Strength 10,000 Uruk-hai and common Orcs of Isengard, 2,000-5,000 Dunlendings, an unknown number of orc-human hybrids about 2,000 Rohirrim; reinforced by 1,000 more Rohirrim in the morning, and thousands of Huorns Casualties... The Huorns are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...


On the heels of this victory, Théoden rode with an army to Minas Tirith and helped break its siege in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, where he was slain. Éomer, the nephew of King Théoden, then took up the reign, beginning the third line. Éomer rode with the armies of Gondor to the Black Gate of Mordor and took part in the Battle of the Morannon against the forces of Sauron, who were defeated when the Ruling Ring was destroyed. In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Dúnedain of the North Mordor, Harad, Rhûn, Khand, Umbar Participants Gandalf, Éomer, Éowyn, Aragorn, Imrahil, Merry, Denethor†, Théoden† Witch-king of Angmar†, Nazgûl, Gothmog† War of the Ring 1st Fords of Isen - 2nd Fords of Isen - Isengard - Hornburg - Lothlórien - Mirkwood - Osgiliath - Pelennor... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... The Black Gate or Morannon is a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth. ... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Eagles Mordor, Harad, Rhûn Commanders Gandalf, Imrahil, Éomer, Aragorn, Gwaihir Sauron†, Mouth of Sauron*, Khamûl† Strength Less than 6,000 Men of Gondor and Rohan, one Wizard, one Hobbit, one Elf, two Half-elves, one Dwarf, and an unknown number of Eagles Eight Nazgûl... For other uses, see Sauron (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The rule of the stewards of Gondor was then over. King Éomer and the new king of Gondor, Elessar (Aragorn), renewed their oath of alliance, and reaffirmed Cirion's grant of Calenardhon to the Rohirrim. Elessar The name of the legendary green elvish jewel with healing powers, The Elessar, according to one version of the story by Tolkien was made for Galadriel by Celebrimbor, long before he made the Rings of Power. ...


In the Fourth Age, Rohan remained in peaceful coexistence with the Reunited Kingdom. It became the site of routes where Elves migrated from their eastern kingdoms to Lindon to leave Middle-earth. A few remained behind to help in the reconstruction of Rohan. A Dwarven community developed in the caves of Helm's Deep, which became prosperous from its mining of precious materials. Spoiler warning: In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) in the northwest of Middle-earth. ...


See also

Timeline of Arda This article includes several timelines relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens fiction. ...


Politics

Rohan was an absolute monarchy. The King led the army during wartime. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Alliance with Gondor

The alliance between Rohan and Gondor came into existence in the year 2510 of the Third Age. In that year the Easterlings launched a massive invasion of Gondor. The army of Gondor was defeated and trapped between the Limlight and the Celebrant. Gondor, which had always been on friendly terms with the different tribes of the Northmen, sent messengers to the closest tribe, the Éothéod. Although it was unlikely that the message calling for aid would come through, it did. Then Eorl the Young and his fierce Éothéod Riders unexpectedly took the field during the Battle of Celebrant and turned the tide in the favour of Gondor. As a reward Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, gave Eorl the depopulated province of Calenardhon for his people to settle, while fulfilling Gondor's need for a strong ally. The Oath of Eorl was sworn by both Cirion and Eorl. Neither nation has ever broken the alliance ever since. Rohan has gone through great lengths to fulfil their part of the treaty including sacrificing two of its heirs when Gondor was under threat from the Haradrim in 2885, when Fastred and Folcred, the twin sons of King Folcwine, were killed during the Battle of Crossings of Poros. King Théoden once again honoured the alliance in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Easterlings were Men who lived in the east of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free Peoples. ... Look up Celebrant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Northmen was a common term for the Vikings, famously used in the prayer A furore normannorum libera nos domine (From the fury of the Northmen deliver us, O Lord!), doubtfully attributed to monks of the English monasteries plundered by Viking raids in the 8th and 9th centuries. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Cirion, son of Boromir I, was the twelfth ruling Steward of Gondor. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, the Oath of Eorl is the alliance sworn between the Middle-earth nations of Rohan and Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth the Haradrim or Southrons are a race of Men from The Lord of the Rings. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Folcred is one of the four children of the Rohan King Folcwine. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Folcwine was the fourteenth King of Rohan. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Poros was a river in south of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Dúnedain of the North Mordor, Harad, Rhûn, Khand, Umbar Participants Gandalf, Éomer, Éowyn, Aragorn, Imrahil, Merry, Denethor†, Théoden† Witch-king of Angmar†, Nazgûl, Gothmog† War of the Ring 1st Fords of Isen - 2nd Fords of Isen - Isengard - Hornburg - Lothlórien - Mirkwood - Osgiliath - Pelennor...


War with the Dunlendings

To the west of Rohan lived the Dunlendings, a native people who had been hostile against the Free Peoples for a long time. The Dunlending Wulf briefly usurped of the throne of Rohan during the long winter. Wulf was also the commander of the Dunlendings and led them on constant raids upon the towns and cities of Rohan. Dunland is a fictional land from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Wulf was a Dunlending lord who for a while ruled Rohan. ...


Rumours of tributes paid to Sauron

During the early days of the War of the Ring, rumours were spread that the Rohirrim supplied Sauron's armies with horses. These rumours were obviously false: the Rohirrim valued their horses more than anything, and would never send them away, even as tribute. Still these rumours had some effect, in that they obscured the fact it was Saruman who had fallen, rather than Rohan. The basis of the rumour was that Sauron's Orcs on raids into Rohan stole almost all of their black horses (Making them rare) for use in Mordor's army, but this was outright theft that angered the Rohirrim against Sauron. Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel... This Tolkien article or section may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe perspective. ...


Wormtongue

When King Théoden began to grow old, he took as an advisor Gríma, later called Wormtongue. Gríma quickly became Théoden's chief advisor, but unknown to all he was secretly working for Saruman. Gríma played on Théoden's fears to further weaken the strength of the king and all of Rohan, always advising retreat where an attack was needed. He may have also begun poisoning the king at this time. This nearly proved disastrous for Rohan, and also for Gondor, by robbing them of their strongest ally in the north. Gríma Wormtongue's plans were not revealed until Gandalf arrived in Edoras during the War of the Ring. In J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings, Gríma (Wormtongue) is the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Gandalf is a central character in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, where he appears as a fairly archetypal wizard, albeit one as equally at home using a sword as employing magic, taking a key role in the latter books...


Inspiration

? This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.

Several aspects of Rohan's culture and history seem to be inspired by the Goths, Scandinavians and the medieval Anglo-Saxons. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging toRaedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


Just like the Germanic Ostrogoths, Rohirric culture was a mounted culture. It had separated from the Northmen, moved south, and had settled in close proximity with a civilization. In the Goths' case it was the Byzantine Empire and in the case of the Rohirrim, it was Gondor. Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... J. R. R. Tolkien adopted the term Northmen in his fiction; his Northmen were Men that lived in the north of Rhovanion in Middle-earth, and were friendly to Gondor. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The Hervarar saga in particular, with its Mirkwood, Gothic horsemen and shieldmaidens, appears to have inspired Tolkien when creating the Rohirrim, although he exchanged the Gothic tongue with Anglo-Saxon. Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... Hervor dying after the battle with the Huns. ...


The antipathy between the Rohirrim and the Dunlendings somehow resembles the historical tension between the Anglo-Saxon settlers of Britain and the native Celts (incidentally, on whose language Tolkien based Sindarin.) Dunland is a fictional land from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging toRaedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... This article is about the European people. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


The name Rohan is a pun on the house of Rohan, whose founder was named Conan Meriadoc, Meriadoc being the Hobbit with closest ties to the kingdom. The British family of Rohan was traditionally seen as founders of an "exodus" kingdom (like Rohan in the book), namely the British settlement of Brittany. See Rohan (disambiguation) for other uses of the word. ... Conan Meriadoc (modern Breton Konan Meriadek, Latin Conanus Meridiadocus; died ca. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Language

Tolkien rendered Rohirric as the Mercian dialect of Old English, but also included Scandinavian placenames, such as Westfold. Even words and phrases that were printed in Modern English showed a strong Anglo-Saxon influence. Old English was supposed to render an archaic form of Westron, which was supposedly rendered by Modern English. This solution occurred to Tolkien in 1942, when he was searching for an explanation of the Eddaic name of the dwarves already published in The Hobbit. In the fictional world of Middle-earth by J. R. R. Tolkien, Rohirric is the language of the Rohirrim of Rohan. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Vestfold is a county in Norway, bordering Buskerud and Telemark. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ... The Edda are collections of poetically narrated folk-tales relating to Norse Mythology or Norse heroes. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ...


Rohirric nouns were pluralized with the suffix "-as", as were Old English nouns of the strong-masculine declension.


The Rohirrim used the Germanic patronymic "-ing". They called themselves the Eorlingas just as Scyld's people were the Scyldingas in Norse and Anglo-Saxon mythology. Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... Old English Scylding (plural Scyldingas) and Old Norse Skjöldung (plural Skjöldungar), meaning in both languages Shielding, refers to members of a legendary royal family of Danes and sometimes to their people. ...


Théoden was referred to as "Théoden King", rather than "King Théoden", just as Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon kings had the word konungr/cyning ("king") added after their names, e.g. Hervarðar konungr, rather than before. Compare with Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxons whose name appeared as Ælfred cyning. In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d //) (c. ...


Many Rohirric names appear to be derived from Old English words. These include:

  • Éothéod: from eoh ("war-horse") and þeod ("folk", "people", "nation")
  • Gríma: possibly from gríma ("mask", "helmet", "ghost") or grim (ugly)
  • Eorl: from eorl ("nobleman"). (Its counterpart ceorl ("commoner") is also used as a name for a soldier.)
  • Théodred: from þeod ("folk", "people", "nation") and ræd ("counsel")

Earlier Rohirrim had names in Gothic which is the oldest Germanic language recorded.


Important Rohirrim

Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Helm Hammerhand was the ninth King of Rohan and last King of the first line. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Theodred Théodred (T.A. 2978-3019) is a fictional character in The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Gríma, called (the) Wormtongue, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... Grimbold is a character in the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Bruce Hopkins portryas Gamling in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. ... Háma portryed by New Zealand actor John Leigh in Peter Jacksons The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers In J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the rings, Háma is the doorward of King Theoden of Rohan and Captain of the Kings Guard. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth legendarium, Elfhelm was a Lord of Rohan and Marshal of the East-mark. ... Erkenbrand is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings. ...

Portrayal in adaptations

Poolburn Reservoir

For New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy directed by Peter Jackson, the Poolburn Reservoir in Central Otago, New Zealand was used for Rohan scenes.[2]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... New Line Cinema, founded in 1967, is one of the major American film studios. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ... Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961) is a New Zealand filmmaker best known as the director of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, which he, along with Fran Walsh, his long time partner, and Philippa Boyens, adapted from the novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The area known as Central Otago in Otago, New Zealand, includes the middle of the region but generally also most of the north-western portion (the Queenstown-Lakes District). ...


The Lord of the Rings: Weapons and Warfare, a book based on the New Line films, purports to record weaponry and military organization in Middle-earth. However, the text should not be taken as a canonical record of Tolkien's Middle-earth, but rather of Jackson's version of it since it interweaves Tolkien's details with movie-based embellishments. For example, the book goes into greater detail into the King's guards than does the original:

These men, numbering thirty and fifty in king's time, were the elite warriors in Rohan, handpicked for their skill and particular loyalty. They were well-trained with a full range of weapons. The Royal Guard possessed the only unified armour among the Rohan warriors, consisting of a sleeveless, full-length scale hauberk that was effective on foot and on horse, and a helmet featuring a visor with cutouts for their eyes, cheek-plates and a tall metal crest of a horse head from which flowed a mane of horsehair; a mail aventail was riveted inside the back of the helmet's skull. The guards additionally wore steel vambraces and pauldrons overworked with leather, which were strapped to the arms, and a steel collar; both the helmet and collar were extensively worked in bronze. A fine wool cloak dyed green and edged with a red and gold pattern was attached to the leather helms of the hauberk with circular bronze brooches featuring the sun device. The leather of the scabbard and the handgrip was dyed the same green as the cloak.

References

  1. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey and Tolkien, Christopher (eds.) (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #211. ISBN 0-395-31555-7. 
  2. ^ New Zealand The Home of Middle Earth. Film New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia of Arda: Rohan (234 words)
Originally the Gondorian province of Calenardhon, the land north of the White Mountains was gifted by Steward Cirion to Eorl of the Northmen in 2510 (Third Age).
Rohan's history was one of conflict and war; with the Orcs of the White Mountains, the Dunlendings to the west, and ultimately with Saruman in Orthanc, whose lands bordered Rohan to the north.
Nonetheless, the line of the Kings of Rohan stretched from Eorl's time to the War of the Ring and beyond.
Rohan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2604 words)
Rohan is a grassland which lies north of its ally Gondor and north-west of Mordor, the realm of Sauron, their enemy.
The borders of Rohan are: The rivers Isen and Adorn in the west, where Rohan borders Isengard and the land of the Dunlendings; the White Mountains and the Mering Stream, which separate it from Gondor, in the south; the mouths of Entwash in the east; and the river Limlight in the north.
Rohan has gone through great lengths to fulfil their part of the treaty including sacrificing two of its heirs when Gondor was under threat from the Haradrim in 2885, when Fastred and Folcred, the twin sons of King Folcwine, were killed during the Battle of Crossings of Poros.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m