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Encyclopedia > Roger Williams (theologian)
Roger Williams

Born Flag of England London, England
Died April 19, 1683 (aged 79)
Occupation minister, author
Religious beliefs Puritan, Separatist, Baptist, Seeker
Spouse Mary Barnard

Roger Williams (December 21, 1603April 1, 1683) was an English theologian, a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America, which he is known to have left soon afterwards, exclaiming, "God is too large to be housed under one roof." Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Roger Williams may refer to: Roger Williams (theologian), 17th century co-founder of Rhode Island and Separatist Roger Williams University in Rhode Island Roger Williams (soldier), 16th century Welsh soldier Roger Williams (pianist), American pianist Roger Williams (UK politician), British politician Roger Williams (US politician), US Texas politician Roger Williams... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Williams was born to a Church of England family in London, England, around 1603. He became a Puritan at age 11, against his father's liking. His father, James Williams (1562-1620), was a merchant in Smithfield, England. His mother was Alice Pemberton (1564-1634). The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield to distinguish it from the East Smithfield area located in Tower Hamlets) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ...


Under the patronage of Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634), the famous jurist, Williams was educated at Sutton's Hospital and at the University of Cambridge, Pembroke College (B.A., 1627). He seems to have had a gift for languages, and early acquired familiarity with Latin, Greek, Dutch, and French. He gave John Milton lessons in Dutch in exchange for lessons in Hebrew.[1] Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634), was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... The Charterhouse in 1770. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Full name Pembroke College Motto - Named after Countess of Pembroke, Mary de St Pol Previous names Marie Valence Hall (1347), Pembroke Hall (?), Pembroke College (1856) Established 1347 Sister College(s) Queens College Master Sir Richard Dearlove Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates ~420 Postgraduates ~240 Homepage Boatclub Pembroke College is a... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


After graduating from Cambridge, Williams became chaplain to a rich family. He married Mary Barnard (1609-1676) on December 15, 1629 at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England. They had six children, all born in America. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Map sources for High Laver at grid reference TL526087 High Laver is a village in Essex, England, east of Harlow. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ...


Some time before the end of 1630, Williams decided that he could not labor in England under Archbishop William Laud's rigorous (and High church) administration, and adopted a position of dissent. He turned aside offers of preferment in the university and in the Establishment of the Church, and instead resolved to seek in New England the liberty of conscience denied him at home. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


Removal to America

In 1630, Roger and Mary Williams set sail for Boston on the Lyon. Arriving on February 5, 1631, he was almost immediately invited to replace the pastor, who was returning to England. Finding that it was "an unseparated church," Williams declined, instead giving voice to the separationist views he had likely formed in England. Williams asserted that the magistrate may not punish any sort of "breach of the first table [of the Ten Commandments]," such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, and blasphemy and that every individual should be free to follow his own convictions in religious matters. Boston redirects here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ...


The first idea—that the magistrate should not punish religious infractions—meant that the civil authority should not be the same as the ecclesiastical authority. The second idea—that people should have freedom of opinion on religious matters—he called "soul-liberty." It is one of the foundations for the religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Williams' use of the phrase "wall of separation" in describing his preferred relationship between religion and other matters is credited as the first use of that phrase, and potentially Thomas Jefferson's source in later speaking of the wall of separation between church and state.[2] “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


The Salem church, which through interaction with the Plymouth colonists had also adopted Separatist sentiments, invited Williams to become its teacher. His settlement was prevented by a remonstrance addressed to Governor Endicott by six of the Boston leaders. The Plymouth colony then received him gladly, where he remained for about two years. According to Governor Bradford, "his teachings were well approved." Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... John Endicott (c. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691...


Life at Salem, Exile

Roger Williams alleged House in Salem (or "Witch House") in c. 1910

Toward the close of his ministry at Plymouth, Williams' views began to place him in conflict with other members of the colony. The people of Plymouth quickly came to find his ways of thinking, particularly those concerning the Indians, too advanced, and he left to go back to Salem. Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ...


In the summer of 1633, Williams arrived in Salem and became unofficial assistant to Pastor Skelton. In August, 1634, (Skelton having died), he became acting pastor and entered almost immediately into controversies with the Massachusetts authorities that in a few months resulted in his exile by law from Salem after being brought before the Salem Court for spreading "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions" that questioned the Church. The law exiling Williams was not repealed until 1936 when Bill 488 was passed by the Massachusetts House.


He was formally set apart as pastor of the church about May, 1635, against the earnest protests of the Massachusetts authorities. An outline of the issues raised by Williams and uncompromisingly pressed includes the following:

  1. He regarded the Church of England as apostate, and any kind of fellowship with it as grievous sin. He accordingly renounced communion not only with this church but with all who would not join with him in repudiating it.
  2. He denounced the charter of the Massachusetts Company because it falsely represented the king of England as a Christian, and assumed that he had the right to give to his own subjects the land of the native Indians. He disapproved of "the unchristian oaths swallowed down" by the colonists "at their coming forth from Old England, especially in the superstitious Laud's time and domineering." He drew up a letter addressed to the King expressing his dissatisfaction with the charter and sought to secure for it the endorsement of prominent colonists. In this letter he is said to have charged King James I with blasphemy for calling Europe "Christendom" and to have applied to the reigning king some of the most opprobrious epithets in the Apocalypse.
  3. Equally disquieting was Williams' opposition to the "citizens' oath," which magistrates sought to force upon the colonists in order to be assured of their loyalty. Williams maintained that it was Christ's sole prerogative to have his office established by oath, and that unregenerate men ought not in any case to be invited to perform any religious act. In opposing the oath Williams gained so much popular support that the measure had to be abandoned.
  4. In a dispute between the Massachusetts Bay court and the Salem colony regarding the possession of a piece of land (Marblehead) claimed by the latter, the court offered to accede to the claims of Salem on condition that the Salem church make amends for its insolent conduct in installing Williams as pastor in defiance of the court and ministers. This demand involved the removal of the pastor. Williams regarded this proposal as an outrageous attempt at bribery and had the Salem church send to the other Massachusetts churches a denunciation of the proceeding and demand that the churches exclude the magistrates from membership. This act was sharply resented by magistrates and churches, and such pressure was brought to bear upon the Salem church as led a majority to consent to the removal of their pastor. He never entered the chapel again, but held religious services in his own house with his faithful adherents.

The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Settlement at Providence

Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence
Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence

In June 1636, Williams arrived at the present site of Providence, Rhode Island. Having secured land from the natives (see Canonicus), he established a settlement with twelve "loving friends and neighbors" (several settlers had joined him from Massachusetts since the beginning of spring). Williams' settlement was based on a principle of equality. It was provided that "such others as the major part of us shall admit into the same fellowship of vote with us" from time to time should become members of their commonwealth. Obedience to the majority was promised by all, but "only in civil things." In 1640, another agreement was signed by thirty-nine freemen, expressing their determination "still to hold forth liberty of conscience." Thus a government unique in its day was created—a government expressly providing for religious liberty and a separation between civil and ecclesiastical authority (church and state) Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Providence redirects here. ... Canonicus was a Native American chief of the Narragansett. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


The colony was named Providence, due to Williams' belief that God had sustained him and his followers and brought them to this place. When he acquired the other islands in the Narragansett Bay, Williams named them after other virtues: Patience Island, Prudence Island and Hope Island.[1] Patience Island lies off the northwest coast of Prudence Island, in the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, USA. The island is uninhabited and has a land area of 0. ... Categories: Stub | Rhode Island geography ... Hope Island, looking northwest Hope Island is a 91-acre (0. ...


In 1637, some followers of Anne Hutchinson visited Williams to seek his guidance in moving away from Massachusetts. Like Williams, this group was in trouble with the Puritan theocrats. He advised them to purchase land on Aquidneck Island from the Native Americans. They settled in a place called Pocasset, which is now the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Among them were Anne Hutchinsons's husband William, William Coddington and John Clarke. Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Aquidneck Island highlighted in red Aquidneck Island, also called Rhode Island, is the largest island in Narragansett Bay. ... Location of Portsmouth, Rhode Island Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. ... William Coddington (1601 – November 1, 1678) was the first governor of Rhode Island. ... For the physicist (winner of 2004 Hughes Medal) see John Clarke (physicist) John Clarke (1609–1676) was a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. ...


In 1643, Williams was sent to England by his fellow citizens to secure a charter for the colony. The Puritans were then in power in England, and through the offices of Sir Henry Vane a democratic charter was obtained. The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ...


In 1647, the colony on Rhode Island was united with Providence under a single government, and liberty of conscience was again proclaimed. The area became a safe haven for people who were persecuted for their beliefs—Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others went there to follow their consciences in peace and safety. On May 18, 1652, Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.[3] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Disagreement arose between the mainland towns of Providence and Warwick on the one side and the towns of Aquidneck Island on the other. There was also disagreement (on the island) between the followers of John Clarke and William Coddington. Coddington went to England and, in 1651, had secured from the council of state a commission to rule the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut. This arrangement left Providence and Warwick to themselves. Coddington's scheme was strongly disapproved by Williams and Clarke and their followers, especially as it seemed to involve a federation of Coddington's domain with Massachusetts and Connecticut and a consequent threat to liberty of conscience, not only on the islands, but also in Providence and Warwick, which would be left unprotected. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


Many of the opponents of Coddington were, by this time, Baptists. Later, in the same year, Williams and Clarke went to England on behalf of their friends to secure from Oliver Cromwell's government the annulment of Coddington's charter and the recognition of the colony as a republic, dependent only on England. They succeeded, and Williams soon returned to Providence. To the end of his life, he continued to take a deep interest in public affairs. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Relations with the Baptists

First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638
First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638

In 1638, several Massachusetts credobaptist Christians who had found themselves subject to persecution removed to Providence (see pedobaptism). Most of these had probably been under Williams' influence while he was in Massachusetts, while some may have been influenced by English antipedobaptists before they left England. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Infant baptism (also called paedobaptism and pedobaptism), the baptism of the infant children of believers, is an ancient custom of much of Christianity, including the Roman Catholic church, the Orthodox churches, Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Methodists, to name a few. ...


John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and John Murton were founders (1609) and of the rich literature in advocacy of liberty of conscience produced by this party after its return to England. He could have hardly avoided learning something of the Calvinistic antipedobaptist party that arose in London in 1633, a short time after his departure, led by Spilsbury, Eaton, and others. John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


However, Williams did not adopt antipedobaptist views before his banishment from Massachusetts, for antipedobaptism was not laid to his account by his opponents. Winthrop attributes Williams' "Anabaptist" views to the influence of Katherine Scott, a sister of Anne Hutchinson, the Antinomian. It is probable that Ezekiel Holliman came to Providence as an antipedobaptist and joined with Mrs. Scott in impressing upon Williams the importance of believers' baptism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...

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Baptists

Historical Background
Christianity · General Baptist · Particular Baptist Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From:Baptizing in the Jordan; Silas Xavier Floyd, 1869-1923 Life of Charles T. Walker, D.D., (The Black Spurgeon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... General Baptist is a generic term for Baptists that hold the view of a general atonement, as well as a specific name of groups of Baptists within the broader category. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct denomination but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Doctrinal distinctives
Prima and Sola scriptura · Ordinance · Offices · Confessions · Congregationalism · Separation of church and state Main article: Baptist The Beliefs of Baptist Churchs are not totally consistent from one Baptist church to another, as churches do not have a central governing authority, unlike most other denominations. ... The Bible is considered as first or above all sources of divine revelation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Baptists recognize only two ordinances—believers baptism and the Lords Supper (communion). ... Baptists generally recognize two Scriptural offices, those of pastor-teacher and deacon. ... 1600s 1644 First London Baptist Confession - revised in 1646 1651 The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations 1654 The True Gospel-Faith Declared According to the Scriptures 1656 The Somerset Confession of Faith 1655 Midland Confession of Faith 1660 The Standard Confession 1678 The Orthodox Creed 1689 Second London Baptist... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition. ...

Pivotal figures
John Bunyan · Andrew Fuller · Thomas Helwys · John Smyth · Charles Haddon Spurgeon · Roger Williams John Bunyan. ... Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) was an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, and settled at Kettering. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Charles Haddon Spurgeon (June 19, 1834 – January 31, 1892) was Englands best-known and most-loved preacher for most of the second half of the nineteenth century. ...

Largest associations
American Baptist · Baptist General Convention of Texas · National Baptist · Progressive National Baptist · Southern Baptist Convention · European Baptist Federation ABCUSA American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) is a group of Baptist churches within the United States; headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. ... The Baptist General Convention of Texas is the oldest surviving Baptist convention in the state of Texas. ... The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... The Progressive National Baptist Convention (PNBC) is a convention of African-American Baptists emphasizing civil rights and social justice. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... The European Baptist Federation (EBF) is a federation of 51 Baptist associations and is one of six regional fellowships in the Baptist World Alliance. ...

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About March 1639, Williams was baptized by Holliman and immediately proceeded to baptize Holliman and eleven others. Thus was constituted a Baptist church which still survives as the First Baptist Church in America. At about the same time, John Clarke, Williams’ compatriot in the cause of religious freedom in the New World, established a Baptist church in Newport, Rhode Island. "There is much debate over the centuries as to whether the Providence or Newport church deserved the place of 'first' Baptist congregation in America. Exact records for both congregations are lacking."[4] Therefore, both Roger Williams and John Clarke are variously credited as being the founder of the Baptist faith in America.[5] The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ...


It should be noted that Roger Williams was only briefly a part of the Baptist faith. Williams remained with the little church in Providence only a few months. He became convinced that the ordinances having been lost in the apostasy could not be validly restored without a special divine commission, making the following statement upon his departure from the sect:

There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking. (Picturesque America, p. 502.)

He assumed the attitude of a "Seeker" or "Come-outer," always deeply religious and active in the propagation of Christian truth, yet not feeling satisfied that any body of Christians had all of the marks of the true Church. He continued on friendly terms with the Baptists, being in agreement with them in their rejection of infant baptism as in most other matters. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...



Williams' religious and ecclesiastical attitude is well expressed in the following sentences (1643):

The two first principles and foundations of true religion, or worship of the true God in Christ, are repentance from dead works and faith toward God, before the doctrines of baptism or washing and the laying on of hands, which continue the ordinances and practises of worship; the want of which I conceive is the bane of millions of souls in England and all other nations professing to be Christian nations, who are brought by public authority to baptism and fellowship with God in ordinances of worship, before the saving work of repentance and a true turning to Jehovah.

Death, interment, and memorials

The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park

Williams died in early 1683 and was buried on his own property. Some time later in the nineteenth century his remains were moved to the tomb of a descendant in the North Burial Ground. Finally, in 1936, they were placed within a bronze container and put into the base of a monument on Prospect Terrace Park in Providence. When his remains were discovered for reburial, they were under an apple tree. The roots of the tree had grown into the spot where Williams' skull rested and followed the path of his decomposing bones and grew roughly in the shape of his skeleton. Only a small amount of bone was found to be reburied. The "Williams Root" is now part of the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society, where it is mounted on a board in the basement of the John Brown House Museum. [2][3] View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ... The North Burial Ground is a 110-acre cemetery in Providence, Rhode Island, dating to 1700. ... View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ...


Roger Williams National Memorial, established in 1965, is a park in downtown Providence. Roger Williams Park is a city park on the southern edge of Providence. Williams was selected in 1872 to represent Rhode Island in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


Writings

Williams' career as an author began with A Key into the Language of America (London, 1643), written during his first voyage to England. His next publication was Mr. Cotton's Letter lately Printed, Examined and Answered (London, 1644; reprinted, with Cotton's letter, which it answered, in Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience soon followed (London, 1644). This is his most famous work, and was the ablest statement and defense of the principle of absolute liberty of conscience that had appeared in any language. It is in the form of a dialogue between Truth and Peace, and well illustrates the vigor of his style.[citation needed]


During the same year an anonymous pamphlet appeared in London which has been commonly ascribed to Williams, entitled: Queries of Highest Consideration Proposed to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Wil. Bridges, Mr. Jer. Burroughs, Mr. Sidr. Simpson, all Independents, etc. These Independents were members of the Westminster Assembly and their Apologetical Narration, in which they plead for toleration, fell very far short of Williams' doctrine of liberty of conscience. Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ...


In 1652, during his second visit to England, Williams published The Bloudy Tenent yet more Bloudy: by Mr. Cotton's Endeavor to wash it white in the Bloud of the Lamb; of whose precious Bloud, spilt in the Bloud of his Servants; and of the Bloud of Millions spilt in former and later Wars for Conscience sake, that most Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for cause of Conscience, upon, a second Tryal is found more apparently and more notoriously guilty, etc. (London, 1652). This work traverses anew much of the ground covered by the Bloudy Tenent; but it has the advantage of being written in answer to Cotton's elaborate defense of New England persecution, A Reply to Mr. Williams his Examination (Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


Other works by Williams are:

  • The Hireling Ministry None of Christ's’’ (London, 1652)
  • Experiments of Spiritual Life and Health, and their Preservatives (London, 1652; reprinted Providence, 1863)
  • George Fox Digged out of his Burrowes (Boston, 1676).

A volume of his letters is included in the Narragansett Club edition of Williams' Works (7 vols., Providence, 1866-74), and a volume was edited by J. R. Bartlett (1882). John Russell Bartlett (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of October 1805. ...


Tributes and memorials

Roger Williams University, commonly abbreviated as RWU, in the colloquial of the undergraduate body the acronym RWU is sometimes said to refer to rich white underachievers, in reference to the outside perception of the typical roger williams student, is a private, coeducational American liberal arts university located on 120 acres... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in Kingston, Rhode Island, and three other campuses located throughout the state. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Providence redirects here. ... The Roger Williams Park Zoo of Providence, Rhode Island houses over 957 animals representing 156 species, including polar bears, snow leopards, Asian black bears, giraffes, and African elephants all in naturalistic settings. ... Green Lake is a town located in Green Lake County, Wisconsin. ...

Famous descendants

Famous descendants of Roger Williams include:

Gail Borden (1801-1874) Patent RE2103 for Improvements in Condensing Milk Gail Borden, Jr. ... Julia Ward Howe Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet. ... Michelle Phillips, far right, with her fellow band members when with The Mamas & the Papas in the late 1960s. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ...

See also

Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Baptist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Cotton (1585–1652) The Reverend John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert H. Pfeiffer, "The Teaching of Hebrew in Colonial America" The Jewish Quarterly Review, (April 1955), pp. 363-373, accessed through JSTOR
  2. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 24
  3. ^ Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University, 1913. Chapter 5. HTML version accessed from [Dinsmore Documentation] See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ.
  4. ^ Brackney, William H. (Baylor University, Texas). Baptists in North America: an historical perspective. Blackwell Publishing, 2006, p. 23. ISBN 1405118652
  5. ^ Newport Notables

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

References

  • Brockunier, Samuel. The Irrepressible Democrat, Roger Williams, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1940.
  • Gaustad, Edwin, S., ed., Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1991.
  • Miller, Perry, Roger Williams, A Contribution to the American Tradition, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, Indianapolis and New York, 1953.
  • Settle, Mary Lee, I, Roger Williams: A Novel, W. W. Norton & Company, Reprint edition (September 2002).
  • Winslow, Ola Elizabeth, Master Roger Williams, A Biography. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1957.
Roger Williams

Born Flag of England London, England
Died April 19, 1683 (aged 79)
Occupation minister, author
Religious beliefs Puritan, Separatist, Baptist, Seeker
Spouse Mary Barnard

Roger Williams (December 21, 1603April 1, 1683) was an English theologian, a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America of which he is known to have left soon afterwards exclaiming, "God is too large to be housed under one roof." The Bobbs-Merrill Company was a book publisher located in Indianapolis, Indiana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Roger Williams may refer to: Roger Williams (theologian), 17th century co-founder of Rhode Island and Separatist Roger Williams University in Rhode Island Roger Williams (soldier), 16th century Welsh soldier Roger Williams (pianist), American pianist Roger Williams (UK politician), British politician Roger Williams (US politician), US Texas politician Roger Williams... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Biography

Early life

Williams was born to a Church of England family in London, England, around 1603. He became a Puritan at age 11, against his father's liking. His father, James Williams (1562-1620), was a merchant in Smithfield, England. His mother was Alice Pemberton (1564-1634). The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield to distinguish it from the East Smithfield area located in Tower Hamlets) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ...


Under the patronage of Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634), the famous jurist, Williams was educated at Sutton's Hospital and at the University of Cambridge, Pembroke College (B.A., 1627). He seems to have had a gift for languages, and early acquired familiarity with Latin, Greek, Dutch, and French. He gave John Milton lessons in Dutch in exchange for lessons in Hebrew.[1] Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634), was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... The Charterhouse in 1770. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Full name Pembroke College Motto - Named after Countess of Pembroke, Mary de St Pol Previous names Marie Valence Hall (1347), Pembroke Hall (?), Pembroke College (1856) Established 1347 Sister College(s) Queens College Master Sir Richard Dearlove Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates ~420 Postgraduates ~240 Homepage Boatclub Pembroke College is a... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


After graduating from Cambridge, Williams became chaplain to a rich family. He married Mary Barnard (1609-1676) on December 15, 1629 at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England. They had six children, all born in America. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Map sources for High Laver at grid reference TL526087 High Laver is a village in Essex, England, east of Harlow. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ...


Some time before the end of 1630, Williams decided that he could not labor in England under Archbishop William Laud's rigorous (and High church) administration, and adopted a position of dissent. He turned aside offers of preferment in the university and in the Establishment of the Church, and instead resolved to seek in New England the liberty of conscience denied him at home. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


Removal to America

In 1630, Roger and Mary Williams set sail for Boston on the Lyon. Arriving on February 5, 1631, he was almost immediately invited to replace the pastor, who was returning to England. Finding that it was "an unseparated church," Williams declined, instead giving voice to the separationist views he had likely formed in England. Williams asserted that the magistrate may not punish any sort of "breach of the first table [of the Ten Commandments]," such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, and blasphemy and that every individual should be free to follow his own convictions in religious matters. Boston redirects here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ...


The first idea—that the magistrate should not punish religious infractions—meant that the civil authority should not be the same as the ecclesiastical authority. The second idea—that people should have freedom of opinion on religious matters—he called "soul-liberty." It is one of the foundations for the religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Williams' use of the phrase "wall of separation" in describing his preferred relationship between religion and other matters is credited as the first use of that phrase, and potentially Thomas Jefferson's source in later speaking of the wall of separation between church and state.[2] “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


The Salem church, which through interaction with the Plymouth colonists had also adopted Separatist sentiments, invited Williams to become its teacher. His settlement was prevented by a remonstrance addressed to Governor Endicott by six of the Boston leaders. The Plymouth colony then received him gladly, where he remained for about two years. According to Governor Bradford, "his teachings were well approved." Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... John Endicott (c. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691...


Life at Salem, Exile

Roger Williams alleged House in Salem (or "Witch House") in c. 1910

Toward the close of his ministry at Plymouth, Williams' views began to place him in conflict with other members of the colony. The people of Plymouth quickly came to find his ways of thinking, particularly those concerning the Indians, too advanced, and he left to go back to Salem. Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ...


In the summer of 1633, Williams arrived in Salem and became unofficial assistant to Pastor Skelton. In August, 1634, (Skelton having died), he became acting pastor and entered almost immediately into controversies with the Massachusetts authorities that in a few months resulted in his exile by law from Salem after being brought before the Salem Court for spreading "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions" that questioned the Church. The law exiling Williams was not repealed until 1936 when Bill 488 was passed by the Massachusetts House.


He was formally set apart as pastor of the church about May, 1635, against the earnest protests of the Massachusetts authorities. An outline of the issues raised by Williams and uncompromisingly pressed includes the following:

  1. He regarded the Church of England as apostate, and any kind of fellowship with it as grievous sin. He accordingly renounced communion not only with this church but with all who would not join with him in repudiating it.
  2. He denounced the charter of the Massachusetts Company because it falsely represented the king of England as a Christian, and assumed that he had the right to give to his own subjects the land of the native Indians. He disapproved of "the unchristian oaths swallowed down" by the colonists "at their coming forth from Old England, especially in the superstitious Laud's time and domineering." He drew up a letter addressed to the King expressing his dissatisfaction with the charter and sought to secure for it the endorsement of prominent colonists. In this letter he is said to have charged King James I with blasphemy for calling Europe "Christendom" and to have applied to the reigning king some of the most opprobrious epithets in the Apocalypse.
  3. Equally disquieting was Williams' opposition to the "citizens' oath," which magistrates sought to force upon the colonists in order to be assured of their loyalty. Williams maintained that it was Christ's sole prerogative to have his office established by oath, and that unregenerate men ought not in any case to be invited to perform any religious act. In opposing the oath Williams gained so much popular support that the measure had to be abandoned.
  4. In a dispute between the Massachusetts Bay court and the Salem colony regarding the possession of a piece of land (Marblehead) claimed by the latter, the court offered to accede to the claims of Salem on condition that the Salem church make amends for its insolent conduct in installing Williams as pastor in defiance of the court and ministers. This demand involved the removal of the pastor. Williams regarded this proposal as an outrageous attempt at bribery and had the Salem church send to the other Massachusetts churches a denunciation of the proceeding and demand that the churches exclude the magistrates from membership. This act was sharply resented by magistrates and churches, and such pressure was brought to bear upon the Salem church as led a majority to consent to the removal of their pastor. He never entered the chapel again, but held religious services in his own house with his faithful adherents.

The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Settlement at Providence

Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence
Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence

In June 1636, Williams arrived at the present site of Providence, Rhode Island. Having secured land from the natives (see Canonicus), he established a settlement with twelve "loving friends and neighbors" (several settlers had joined him from Massachusetts since the beginning of spring). Williams' settlement was based on a principle of equality. It was provided that "such others as the major part of us shall admit into the same fellowship of vote with us" from time to time should become members of their commonwealth. Obedience to the majority was promised by all, but "only in civil things." In 1640, another agreement was signed by thirty-nine freemen, expressing their determination "still to hold forth liberty of conscience." Thus a government unique in its day was created—a government expressly providing for religious liberty and a separation between civil and ecclesiastical authority (church and state) Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Providence redirects here. ... Canonicus was a Native American chief of the Narragansett. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


The colony was named Providence, due to Williams' belief that God had sustained him and his followers and brought them to this place. When he acquired the other islands in the Narragansett Bay, Williams named them after other virtues: Patience Island, Prudence Island and Hope Island.[4] Patience Island lies off the northwest coast of Prudence Island, in the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, USA. The island is uninhabited and has a land area of 0. ... Categories: Stub | Rhode Island geography ... Hope Island, looking northwest Hope Island is a 91-acre (0. ...


In 1637, some followers of Anne Hutchinson visited Williams to seek his guidance in moving away from Massachusetts. Like Williams, this group was in trouble with the Puritan theocrats. He advised them to purchase land on Aquidneck Island from the Native Americans. They settled in a place called Pocasset, which is now the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Among them were Anne Hutchinsons's husband William, William Coddington and John Clarke. Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Aquidneck Island highlighted in red Aquidneck Island, also called Rhode Island, is the largest island in Narragansett Bay. ... Location of Portsmouth, Rhode Island Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. ... William Coddington (1601 – November 1, 1678) was the first governor of Rhode Island. ... For the physicist (winner of 2004 Hughes Medal) see John Clarke (physicist) John Clarke (1609–1676) was a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. ...


In 1643, Williams was sent to England by his fellow citizens to secure a charter for the colony. The Puritans were then in power in England, and through the offices of Sir Henry Vane a democratic charter was obtained. The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ...


In 1647, the colony on Rhode Island was united with Providence under a single government, and liberty of conscience was again proclaimed. The area became a safe haven for people who were persecuted for their beliefs—Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others went there to follow their consciences in peace and safety. On May 18, 1652, Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.[3] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Disagreement arose between the mainland towns of Providence and Warwick on the one side and the towns of Aquidneck Island on the other. There was also disagreement (on the island) between the followers of John Clarke and William Coddington. Coddington went to England and, in 1651, had secured from the council of state a commission to rule the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut. This arrangement left Providence and Warwick to themselves. Coddington's scheme was strongly disapproved by Williams and Clarke and their followers, especially as it seemed to involve a federation of Coddington's domain with Massachusetts and Connecticut and a consequent threat to liberty of conscience, not only on the islands, but also in Providence and Warwick, which would be left unprotected. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


Many of the opponents of Coddington were, by this time, Baptists. Later, in the same year, Williams and Clarke went to England on behalf of their friends to secure from Oliver Cromwell's government the annulment of Coddington's charter and the recognition of the colony as a republic, dependent only on England. They succeeded, and Williams soon returned to Providence. To the end of his life, he continued to take a deep interest in public affairs. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Relations with the Baptists

First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638
First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638

In 1638, several Massachusetts credobaptist Christians who had found themselves subject to persecution removed to Providence (see pedobaptism). Most of these had probably been under Williams' influence while he was in Massachusetts, while some may have been influenced by English antipedobaptists before they left England. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Infant baptism (also called paedobaptism and pedobaptism), the baptism of the infant children of believers, is an ancient custom of much of Christianity, including the Roman Catholic church, the Orthodox churches, Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Methodists, to name a few. ...


John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and John Murton were founders (1609) and of the rich literature in advocacy of liberty of conscience produced by this party after its return to England. He could have hardly avoided learning something of the Calvinistic antipedobaptist party that arose in London in 1633, a short time after his departure, led by Spilsbury, Eaton, and others. John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


However, Williams did not adopt antipedobaptist views before his banishment from Massachusetts, for antipedobaptism was not laid to his account by his opponents. Winthrop attributes Williams' "Anabaptist" views to the influence of Katherine Scott, a sister of Anne Hutchinson, the Antinomian. It is probable that Ezekiel Holliman came to Providence as an antipedobaptist and joined with Mrs. Scott in impressing upon Williams the importance of believers' baptism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...

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Baptists

Historical Background
Christianity · General Baptist · Particular Baptist Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From:Baptizing in the Jordan; Silas Xavier Floyd, 1869-1923 Life of Charles T. Walker, D.D., (The Black Spurgeon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... General Baptist is a generic term for Baptists that hold the view of a general atonement, as well as a specific name of groups of Baptists within the broader category. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct denomination but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Doctrinal distinctives
Prima and Sola scriptura · Ordinance · Offices · Confessions · Congregationalism · Separation of church and state Main article: Baptist The Beliefs of Baptist Churchs are not totally consistent from one Baptist church to another, as churches do not have a central governing authority, unlike most other denominations. ... The Bible is considered as first or above all sources of divine revelation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Baptists recognize only two ordinances—believers baptism and the Lords Supper (communion). ... Baptists generally recognize two Scriptural offices, those of pastor-teacher and deacon. ... 1600s 1644 First London Baptist Confession - revised in 1646 1651 The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations 1654 The True Gospel-Faith Declared According to the Scriptures 1656 The Somerset Confession of Faith 1655 Midland Confession of Faith 1660 The Standard Confession 1678 The Orthodox Creed 1689 Second London Baptist... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition. ...

Pivotal figures
John Bunyan · Andrew Fuller · Thomas Helwys · John Smyth · Charles Haddon Spurgeon · Roger Williams John Bunyan. ... Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) was an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, and settled at Kettering. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Charles Haddon Spurgeon (June 19, 1834 – January 31, 1892) was Englands best-known and most-loved preacher for most of the second half of the nineteenth century. ...

Largest associations
American Baptist · Baptist General Convention of Texas · National Baptist · Progressive National Baptist · Southern Baptist Convention · European Baptist Federation ABCUSA American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) is a group of Baptist churches within the United States; headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. ... The Baptist General Convention of Texas is the oldest surviving Baptist convention in the state of Texas. ... The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... The Progressive National Baptist Convention (PNBC) is a convention of African-American Baptists emphasizing civil rights and social justice. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... The European Baptist Federation (EBF) is a federation of 51 Baptist associations and is one of six regional fellowships in the Baptist World Alliance. ...

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About March 1639, Williams was baptized by Holliman and immediately proceeded to baptize Holliman and eleven others. Thus was constituted a Baptist church which still survives as the First Baptist Church in America. At about the same time, John Clarke, Williams’ compatriot in the cause of religious freedom in the New World, established a Baptist church in Newport, Rhode Island. "There is much debate over the centuries as to whether the Providence or Newport church deserved the place of 'first' Baptist congregation in America. Exact records for both congregations are lacking."[4] Therefore, both Roger Williams and John Clarke are variously credited as being the founder of the Baptist faith in America.[5] The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ...


It should be noted that Roger Williams was only briefly a part of the Baptist faith. Williams remained with the little church in Providence only a few months. He became convinced that the ordinances having been lost in the apostasy could not be validly restored without a special divine commission, making the following statement upon his departure from the sect:

There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking. (Picturesque America, p. 502.)

He assumed the attitude of a "Seeker" or "Come-outer," always deeply religious and active in the propagation of Christian truth, yet not feeling satisfied that any body of Christians had all of the marks of the true Church. He continued on friendly terms with the Baptists, being in agreement with them in their rejection of infant baptism as in most other matters. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...



Williams' religious and ecclesiastical attitude is well expressed in the following sentences (1643):

The two first principles and foundations of true religion, or worship of the true God in Christ, are repentance from dead works and faith toward God, before the doctrines of baptism or washing and the laying on of hands, which continue the ordinances and practises of worship; the want of which I conceive is the bane of millions of souls in England and all other nations professing to be Christian nations, who are brought by public authority to baptism and fellowship with God in ordinances of worship, before the saving work of repentance and a true turning to Jehovah.

Death, interment, and memorials

The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park

Williams died in early 1683 and was buried on his own property. Some time later in the nineteenth century his remains were moved to the tomb of a descendant in the North Burial Ground. Finally, in 1936, they were placed within a bronze container and put into the base of a monument on Prospect Terrace Park in Providence. When his remains were discovered for reburial, they were under an apple tree. The roots of the tree had grown into the spot where Williams' skull rested and followed the path of his decomposing bones and grew roughly in the shape of his skeleton. Only a small amount of bone was found to be reburied. The "Williams Root" is now part of the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society, where it is mounted on a board in the basement of the John Brown House Museum. [5][6] View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ... The North Burial Ground is a 110-acre cemetery in Providence, Rhode Island, dating to 1700. ... View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ...


Roger Williams National Memorial, established in 1965, is a park in downtown Providence. Roger Williams Park is a city park on the southern edge of Providence. Williams was selected in 1872 to represent Rhode Island in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


Writings

Williams' career as an author began with A Key into the Language of America (London, 1643), written during his first voyage to England. His next publication was Mr. Cotton's Letter lately Printed, Examined and Answered (London, 1644; reprinted, with Cotton's letter, which it answered, in Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience soon followed (London, 1644). This is his most famous work, and was the ablest statement and defense of the principle of absolute liberty of conscience that had appeared in any language. It is in the form of a dialogue between Truth and Peace, and well illustrates the vigor of his style.[citation needed]


During the same year an anonymous pamphlet appeared in London which has been commonly ascribed to Williams, entitled: Queries of Highest Consideration Proposed to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Wil. Bridges, Mr. Jer. Burroughs, Mr. Sidr. Simpson, all Independents, etc. These Independents were members of the Westminster Assembly and their Apologetical Narration, in which they plead for toleration, fell very far short of Williams' doctrine of liberty of conscience. Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ...


In 1652, during his second visit to England, Williams published The Bloudy Tenent yet more Bloudy: by Mr. Cotton's Endeavor to wash it white in the Bloud of the Lamb; of whose precious Bloud, spilt in the Bloud of his Servants; and of the Bloud of Millions spilt in former and later Wars for Conscience sake, that most Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for cause of Conscience, upon, a second Tryal is found more apparently and more notoriously guilty, etc. (London, 1652). This work traverses anew much of the ground covered by the Bloudy Tenent; but it has the advantage of being written in answer to Cotton's elaborate defense of New England persecution, A Reply to Mr. Williams his Examination (Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


Other works by Williams are:

  • The Hireling Ministry None of Christ's’’ (London, 1652)
  • Experiments of Spiritual Life and Health, and their Preservatives (London, 1652; reprinted Providence, 1863)
  • George Fox Digged out of his Burrowes (Boston, 1676).

A volume of his letters is included in the Narragansett Club edition of Williams' Works (7 vols., Providence, 1866-74), and a volume was edited by J. R. Bartlett (1882). John Russell Bartlett (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of October 1805. ...


Tributes and memorials

Roger Williams University, commonly abbreviated as RWU, in the colloquial of the undergraduate body the acronym RWU is sometimes said to refer to rich white underachievers, in reference to the outside perception of the typical roger williams student, is a private, coeducational American liberal arts university located on 120 acres... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in Kingston, Rhode Island, and three other campuses located throughout the state. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Providence redirects here. ... The Roger Williams Park Zoo of Providence, Rhode Island houses over 957 animals representing 156 species, including polar bears, snow leopards, Asian black bears, giraffes, and African elephants all in naturalistic settings. ... Green Lake is a town located in Green Lake County, Wisconsin. ...

Famous descendants

Famous descendants of Roger Williams include:

Gail Borden (1801-1874) Patent RE2103 for Improvements in Condensing Milk Gail Borden, Jr. ... Julia Ward Howe Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet. ... Michelle Phillips, far right, with her fellow band members when with The Mamas & the Papas in the late 1960s. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ...

See also

Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Baptist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Cotton (1585–1652) The Reverend John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert H. Pfeiffer, "The Teaching of Hebrew in Colonial America" The Jewish Quarterly Review, (April 1955), pp. 363-373, accessed through JSTOR
  2. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 24
  3. ^ Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University, 1913. Chapter 5. HTML version accessed from [Dinsmore Documentation] See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ.
  4. ^ Brackney, William H. (Baylor University, Texas). Baptists in North America: an historical perspective. Blackwell Publishing, 2006, p. 23. ISBN 1405118652
  5. ^ Newport Notables

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

References

  • Brockunier, Samuel. The Irrepressible Democrat, Roger Williams, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1940.
  • Gaustad, Edwin, S., ed., Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1991.
  • Miller, Perry, Roger Williams, A Contribution to the American Tradition, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, Indianapolis and New York, 1953.
  • Settle, Mary Lee, I, Roger Williams: A Novel, W. W. Norton & Company, Reprint edition (September 2002).
  • Winslow, Ola Elizabeth, Master Roger Williams, A Biography. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1957.
Roger Williams

Born Flag of England London, England
Died April 19, 1683 (aged 79)
Occupation minister, author
Religious beliefs Puritan, Separatist, Baptist, Seeker
Spouse Mary Barnard

Roger Williams (December 21, 1603April 1, 1683) was an English theologian, a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America of which he is known to have left soon afterwards exclaiming, "God is too large to be housed under one roof." The Bobbs-Merrill Company was a book publisher located in Indianapolis, Indiana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Roger Williams may refer to: Roger Williams (theologian), 17th century co-founder of Rhode Island and Separatist Roger Williams University in Rhode Island Roger Williams (soldier), 16th century Welsh soldier Roger Williams (pianist), American pianist Roger Williams (UK politician), British politician Roger Williams (US politician), US Texas politician Roger Williams... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Biography

Early life

Williams was born to a Church of England family in London, England, around 1603. He became a Puritan at age 11, against his father's liking. His father, James Williams (1562-1620), was a merchant in Smithfield, England. His mother was Alice Pemberton (1564-1634). The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield to distinguish it from the East Smithfield area located in Tower Hamlets) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ...


Under the patronage of Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634), the famous jurist, Williams was educated at Sutton's Hospital and at the University of Cambridge, Pembroke College (B.A., 1627). He seems to have had a gift for languages, and early acquired familiarity with Latin, Greek, Dutch, and French. He gave John Milton lessons in Dutch in exchange for lessons in Hebrew.[1] Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634), was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... The Charterhouse in 1770. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Full name Pembroke College Motto - Named after Countess of Pembroke, Mary de St Pol Previous names Marie Valence Hall (1347), Pembroke Hall (?), Pembroke College (1856) Established 1347 Sister College(s) Queens College Master Sir Richard Dearlove Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates ~420 Postgraduates ~240 Homepage Boatclub Pembroke College is a... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


After graduating from Cambridge, Williams became chaplain to a rich family. He married Mary Barnard (1609-1676) on December 15, 1629 at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England. They had six children, all born in America. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Map sources for High Laver at grid reference TL526087 High Laver is a village in Essex, England, east of Harlow. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ...


Some time before the end of 1630, Williams decided that he could not labor in England under Archbishop William Laud's rigorous (and High church) administration, and adopted a position of dissent. He turned aside offers of preferment in the university and in the Establishment of the Church, and instead resolved to seek in New England the liberty of conscience denied him at home. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


Removal to America

In 1630, Roger and Mary Williams set sail for Boston on the Lyon. Arriving on February 5, 1631, he was almost immediately invited to replace the pastor, who was returning to England. Finding that it was "an unseparated church," Williams declined, instead giving voice to the separationist views he had likely formed in England. Williams asserted that the magistrate may not punish any sort of "breach of the first table [of the Ten Commandments]," such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, and blasphemy and that every individual should be free to follow his own convictions in religious matters. Boston redirects here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ...


The first idea—that the magistrate should not punish religious infractions—meant that the civil authority should not be the same as the ecclesiastical authority. The second idea—that people should have freedom of opinion on religious matters—he called "soul-liberty." It is one of the foundations for the religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Williams' use of the phrase "wall of separation" in describing his preferred relationship between religion and other matters is credited as the first use of that phrase, and potentially Thomas Jefferson's source in later speaking of the wall of separation between church and state.[2] “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


The Salem church, which through interaction with the Plymouth colonists had also adopted Separatist sentiments, invited Williams to become its teacher. His settlement was prevented by a remonstrance addressed to Governor Endicott by six of the Boston leaders. The Plymouth colony then received him gladly, where he remained for about two years. According to Governor Bradford, "his teachings were well approved." Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... John Endicott (c. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691...


Life at Salem, Exile

Roger Williams alleged House in Salem (or "Witch House") in c. 1910

Toward the close of his ministry at Plymouth, Williams' views began to place him in conflict with other members of the colony. The people of Plymouth quickly came to find his ways of thinking, particularly those concerning the Indians, too advanced, and he left to go back to Salem. Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roger_Williams_House,_Salem,_MA.jpg Summary Roger Williams House, Salem, MA; from a c. ...


In the summer of 1633, Williams arrived in Salem and became unofficial assistant to Pastor Skelton. In August, 1634, (Skelton having died), he became acting pastor and entered almost immediately into controversies with the Massachusetts authorities that in a few months resulted in his exile by law from Salem after being brought before the Salem Court for spreading "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions" that questioned the Church. The law exiling Williams was not repealed until 1936 when Bill 488 was passed by the Massachusetts House.


He was formally set apart as pastor of the church about May, 1635, against the earnest protests of the Massachusetts authorities. An outline of the issues raised by Williams and uncompromisingly pressed includes the following:

  1. He regarded the Church of England as apostate, and any kind of fellowship with it as grievous sin. He accordingly renounced communion not only with this church but with all who would not join with him in repudiating it.
  2. He denounced the charter of the Massachusetts Company because it falsely represented the king of England as a Christian, and assumed that he had the right to give to his own subjects the land of the native Indians. He disapproved of "the unchristian oaths swallowed down" by the colonists "at their coming forth from Old England, especially in the superstitious Laud's time and domineering." He drew up a letter addressed to the King expressing his dissatisfaction with the charter and sought to secure for it the endorsement of prominent colonists. In this letter he is said to have charged King James I with blasphemy for calling Europe "Christendom" and to have applied to the reigning king some of the most opprobrious epithets in the Apocalypse.
  3. Equally disquieting was Williams' opposition to the "citizens' oath," which magistrates sought to force upon the colonists in order to be assured of their loyalty. Williams maintained that it was Christ's sole prerogative to have his office established by oath, and that unregenerate men ought not in any case to be invited to perform any religious act. In opposing the oath Williams gained so much popular support that the measure had to be abandoned.
  4. In a dispute between the Massachusetts Bay court and the Salem colony regarding the possession of a piece of land (Marblehead) claimed by the latter, the court offered to accede to the claims of Salem on condition that the Salem church make amends for its insolent conduct in installing Williams as pastor in defiance of the court and ministers. This demand involved the removal of the pastor. Williams regarded this proposal as an outrageous attempt at bribery and had the Salem church send to the other Massachusetts churches a denunciation of the proceeding and demand that the churches exclude the magistrates from membership. This act was sharply resented by magistrates and churches, and such pressure was brought to bear upon the Salem church as led a majority to consent to the removal of their pastor. He never entered the chapel again, but held religious services in his own house with his faithful adherents.

The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Settlement at Providence

Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence
Roger Williams' compass used during his journey to Providence

In June 1636, Williams arrived at the present site of Providence, Rhode Island. Having secured land from the natives (see Canonicus), he established a settlement with twelve "loving friends and neighbors" (several settlers had joined him from Massachusetts since the beginning of spring). Williams' settlement was based on a principle of equality. It was provided that "such others as the major part of us shall admit into the same fellowship of vote with us" from time to time should become members of their commonwealth. Obedience to the majority was promised by all, but "only in civil things." In 1640, another agreement was signed by thirty-nine freemen, expressing their determination "still to hold forth liberty of conscience." Thus a government unique in its day was created—a government expressly providing for religious liberty and a separation between civil and ecclesiastical authority (church and state) Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Providence redirects here. ... Canonicus was a Native American chief of the Narragansett. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


The colony was named Providence, due to Williams' belief that God had sustained him and his followers and brought them to this place. When he acquired the other islands in the Narragansett Bay, Williams named them after other virtues: Patience Island, Prudence Island and Hope Island.[7] Patience Island lies off the northwest coast of Prudence Island, in the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, USA. The island is uninhabited and has a land area of 0. ... Categories: Stub | Rhode Island geography ... Hope Island, looking northwest Hope Island is a 91-acre (0. ...


In 1637, some followers of Anne Hutchinson visited Williams to seek his guidance in moving away from Massachusetts. Like Williams, this group was in trouble with the Puritan theocrats. He advised them to purchase land on Aquidneck Island from the Native Americans. They settled in a place called Pocasset, which is now the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Among them were Anne Hutchinsons's husband William, William Coddington and John Clarke. Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Aquidneck Island highlighted in red Aquidneck Island, also called Rhode Island, is the largest island in Narragansett Bay. ... Location of Portsmouth, Rhode Island Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. ... William Coddington (1601 – November 1, 1678) was the first governor of Rhode Island. ... For the physicist (winner of 2004 Hughes Medal) see John Clarke (physicist) John Clarke (1609–1676) was a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. ...


In 1643, Williams was sent to England by his fellow citizens to secure a charter for the colony. The Puritans were then in power in England, and through the offices of Sir Henry Vane a democratic charter was obtained. The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ...


In 1647, the colony on Rhode Island was united with Providence under a single government, and liberty of conscience was again proclaimed. The area became a safe haven for people who were persecuted for their beliefs—Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others went there to follow their consciences in peace and safety. On May 18, 1652, Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.[3] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Disagreement arose between the mainland towns of Providence and Warwick on the one side and the towns of Aquidneck Island on the other. There was also disagreement (on the island) between the followers of John Clarke and William Coddington. Coddington went to England and, in 1651, had secured from the council of state a commission to rule the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut. This arrangement left Providence and Warwick to themselves. Coddington's scheme was strongly disapproved by Williams and Clarke and their followers, especially as it seemed to involve a federation of Coddington's domain with Massachusetts and Connecticut and a consequent threat to liberty of conscience, not only on the islands, but also in Providence and Warwick, which would be left unprotected. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


Many of the opponents of Coddington were, by this time, Baptists. Later, in the same year, Williams and Clarke went to England on behalf of their friends to secure from Oliver Cromwell's government the annulment of Coddington's charter and the recognition of the colony as a republic, dependent only on England. They succeeded, and Williams soon returned to Providence. To the end of his life, he continued to take a deep interest in public affairs. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Relations with the Baptists

First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638
First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638

In 1638, several Massachusetts credobaptist Christians who had found themselves subject to persecution removed to Providence (see pedobaptism). Most of these had probably been under Williams' influence while he was in Massachusetts, while some may have been influenced by English antipedobaptists before they left England. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Infant baptism (also called paedobaptism and pedobaptism), the baptism of the infant children of believers, is an ancient custom of much of Christianity, including the Roman Catholic church, the Orthodox churches, Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Methodists, to name a few. ...


John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and John Murton were founders (1609) and of the rich literature in advocacy of liberty of conscience produced by this party after its return to England. He could have hardly avoided learning something of the Calvinistic antipedobaptist party that arose in London in 1633, a short time after his departure, led by Spilsbury, Eaton, and others. John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


However, Williams did not adopt antipedobaptist views before his banishment from Massachusetts, for antipedobaptism was not laid to his account by his opponents. Winthrop attributes Williams' "Anabaptist" views to the influence of Katherine Scott, a sister of Anne Hutchinson, the Antinomian. It is probable that Ezekiel Holliman came to Providence as an antipedobaptist and joined with Mrs. Scott in impressing upon Williams the importance of believers' baptism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...

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Baptists

Historical Background
Christianity · General Baptist · Particular Baptist Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From:Baptizing in the Jordan; Silas Xavier Floyd, 1869-1923 Life of Charles T. Walker, D.D., (The Black Spurgeon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... General Baptist is a generic term for Baptists that hold the view of a general atonement, as well as a specific name of groups of Baptists within the broader category. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct denomination but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Doctrinal distinctives
Prima and Sola scriptura · Ordinance · Offices · Confessions · Congregationalism · Separation of church and state Main article: Baptist The Beliefs of Baptist Churchs are not totally consistent from one Baptist church to another, as churches do not have a central governing authority, unlike most other denominations. ... The Bible is considered as first or above all sources of divine revelation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Baptists recognize only two ordinances—believers baptism and the Lords Supper (communion). ... Baptists generally recognize two Scriptural offices, those of pastor-teacher and deacon. ... 1600s 1644 First London Baptist Confession - revised in 1646 1651 The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations 1654 The True Gospel-Faith Declared According to the Scriptures 1656 The Somerset Confession of Faith 1655 Midland Confession of Faith 1660 The Standard Confession 1678 The Orthodox Creed 1689 Second London Baptist... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition. ...

Pivotal figures
John Bunyan · Andrew Fuller · Thomas Helwys · John Smyth · Charles Haddon Spurgeon · Roger Williams John Bunyan. ... Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) was an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, and settled at Kettering. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Charles Haddon Spurgeon (June 19, 1834 – January 31, 1892) was Englands best-known and most-loved preacher for most of the second half of the nineteenth century. ...

Largest associations
American Baptist · Baptist General Convention of Texas · National Baptist · Progressive National Baptist · Southern Baptist Convention · European Baptist Federation ABCUSA American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) is a group of Baptist churches within the United States; headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. ... The Baptist General Convention of Texas is the oldest surviving Baptist convention in the state of Texas. ... The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... The Progressive National Baptist Convention (PNBC) is a convention of African-American Baptists emphasizing civil rights and social justice. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... The European Baptist Federation (EBF) is a federation of 51 Baptist associations and is one of six regional fellowships in the Baptist World Alliance. ...

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About March 1639, Williams was baptized by Holliman and immediately proceeded to baptize Holliman and eleven others. Thus was constituted a Baptist church which still survives as the First Baptist Church in America. At about the same time, John Clarke, Williams’ compatriot in the cause of religious freedom in the New World, established a Baptist church in Newport, Rhode Island. "There is much debate over the centuries as to whether the Providence or Newport church deserved the place of 'first' Baptist congregation in America. Exact records for both congregations are lacking."[4] Therefore, both Roger Williams and John Clarke are variously credited as being the founder of the Baptist faith in America.[5] The first Baptist church in America was that founded by Roger Williams at Providence in 1639. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ...


It should be noted that Roger Williams was only briefly a part of the Baptist faith. Williams remained with the little church in Providence only a few months. He became convinced that the ordinances having been lost in the apostasy could not be validly restored without a special divine commission, making the following statement upon his departure from the sect:

There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking. (Picturesque America, p. 502.)

He assumed the attitude of a "Seeker" or "Come-outer," always deeply religious and active in the propagation of Christian truth, yet not feeling satisfied that any body of Christians had all of the marks of the true Church. He continued on friendly terms with the Baptists, being in agreement with them in their rejection of infant baptism as in most other matters. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...



Williams' religious and ecclesiastical attitude is well expressed in the following sentences (1643):

The two first principles and foundations of true religion, or worship of the true God in Christ, are repentance from dead works and faith toward God, before the doctrines of baptism or washing and the laying on of hands, which continue the ordinances and practises of worship; the want of which I conceive is the bane of millions of souls in England and all other nations professing to be Christian nations, who are brought by public authority to baptism and fellowship with God in ordinances of worship, before the saving work of repentance and a true turning to Jehovah.

Death, interment, and memorials

The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park
Williams' final resting place in Prospect Terrace Park

Williams died in early 1683 and was buried on his own property. Some time later in the nineteenth century his remains were moved to the tomb of a descendant in the North Burial Ground. Finally, in 1936, they were placed within a bronze container and put into the base of a monument on Prospect Terrace Park in Providence. When his remains were discovered for reburial, they were under an apple tree. The roots of the tree had grown into the spot where Williams' skull rested and followed the path of his decomposing bones and grew roughly in the shape of his skeleton. Only a small amount of bone was found to be reburied. The "Williams Root" is now part of the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society, where it is mounted on a board in the basement of the John Brown House Museum. [8][9] View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ... The North Burial Ground is a 110-acre cemetery in Providence, Rhode Island, dating to 1700. ... View of downtown Providence from Prospect Terrace Park Prospect Terrace Park is a park located in the College Hill neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, which overlooks the city. ...


Roger Williams National Memorial, established in 1965, is a park in downtown Providence. Roger Williams Park is a city park on the southern edge of Providence. Williams was selected in 1872 to represent Rhode Island in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


Writings

Williams' career as an author began with A Key into the Language of America (London, 1643), written during his first voyage to England. His next publication was Mr. Cotton's Letter lately Printed, Examined and Answered (London, 1644; reprinted, with Cotton's letter, which it answered, in Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience soon followed (London, 1644). This is his most famous work, and was the ablest statement and defense of the principle of absolute liberty of conscience that had appeared in any language. It is in the form of a dialogue between Truth and Peace, and well illustrates the vigor of his style.[citation needed]


During the same year an anonymous pamphlet appeared in London which has been commonly ascribed to Williams, entitled: Queries of Highest Consideration Proposed to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Wil. Bridges, Mr. Jer. Burroughs, Mr. Sidr. Simpson, all Independents, etc. These Independents were members of the Westminster Assembly and their Apologetical Narration, in which they plead for toleration, fell very far short of Williams' doctrine of liberty of conscience. Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ...


In 1652, during his second visit to England, Williams published The Bloudy Tenent yet more Bloudy: by Mr. Cotton's Endeavor to wash it white in the Bloud of the Lamb; of whose precious Bloud, spilt in the Bloud of his Servants; and of the Bloud of Millions spilt in former and later Wars for Conscience sake, that most Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for cause of Conscience, upon, a second Tryal is found more apparently and more notoriously guilty, etc. (London, 1652). This work traverses anew much of the ground covered by the Bloudy Tenent; but it has the advantage of being written in answer to Cotton's elaborate defense of New England persecution, A Reply to Mr. Williams his Examination (Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).


Other works by Williams are:

  • The Hireling Ministry None of Christ's’’ (London, 1652)
  • Experiments of Spiritual Life and Health, and their Preservatives (London, 1652; reprinted Providence, 1863)
  • George Fox Digged out of his Burrowes (Boston, 1676).

A volume of his letters is included in the Narragansett Club edition of Williams' Works (7 vols., Providence, 1866-74), and a volume was edited by J. R. Bartlett (1882). John Russell Bartlett (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of October 1805. ...


Tributes and memorials

Roger Williams University, commonly abbreviated as RWU, in the colloquial of the undergraduate body the acronym RWU is sometimes said to refer to rich white underachievers, in reference to the outside perception of the typical roger williams student, is a private, coeducational American liberal arts university located on 120 acres... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in Kingston, Rhode Island, and three other campuses located throughout the state. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ... Providence redirects here. ... The Roger Williams Park Zoo of Providence, Rhode Island houses over 957 animals representing 156 species, including polar bears, snow leopards, Asian black bears, giraffes, and African elephants all in naturalistic settings. ... Green Lake is a town located in Green Lake County, Wisconsin. ...

Famous descendants

Famous descendants of Roger Williams include:

Gail Borden (1801-1874) Patent RE2103 for Improvements in Condensing Milk Gail Borden, Jr. ... Julia Ward Howe Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet. ... Michelle Phillips, far right, with her fellow band members when with The Mamas & the Papas in the late 1960s. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ...

See also

Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Baptist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Cotton (1585–1652) The Reverend John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Roger Williams National Memorial is a landscaped urban park on the site of the founding of Providence, Rhode Island by Roger Williams in 1636. ... Roger Williams Park in southern Providence, Rhode Island is a city park featuring small lakes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert H. Pfeiffer, "The Teaching of Hebrew in Colonial America" The Jewish Quarterly Review, (April 1955), pp. 363-373, accessed through JSTOR
  2. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 24
  3. ^ Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University, 1913. Chapter 5. HTML version accessed from [Dinsmore Documentation] See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ.
  4. ^ Brackney, William H. (Baylor University, Texas). Baptists in North America: an historical perspective. Blackwell Publishing, 2006, p. 23. ISBN 1405118652
  5. ^ Newport Notables

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

References

  • Brockunier, Samuel. The Irrepressible Democrat, Roger Williams, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1940.
  • Gaustad, Edwin, S., ed., Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1991.
  • Miller, Perry, Roger Williams, A Contribution to the American Tradition, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, Indianapolis and New York, 1953.
  • Settle, Mary Lee, I, Roger Williams: A Novel, W. W. Norton & Company, Reprint edition (September 2002).
  • Winslow, Ola Elizabeth, Master Roger Williams, A Biography. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1957.[[pt:Roger Williams
The Bobbs-Merrill Company was a book publisher located in Indianapolis, Indiana. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography of Roger Willams (1937 words)
Roger Williams was a Separatist Anglo-American theologian, advocate of liberty of conscience, and founder of Rhode Island; b.
Williams maintained that it was Christ's sole prerogative to have his office established by oath, and that unregenerate men ought not in any case to be invited to perform any religious act.
Williams himself probably knew of the Arminian antipedobaptist party of which John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and John Murton were founders (1609) and of the rich literature in advocacy of liberty of conscience produced by this party after its return to England.
Roger Williams (theologian) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2633 words)
Roger Williams (December 21, 1603–April 1, 1684) was an Anglo-American theologian, a notable proponent of the separation of Church and State, an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans, founder of the City of Providence, Rhode Island and co-founder of the state of Rhode Island.
Williams maintained that it was Christ's sole prerogative to have his office established by oath, and that unregenerate men ought not in any case to be invited to perform any religious act.
Williams himself probably knew of the Arminian antipedobaptist party of which John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and John Murton were founders (1609) and of the rich literature in advocacy of liberty of conscience produced by this party after its return to England.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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