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Encyclopedia > Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, GCB KCVO CMG DSO, (18721945) was a noted British admiral and hero, with a life of adventure stretching from 19th-century African anti-slavery patrols to Allied landings in Leyte in World War II. Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and other formerly Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...

Contents


Early days

The son of a famous hero father, Keyes was born on October 4th, 1872, at Tundiani Fort on the North West Frontier Province of India, where his father commanded the Punjab Frontier force. He spent his first five years here, far from the sea. October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ...


The family had been home in England for three years, when his father was given a new command in India. His parents decided to take the two youngest children with them, but to leave the five oldest, including Roger, in the care of an English country parson and his wife. Though the accommodations were less than his parents had been led to believe and the younger children were desperately lonely, the parson introduced him to hunting and fishing, which became lifelong passions, particularly hunting. Soon he was sent to a prep school at Margate.


Sailor

The parson's brother was an admiral, and stories of the navy were prominent in the household. He wrote his parents of his desire to be a sailor. In 1884 his father, now General Sir Charles Keyes, retired and returned to England. After some discussion and, against his father's wishes, Roger was permitted to join the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services being the oldest of its three branches. ...


Roger Keyes joined the training establishment, HMS Britannia, in the autumn of 1884, at the age of 12. HMS Prince of Wales was a 121-gun screw-propelled first-rate ship of the line built in 1860 commanded by Commander Joseph Watson, converted to a training ship and renamed Britannia in 1869. ...


Keyes was small and delicate in health, but had an iron will. He took up fencing and rackets, sailed whenever he could and was in the thick of every boyhood scrap.


Anti-slavery patrol

In August 1887, Keyes was appointed to HMS Raleigh, a cruiser which was flagship of the Cape of Good Hope and West Africa Station. He reached Cape Town on November 3rd and began his seagoing life. Raleigh was a full rigged sailing frigate of 5,200 tons with a propeller which could move her along a 6 knots. Under sail she could make up to 11 knots. HMS Raleigh was an unarmoured iron frigate completed in 1874. ... USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 100th 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2) Calling code 021 edit Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad /ˈkɑːpstÉ‘t... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ...


In 1890 Keyes transferred to HMS Turquoise, a barque rigged corvette of 2,120 tons. The ship operated from Zanzibar on slavery suppression missions. There was much opportunity for action as small naval launches under junior officers were sent out for weeks at a time to patrol the coast, probing the estuaries and creeks where Arab slavers hid with their cargoes of young women and children, seized from coastal regions in Portuguese East Africa. Often gunfights ensued as the slavers tried to make their escape. He participated in the somewhat farcical 1890 expedition against the Sultan of Wituland. The word barc appears to have come from Celtic languages so that the form adopted by English, perhaps from Irish, was bark while that adopted by French , perhaps from Gaulish, was barge. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar (IPA pronunciation: ), as used today, is the collective name for two East African islands off mainland Tanzania: Unguja (also called Zanzibar) and Pemba. ... Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... Slaver has several meanings: One who deals in slaves. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Wituland (also Witu or Swahililand) was an approximately 3000 km² territory in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya. ...


Around the world

Keyes went back to England on three months' leave which he spent learning horsemanship, and taking up fox hunting. A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ...


Naval examinations followed, not Keyes' strongest suit. However he managed to scrape through.


During this time he was attached to various ships in the Channel Fleet, including a stint in the royal yacht HMS Victoria and Albert. He met Queen Victoria and the future King George V. The Channel Fleet is the historical name used for the group of Royal Navy warships that defended the waters of the English Channel. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the eminent Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June, 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January, 1877, until her death in 1901. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House of Windsor in 1917. ...


Then it was off to South America in October, 1892 for service on HMS Beagle. Keyes was in South American waters until 1896. This was a very happy time in his life, as he had plenty of opportunity for polo and shooting in Argentina and Uruguay, where he was made very welcome by the local British residents. He thought of settling in Argentina, but the lady with whom he was enamoured chose another. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... HMS Beagle (centre) from an 1841 watercolour by Owen Stanley, painted during the third voyage while surveying Australia. ...


The early part of Keyes' tour was spent mostly in Brazil where a Royal Navy squadron was busy protecting British shipping and residents during a 1893-4 naval insurrection against President Floriano Peixoto. During the course of his duties he became friendly with a rebel leader, Rear Admiral Saldanha da Gama. Floriano Vieira Peixoto (1839–1895) was Brazilian soldier and politician, born in Ipioca (nowadays a district in the city of Maceió), in the State of Alagoas and veteran of the War of the Triple Alliance, second President of Brazil. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ...


After his return home, Keyes served on a training ship for new recruits. He was then given command of HMS Opossum, a new destroyer. USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer (French: contre-torpilleur, German: Zerstörer, Spanish: destructor, Italian: cacciatorpediniere) is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers...


China

Keyes was then posted out to China to command another destroyer, HMS Hart, soon transferring to a newer ship, HMS Fame. Ships named Fame: Fame known as the “FAME” of Watford, was a small vessel which joined or was taken by the Royalist Fleet under Prince Rupert in the spring of 1649. ...


In April 1899 he went to the rescue of a small British force which was attacked and surrounded by irregular Chinese forces while attempting to demarcate the border of the Hong Kong New Territories. Keyes went ashore, leading half the landing party, and, while Fame fired on the besiegers, he led the charge which routed the Chinese and freed the troops. A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ...


This illustrates a trait Keyes showed all through his life, forcing himself into the centre of any fighting, whenever or wherever it might be.


In those days, the Royal Navy's China Squadron used Hong Kong as a home port during the winter, but went north to Weihaiwei on the Yellow Sea during the warm summer months. Keyes was there in late May 1900, cursing his luck for being in so out of the way a place while the Second Boer War was raging in South Africa. Reports soon started to come in to British authorities of disturbances throughout North China, aimed particularly against Chinese Christians, missionaries and European merchants. The anti-foreign agitators were called Boxers, and soon were threatening the foreign Legations in Peking (Beijing) and the European settlement at Tientsin (Tianjin). Local British naval forces were sent to the aid of these two threatened communities. Weihai (威海; pinyin: wēihǎi, also Weihaiwei) is a seaport city on the Bohai Gulf in north-east Shandong province, China. ... ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... Boxers shorts are a type of underwear, worn usually by men. ... A Legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; Pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Boxer Rebellion: early phase

Early in the Boxer Rebellion, with poorly armed Westerners under siege in Peking and Tientsin, relief was essential, using whatever military forces that happened to be in China. Most British forces were in South Africa, occupied with fighting the Boers, while American forces were occupied fighting the Philippine government in the Philippine-American War. The role of the British China Squadron was vital. Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; Pinyin: Yìhétuán Qǐyì; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) or Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂 or 義和團匪亂) was a Chinese rebellion against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Combatants United States The Philippines Commanders Elwell Stephen Otis Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,840 wounded; 2,000 killed, dead, or wounded of the Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ...


Since both cities were inland, Tientsin some 30 miles up a shallow river, the Pei Ho (Hai River), and Peking some 60 miles further inland, battleships were of no use. But, destroyers could, at high tide, get over the bar and into the river. The mouth of the river was defended by three modern Chinese forts (the Taku Forts), whose gunners were trained by Europeans. Government forces were beginning to side with the Righteous Harmony Society (the Boxers), so any attempt to go up the river might well draw hostile fire. Categories: China geography stubs | Chinese rivers ... The Taku Forts (or Dagu Fort; Chinese: 大沽船坞; pinyin: dagu paotai) are forts located by the Hai He (Peiho River) estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. ... The Righteous Harmony Society (Traditional: 義和團; Simplified: 义和团; Hanyu Pinyin: ); was a society in China that executed the unsuccessful Boxer Rebellion in the closing years of the 19th century. ...


Four miles upriver from the forts was a modern dockyard and secured to its walls were four brand new German-built Chinese destroyers, the most up to date in Asia. They were fully manned and ready for action. Then came the railhead at Tongku (Tanggu), the tracks leading to Tientsin and Peking. Somewhat farther up the river was Fort Hsi-cheng (Xicheng). Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Tanggu is a city in the Tianjin municipality in the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of northeastern China. ...


Roger Keyes arrived off Taku in HMS Fame on May 31, 1900, with the whole Squadron coming in two days later. Since Fame drew only 8 feet of water and could cross the bar into Taku during 4 hours of high tide twice per day, she was used to take messages and passengers back and forth to the railhead. As a result, Keyes became familiar with navigation on the lower stretches of the River. At this point he was able to pass the forts unmolested, though the Chinese gunners trained their guns on his ship. Ships named Fame: Fame known as the “FAME” of Watford, was a small vessel which joined or was taken by the Royalist Fleet under Prince Rupert in the spring of 1649. ...


The British commander, Admiral Edward Seymour, visited Tientsin on June 3rd, and alarmed, ordered a small naval brigade to its aid. Fame was busy ferrying the troops upriver, past the forts. At the same time, a desperate message arrived from Peking requesting immediate help. Admiral Seymour took a huge gamble and set out by train for Peking from Tientsin in June with 1,000 British sailors and marines. Naval ships of other countries whose nationals were besieged in Peking contributed sailors as well, and soon the Admiral commanded a mixed force of 1,990 British, German, French, Russian, American, Italian, and Austrian sailors. Then the telegraph line to Peking went dead, and Boxers began tearing up the railway track in front of and behind the train well before Peking. Seymour was now in a dangerous situation. Sir Edward Hobart Seymour (April 30, 1840 - March 2, 1929) was a British Admiral of the Fleet. ...


The Boxer Rebellion: the capture of the Taku flotilla

Keyes, though a junior officer, began to show once again the foresight and leadership which so characterized his career. He determined that the capture of the Taku forts and the seizure of the Chinese destroyers was the key to the relief of Tientsin and Peking. With another junior officer, Commander Christopher Craddock, he made a land reconnaissance of the forts on June 13 to discover the best line of attack. Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... Christopher Cradock Sir Christopher George Francis Maurice Cradock (2 July 1862–1 November 1914), was a British admiral. ...


On June 15th, Keyes was sent by Admiral James Bruce, acting commander, to Tientsin to find out the state of defences and what had happened to Admiral Seymour and his force. He went by himself and boarded the train at Tongku, the sole European aboard. Though harassed he somehow made it and reported to the local British commander, Captain Bayly and his second in command, Commander David Beatty. Also in Tientsin, helping to fortify the place, was an American, the civilian engineer, Herbert Hoover, later President of the United States. Bayly reported Seymour's precarious situation, with the relief column needing relief itself. He urged Keyes to make it back to Admiral Bruce as quickly as possible to persuade him to seize the Taku forts. Keyes borrowed a revolver and set off. The only train leaving Tientsin headed towards the coast that night was a Chinese troop train, but it had already left by the time he got to the station. See also James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin. ... David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (1871-1936), born in County Wexford, Ireland, was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ...


Keyes commandeered a locomotive, bribed the engineer and fireman and set off. When they approached a station en route, they saw that the platform was covered with Chinese soldiers. The railway men lost courage and slowed down, until Keyes put his revolver to the engineer's temple, and they steamed through the trouble. When returning to the ship, he learned that the Chinese had laid mines in the river channel that afternoon.


With some difficulty, Keyes persuaded Bruce of the need to seize the destroyers and the forts. At an international naval gathering next morning it was agreed to issue an ultimatum to the Chinese commander to hand over the forts temporarily to the Europeans. Should the demands not be agreed to, Keyes was given the task of seizing the destroyers at 2 a.m. the next morning with an attack on the forts to follow at daybreak.


Keyes scouted the Chinese ships in a lighter before the ultimatum expired, and developed a detailed plan to storm the ships and seize them intact. The four Chinese destroyers, moored to the wharf alongside the dry dock, were getting steam up and were fully manned. They displaced 280 tons and could make 32 knots, had six 3-pounder guns as well as two 18-inch torpedo tubes. To face them Keyes had two slower British destroyers, HMS Fame and HMS Whiting which displaced 390 tons and could make 30 knots with an armament of one 12-pounder, five 6-pounders and two 18-inch torpedo tubes. Ships named Fame: Fame known as the “FAME” of Watford, was a small vessel which joined or was taken by the Royalist Fleet under Prince Rupert in the spring of 1649. ...


The plan was simple. Each British destroyer had a boarding party on its forecastle armed with pistols and cutlasses, led by its captain, to seize the first and third destroyers and another boarding party in a whaler towed behind, led by the first officer to seize the second and fourth ships. forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... This article is about the sword. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch Whaling is the hunting and killing of whales. ... In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot of an aircraft. ...


But at 1am the Chinese forts opened fire. Keyes immediately put his plan into action and, under the cover of nightfall, all went off like clockwork. After a few scuffles on deck, the Chinese crews were driven ashore or captured below. There were no British casualties, but several Chinese were killed. He then led a sortie ashore and captured the dry dock, dispersing snipers. His orders were to take the captured ships to Tongku, which he did.


The Boxer Rebellion: The fort at Hsi-cheng

He was about to return downstream from Tongku to assist in the attack on the Taku forts, when a young British naval officer in charge of a river tug with stores and ammunition for the besieged troops in Tientsin came aboard. His orders were to make a run for Tientsin at daybreak, but his Chinese crew refused to leave for fear of being sunk by the guns of the fort upstream at Hsi-cheng. Inquiries with a Japanese gunboat captain told him that the fort had six modern 6-inch, quick-fire guns, more than a match for Keyes's two small destroyers.


Keyes then escorted the tug past the fort which did not open fire. The supplies got through to Tientsin. But he was very aware that the fort could cut communications with Tientsin whenever it wished. By the time he got back to Taku, the three forts had been taken.


He attempted without success to convince Admiral Bruce of the need to take the fort at Hsi-cheng. But reports from Tientsin grew more alarming, with Admiral Seymour in a perilous situation, and no word from Peking. He tried in vain to interest the Russians whose small army of 2,000 was slowly making its way from Tongku to Tientsin. The Russians had the only wagons available and since they were shooting every Chinese person they met, coolies were not available. The Russians made it to Tientsin, but were stuck there, with messages arriving from Seymour asking for help. Supplies could no longer get by the fort at Hsi-cheng.


Getting permission for a cautious reconnoitring of the river above Tongku ( but under no circumstances to hazard his ship), Keyes loaded the Fame with as many armed men as he could, anchored on an ebb tide off the fort and sheered into the bank. He sprang ashore, followed by a landing party of 32, armed with rifles pistols, cutlasses and explosives. Surprise was complete, the main door of the fort was open, and a party of Chinese inside was scattered. They quickly destroyed the gun mountings, and blew up the powder magazine, fleeing back to the ship in the nick of time. The same day, June 25, 1900, Admiral Seymour managed to fight his way back into Tientsin. The tide is the regular rising and falling of the oceans surface caused by changes in gravitational forces external to the Earth. ...


The Boxer Rebellion: Tientsin and Peking

After all his exploits, Keyes still managed to get himself into the thick of fighting throughout the rest of the campaign. He managed to obtain leave from the Fame for two days to run a tug and lighter with stores to Tientsin. While there he joined an attack on some Chinese batteries at the Tientsin race course, being very impressed by the Japanese troops who led it. Further requests for leave to join the fighting were frostily rejected by Admiral Seymour.


However his luck changed when troops from India arrived for the advance on Peking, led by an old friend of his father, General Sir Alfred Gaselee. Reluctantly, Seymour agreed to Gaselee's request that Keyes accompany the expedition as a naval Aide de Camp. An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ...


So it came to be that a young naval officer was the first man over the Peking walls, planting a Union Jack on the top. He was also the first to break through to the Legations. Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the common name for the Union Flag (official name) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


After some time to convalesce from diphtheria, Keyes resumed command of HMS Fame, and returned to Hong Kong through a dreadful typhoon. He was soon promoted and transferred home. Ships named Fame: Fame known as the “FAME” of Watford, was a small vessel which joined or was taken by the Royalist Fleet under Prince Rupert in the spring of 1649. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ...


Character

By this time the broad outlines of Keyes' character were there. He was impossibly brave, impatient to get things done, not suffering fools gladly, devoted to Britain and the Royal Navy, inarticulate but passionate, perhaps too quick to criticize, a great trainer of men. To all this could be added fair minded and generous. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services being the oldest of its three branches. ...


Destroyers, admiralty, Rome, and submarines

After a few months leave at home, Keyes was appointed to the command of a new destroyer, HMS Bat, a 360-ton 30 knotter, similar to the Fame. He was stationed at Portsmouth and was second in command of the Devonport Destroyer Flotilla. He found the ships' upkeep and training exercises lax and soon his forceful personality made itself felt. He was in command of four of the ships and embarked on a rigorous scheme of training these in all weather using aggressive tactics. He brought in a like minded assistant, Commander Walter Cowan, who became a fast friend and a formidable warrior in his own right. HMS Bat was a Star class destroyer later called C class destroyers, of the Royal Navy launched on October 7, 1896 and completed in August of 1897. ... Portsmouth is a city of about 196,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... Devonport in 1909, courtesy WW1 Archive HMNB Devonport or Devonport Dockyard is a major Royal Navy base near the city of Plymouth in Devon and the largest in Western Europe. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer (French: contre-torpilleur, German: Zerstörer, Spanish: destructor, Italian: cacciatorpediniere) is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers... See Also: Fleet Floatilla ... Walter Henry Cowan (June 11, 1871 to February 14, 1956) was a British Admiral who saw service in World War One and was in World War Two the oldest British serviceman on active duty. ...


His efforts paid off when the ships under his command did very well in naval exercises. This led to an appointment at the Admiralty in the intelligence section. His role was to become familiar with the navies and coast defences of Italy, Japan, and Russia. In this capacity, he was called on to find out the facts surrounding the infamous Dogger Bank incident, when Russian ships en route to the Far East to fight the Japanese, opened fire on British fishing ships in the North Sea. He was called to testify before the International Court of Enquiry held in Paris in January 1905 , and his testimony on this occasion was seen as conclusive. Britain won the dispute and proper compensation was paid. Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The Dogger Bank incident (also known as incident of Hull) was the assault on British trawlers at the Dogger Bank by the Russian Baltic Fleet in the night of October 21 to October 22, 1904. ... Far East is an inexact term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


The time back in England enabled Keyes to pursue his passion for polo, a recreation at which he made the acquaintance of Winston Churchill. They became and remained good friends for the rest of their lives. He never missed a party attended by Miss Eva Bowlby, whom he had met in March 1903 when his ship had put in at Knoydart, her father's Scottish estate. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Knoydart is a peninsula on the west coast of Scotland, in the UK, sandwiched between Loch Nevis and Loch Hourn—often translated as Heaven and Hell respectively. ...


In early 1905 Keyes took up an appointment as naval attaché at Rome, Vienna, Constantinople and Athens, with his office at the British Embassy in Rome. On April 10th, 1906, he married Eva Bowlby. They honeymooned on the Dalmatian coast and the Greek Isles. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Constantinople[1] was the name of the modern-day city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey over the centuries that it served as the second capital of the unified Roman Empire, and after its division into East and West, of the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire (from the city... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ...


In January 1908, Keyes took up command of HMS Venus, a second class cruiser serving with the Atlantic Fleet. This was a happy time for crew and captain. In 1910 Keyes was looking forward to command of an armoured cruiser, when he was offered the appointment of Inspecting Captain of Submarines. This was in the days of the infancy of submarines and the job was not his first choice. But he agreed and found himself in command of sixty-one undersea vessels. USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


Keyes had an office in the Admiralty, headquarters at Portsmouth and flotillas of submarines at Devonport, Harwich and Dundee. Each flotilla had a depot ship (an old cruiser). Though the position was initially regarded as a training role, Keyes's energy led it to become an operational command. The most effective submarines were based at Harwich, and in event of war, Keyes was to assume command of these, reporting directly to the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet. He was to be given, at the outbreak of war, two fast destroyers as part of his command, so as to be able to put to sea regularly to direct his submarines. Devonport in 1909, courtesy WW1 Archive HMNB Devonport or Devonport Dockyard is a major Royal Navy base near the city of Plymouth in Devon and the largest in Western Europe. ... (This article is about the town in England. ... The Royal Burgh of Dundee (Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh) is Scotlands third largest city, with a population of 154,674 (2001), and one of Scotlands 32 council areas. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Home Fleet is the traditional name of the fleet of the Royal Navy that protects the United Kingdoms territorial waters. ...


Keyes saw the worsening international situation in late July of 1914 and cancelled all leave for his men. He moved his vessels and headquarters to Harwich to be closer to Germany, and was ready for war when it broke out on August 4, 1914.


World War One: submariner

When the war broke out, Keyes took command of the submarine force at Harwich on the south east of England. German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... (This article is about the town in England. ...


World War I: The Dardanelles

As Naval Chief of Staff to Vice-Admiral Sackville Carden, commander of the Royal Navy squadron off the Dardanelles during early 1915, Keyes was heavily involved in the organisation of the Dardanelles Campaign. In preperation for the forcing of the Dardanelles, Carden's fleet (including the newly dispatched HMS Queen Elizabeth) began to bombard the outer Turkish defences on February 15th. Admiral Sir Sackville Hamilton Carden, KCMG (1857-1930) was a British admiral who, in cooperation with the French Navy, commanded British naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea during World War I. Born in County Tipperary, Ireland, Carden entered service in the British navy in 1870. ... Combatants Britain, France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sackville Carden John de Robeck Unknown Strength 31 battleships 3 battlecruisers 24 cruisers 25 destroyers 8 monitors 14 submarines Unknown Casualties 6 battleships sunk 3 battleships damaged 1 battlecruiser damaged 1 destroyer sunk 8 submarines lost 2 battleships 1 destroyer 5 gunboats 50+ transports... As of 2004, only one ship of the Royal Navy has carried the name HMS Queen Elizabeth, though other ships of the name were or are planned. ...


However, after 15 days of slow progress, the bombardment was called off due to low ammunition stocks and fears of a newly laid Turkish minefield. Writing to his wife, Keyes expressed frustration at his superior's lack of imagination, arguing that "We must have a clear channel through the minefield for the ships to close to decisive range to hammer the forts and then land men to destroy the guns." Shortly afterwards, he volunteered to take charge of a minesweeping operation intended to clear the way for the bombarding ships.


After dark on the 13th of March, 6 trawlers and the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Amethyst attempted to clear the Kephez minefield. What had been hoped as a turning point in the Dardanelles Campaign turned into an unmitigated failure, as the Turkish mobile artillery pieces battered Keyes' minesweeping squadron. Heavy damage was inflicted on four of the six trawlers, while the Amerthyst was badly hit and had her steering gear damaged. Several ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Amethyst: Amethyst, launched in 1844, was a Spartan-class sixth-rate sail warship. ...


Upon hearing the news of his friend's failure First Sea Lord Winston Churchill pressed for a greater scope of attack, Vice-Admiral John de Robeck (Carden's newly appointed successor,) decided to employ his entire battleship force in a daylight assault on the Narrows. The minesweepers were to clear the mines, while the main fleet of Dreadnoughts would serve as protection against the Turkish batteries. Once again, Keyes was chosen to lead the minesweeping force. The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the British Royal Navy. ... John de Robeck was an admiral in the British Navy and commanded the naval force to win the Dardanelles during WWI. Dardanelles Campaign The naval campaign to win the straits and push on to Constantinople was nearly succesful due to a lack of ammunition on the Turkish side. ...


World War I: The Grand Fleet and Admiralty Plans

After the heartbreak of the Dardanelles operation, Keyes applied for a transfer back to the Grand Fleet. He was in Salonika finishing up when news arrived of the Battle of Jutland. He returned to England immediately and took command of the battleship HMS Centurion, assigned to the 2nd Battle Squadron. He was promoted Rear Admiral on April 10th, 1917. In June he was made second in command of the 4th Battle Squadron, under Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee. He flew his flag aboard HMS Colossus, Dudley Pound, captain. During World War I, the British Home Fleet was renamed the Grand Fleet. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland German Empire Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 armoured cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... HMS Victory in 1884 given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ... Eight ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Centurion, after the centurions of ancient Rome. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Sir Frederick Charles Doveton Sturdee, Bt. ... Four ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Colossus: Colossus (1787) - A 74-gun sail battleship of the Leviathan class, launched at Gravesend. ... Dudley Pound (August 29, 1877 - October 21, 1943) was a British naval officer who served as First Sea Lord, professional head of the Royal Navy from June 1939 to September 1943. ...


World War I: The Dover Patrol

On January 1st, 1918, Keyes took over command of the Dover Patrol.


World War I: Zeebrugge and Ostend

Toward the end of the war he planned and led the famous 1918 raids on German submarine pens in the Belgian ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend. Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ... Ostend (Dutch: Oostende, French: Ostende) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ...


Peacetime sailor again

For the first few months of peace Keyes remained at Dover, where there was much to do winding down the operation. His second son was born there. Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ...


Soon he was given command of the new Battlecruiser Squadron, hoisting his flag at Scapa Flow in HMS Lion. By 1920, he was flying his flag in the new HMS Hood. Hood deployed briefly to the Baltic Sea in 1920, when trouble with the Bolsheviks was in the offing, but it soon blew over. When his term in this position was over he went on half pay for a year pending a new appointment as Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff. He and his wife took their first holiday in years, including time spent visiting the Belgian Royal family, friends of theirs. Keyes was brought back six months early to take up his new position. Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom. ... Eighteen vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Lion, after the lion, an animal traditionally associated with courage, and also used in several heraldric motifs representing England and the British Monarchy. ... Three ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Hood after members of the Hood family, which produced several notable Navy officers: The first Hood, launched in 1859 as Edgar, was a second-rate ship of the line of 91 guns. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


His war services were rewarded by making him a baronet and giving him an award of 10,000 pounds. A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ...


In May 1925, Keyes took up a three year appointment as Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet, the premier active command in the Navy. He held the command until the spring of 1928. Many commentators hold that this fleet achieved its peak of efficiency under the restless direction of Keyes. While there he trained many of the younger officers who would achieve high command in World War Two. A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... Several countries have or have had a Mediterranean Fleet in their navy. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


In May 1929, Keyes took up the position of Commander in Chief, Portsmouth, the most important Home Command the Navy has. But, he was very disappointed not to be made First Sea Lord in 1930. The new Labour Government emphasized disarmament, and Keyes was an outspoken advocate of a strong Navy. Sir Frederick Field, a much lesser man, but one more amenable to political considerations, was appointed. The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the British Royal Navy. ...


The appointment as Admiral of the Fleet came in 1930. He hauled down his flag at Portsmouth on June 9th, 1931, his last naval command. He was 58. Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ...


Keyes and his wife bought a country home at Tingewick, near Buckingham, close to good fox hunting. On half pay with a large family, he wrote his memoirs to make money. They were a success. Buckingham is a town situated in north Buckinghamshire approximately 10 miles from the border with Northamptonshire. ...


Member of Parliament and the fight for a strong navy

Sir Roger Keyes was elected Member of Parliament for North Portsmouth as a Conservative in January, 1934. On the eve of the election, he was shocked to learn of the accidental death of his friend, King Albert I of Belgium. King George V asked Keyes to accompany the Prince of Wales to the funeral. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Albert I (April 8, 1875 – February 17, 1934) was the third King of the Belgians. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House of Windsor in 1917. ...


As an M.P. from the naval town of Portsmouth and a former career officer, it was to be expected that Keyes would concentrate on naval matters in Parliament. He fought disarmament and laboured mightily to have the Fleet Air Arm put back under the control of the navy. It had been put under the Royal Air Force in 1918 and was seriously neglected. Britain, from the front rank of naval aviation, had fallen well behind Japan and the United States by the mid-1930s. When the navy finally resumed responsibility in 1937, it was too late to repair the neglect of the interwar years. British aircraft carriers went into World War Two equipped with such obsolete planes as the Fairey Swordfish torpedo bomber, the Gloster Gladiator fighter and the Blackburn Skua, at a time when the Japanese flew the Mitsubishi Zero. It was through no fault of Keyes. Britain was to pay heavily starting as early as the Norwegian Campaign when the Gloster Gladiator was hopelessly outclassed by German land based aircraft. The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... The Gloster Gladiator was a biplane fighter, used by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, during World War II. The aircraft had a top speed of around 414 km/h. ... The Blackburn Skua was a naval combat aircraft operated by the British Fleet Air Arm and combined the dual functions of dive-bomber and fighter. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys...


Keyes was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the fall of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany. The delegation was led by Sir Austen Chamberlain, a former Foreign Secretary and its most prominent speakers included Winston Churchill, Leo Amery and the Marquis of Salisbury. Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ... The Rt. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain, PC (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Rt. ... The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Leopold Charles Maurice (or Moritz) Stennett Amery (22 November 1873 - 16 September 1955), was a British statesman and Conservative politician. ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (October 23, 1861 - April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ...


He was opposed to the Munich agreement that Neville Chamberlain made with Adolf Hitler in 1938, and along with Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, Louis Spears and Duff Cooper was one of the few who withheld support from the Government on this issue. Arthur Neville Chamberlain, PC (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... The Right Honourable Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... Major General Sir Edward Louis Spears, Bt KBE CB MC, (7 August 1886 – 27 January 1974) was a British army officer and Member of Parliament noted for his role as a liaison between British and French forces in two world wars. ... Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (February 22, 1890 - January 1, 1954), known universally as Duff Cooper, was a British diplomat, Cabinet member and acclaimed author. ...


He served in the House of Commons until raised to the peerage as Baron Keyes of Zeebrugge and Dover in January of 1943. British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ...


World War II: Belgian mission: part one

When World War Two broke out Keyes was very anxious to obtain active service. But all senior positions were filled, he was just short of his 67th birthday and he had made enemies with criticisms of senior naval officers in the period before the war. He continued with his "suggestions" in Parliament during the first month of the war, especially deploring the loss of an aircraft carrier, HMS Courageous, on September 17, 1939, sent on an antisubmarine mission he thought foolish. His former Chief of Staff, Dudley Pound, now First Sea Lord, was especially wounded by the criticism. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Several ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Courageous or Courageux (the French spelling). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Dudley Pound (August 29, 1877 - October 21, 1943) was a British naval officer who served as First Sea Lord, professional head of the Royal Navy from June 1939 to September 1943. ... The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the British Royal Navy. ...


But a job was soon at hand. Keyes had long been friends with the King of Belgium, Leopold III. It was his habit to visit the King at his Palace in Brussels from time to time. Léopold III, Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel (November 3, 1901 – September 25, 1983) reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of his Heir Apparent, his son Baudouin. ...


Belgium was allied with France after World War One, but in 1937, fearing the rise of Hitler, and seeing the French aquiesce in the German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936, the Belgians announced their conversion to neutrality. They cut off all the flow of information from the Belgian Army to the French Army. But in the fall of 1939 Leopold was worried. What if the Germans attacked France through Belgium? Would the British and French quickly come to his aid? Brussels was filled with German spies and he dared not openly approach the Allies, lest he give Hitler a pretext to attack. He wouldn't risk an Allied military conference. He looked for an informal approach and thought of his old friend, now retired. Keyes knew everyone in authority in Britain. Leopold trusted him. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... The Belgian Army forms the land component of the Belgian Armed Forces. ... French soldiers of the IFOR in Mostar, 1995. ... Hotel de Ville de Bruxelles Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, pronounced ; French: Bruxelles, pronounced in Belgian French and often by non-Belgian speakers of French; German: Brüssel) is the capital of... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of...


One evening in mid-October 1939, Keyes had a visitor at his London home in Chelsea. It was an emissary from the King of Belgium, asking him to visit Brussels right away. Keyes quickly obtained official approval for the visit and was briefed on Britain's position vis-à-vis Belgium. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ...


He started for Belgium immediately and met with the King on October 18 in Brussels. The King once more stated his desire to keep Belgium out of the war and to refrain from any act designed to antagonize Hitler. He felt that his army was much stronger than in August 1914 and could hold off the Germans until the Allied armies could arrive. How soon would the Allies arrive? Keyes responded that the Allies were not prepared to leave France unless they were given specific information on Belgian plans, deployments and defences. He finally persuaded the King that the necessary information and planning could be done quietly between the British military attache in Brussels and the King's military advisor, General van Overstraten. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ...


This understanding obtained by Keyes was of great value to Allied planning. Keyes was subsequently productively used as a link between Leopold and the British Government. But in January 1940, a German plane taking a short cut over a corner of Belgium, crashed in the country, carrying the German plans for an attack on Belgium. Word of this got out and many Belgians publicly made anti-German statements. Certain Belgian officials carelessly gossiped about Keyes' visits and the French asked for a similar liaison. As a result, German threats grew more menacing and Keyes discontinued his visits.


But he had already obtained permission for Allied staff officers to visit their counterparts in Brussels provided they wore civilian clothing and had civilian passports.


World War Two: Norway and the Fall of Chamberlain

The German assault on Norway on April 9, 1940, roused Keyes. It was a campaign that related to much of his past experience—amphibious landings, as at the Dardanelles; scope for using small boats and storming positions from the sea, as at Zeebrugge; and the using of initiative, as during the Boxer Rebellion. But most of all, Keyes was frustrated by a lack of an aggressive spirit in the war to date. Here was a chance for decisive action. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ... Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; Pinyin: Yìhétuán Qǐyì; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) or Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂 or 義和團匪亂) was a Chinese rebellion against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final...


Keyes reached an independent conclusion that the regaining of Trondheim was the key to victory in Norway. He immediately advocated the forcing of Trondheim Fjord by battleships and the landing of a military force to recapture the city. Keyes sought an interview with Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty and finally got one on April 16. He submitted an outline plan to seize the city and offered to lead the expedition. If the Admiralty did not wish to hazard newer ships, he would take in old battleships. County Sør-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (A) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ...


The chiefs of staff reached similar conclusions, with the addition of subsidiary landings north at Namsos and south at Andalsnes. However, they dithered back and forth about whether to send capital ships into Trondheimsfjord. After yes and no, they sent the troops into Namsos and Andalsnes and then decided not to force the fjord. This was the worst decision as German destroyers dominated the fjord, no airfields were seized to provide air cover and troops earmarked for the centre prong were never landed. The southern prong was soon drawn into fighting further south and the commander of the northern prong, Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton De Wiart , who pushed through to the fjord, found his troops shelled by destroyers, attacked from the air and by ski troops, with German ships landing soldiers in his rear. In April and early May, 1940 Namsos was the scene of heavy fighting in World War Two between Anglo-French naval and military forces and German military and air forces. ... Åndalsnes is a Norwegian town in the municipality of Rauma, of which it is also the administrative center. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, KBE, CB, CMG, DSO, (May 5, 1880 - June 5, 1963), was a British officer of Belgian and Irish descent. ...


The combination of Roger Keyes as naval commander and Adrian Carton De Wiart, V.C. as military commander at Trondheim might have dramatically changed the course of the Norwegian Campaign. Though both men were getting on in years, one was the most aggressive and imaginative naval leader Britain had in the Twentieth Century and the other was sheer aggression tempered by experience. Whatever happened, there would have been no half measures. Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, KBE, CB, CMG, DSO, (May 5, 1880 - June 5, 1963), was a British officer of Belgian and Irish descent. ... Victoria Cross, Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Victoria Cross (official post-nominal letters VC) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys...


When both columns were evacuated in early May 1940, Keyes was apoplectic. There was shock in Britain. Parliament gathered to debate matters on May 7th and 8th, 1940. The first speaker was Keyes. See Norway Debate for fuller details. The Norway Debate was a famous debate in the British House of Commons that took place on May 7 and May 8, 1940. ...


Making a dramatic entrance in the full uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet, including medals, Keyes gained the full attention and respect of the House of Commons. He could speak on this topic with greater authority than anyone else in the country. He said that he dressed in uniform because he wanted to speak for his friends among the fighting sea-going navy, who were very unhappy. It was not the fault of the navy. Leadership of the war effort was the problem. It is commonly felt that the intervention of Keyes was the beginning of the end for the government of Neville Chamberlain. Other speakers followed his attack, notably Leo Amery and David Lloyd George. The government fell two days later on May 10, 1940, and Winston Churchill became Prime Minister. Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain, PC (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Leopold Charles Maurice (or Moritz) Stennett Amery (22 November 1873 - 16 September 1955), was a British statesman and Conservative politician. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


The Belgian mission: part two

When the Germans invaded Belgium on May 10th, 1940, Keyes was sent as personal liaison between the prime minister, Winston Churchill, and the King of Belgium, who was also commander in chief of the Belgian forces. Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ...


World War II: the Commandos

During World War Two Keyes was the first Director of Combined Operations, the Commandos. His tenure was from July 17, 1940, to October 27, 1941. He found this a frustrating job, as he was dependent on other branches and units of the armed forces for troops, equipment, transport, air cover and information. These commands were naturally not wishing to divert resources to something new and untried. Not the best use of an old fire eater. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The French Navy commando Jaubert storm the Alcyon in a mock assault. ...


However Keyes laid the foundations for the Commandos later success. He was 69 years old and it was time to slow down.


Politics and goodwill tour

Keyes remained active in the House of Commons after leaving the Commandos and also spent time working for the National Savings Campaign. During this period he suffered a detached retina and slowly went blind in one eye.


He entered the House of Lords on being created Baron Keyes on 22nd January 1943.


In July 1944, at the request of the Government, Keyes undertook a goodwill tour of Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This made sense, for though he is not a well known figure now, during the 1920's and 1930's he was one of the British Empire's greatest heroes.


Keyes and his wife travelled via the U.S.A., staying for a few days en route with Bernard Baruch on Long Island. After a visit to an ailing General John Pershing, they went on to Canada, making speeches in Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver. From here he went on to Australia and New Zealand, as well as touring war zones in the Pacific. But his health was going fast now. His heart was giving out. 8Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier, stock market and commodities speculator, statesman, and presidential adviser. ... Mercator projection of Long Island Long Island is an island in New York, USA. At 1,377 square miles (3567 km²) and 7. ... General John Pershing John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Quebec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Term Andrée P. Boucher 2005-2009 Federal Members of Parliament... City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 366. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location City Information Established: 1850 as Bytown Area: 2,778. ... Motto: Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Area: 465. ... Motto: Heart of the new west Area: 712. ... Vancouver (pronounced ) is a Canadian city in the province of British Columbia. ...


Keyes reached home in April 1945, having logged 35,000 miles in his goodwill tour.


Family life and last days

Ill health prevented him doing much to help his beleagured old friend, Léopold III of Belgium, at the end of the war. His life was ebbing away. Léopold III, Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel (November 3, 1901 – September 25, 1983) reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of his Heir Apparent, his son Baudouin. ...


Roger Keyes and his wife were happily married and had five children, three daughters and two sons, as well as a number of grandchildren. In later years they maintained homes in the country and in the London district of Chelsea. Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ...


In December 1941, his eldest son, Lieutenant Colonel Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, VC, MC, CdeG, SCOTS GREYS, was killed in action at Beda Littoria, Libya, during the famous commando raid on the Headquarters of the General Officer Commanding the German Forces in North Africa - at the time General Erwin Rommell. In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Lieutenant-Colonel The Honourable Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, VC MC CdeG SCOTS GREYS, (18 May 1917 - 18 November 1941) was awarded the Victoria Cross during the Second World War. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ... Military Cross The Military Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army, and formerly also to officers of the armies of other Commonwealth countries, for distinguished and meritorious services in battle. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Scots Greys was the unofficial and later official name of a dragoon regiment of the British Army from 1678 until 1971, when they amalgamated to form The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys). ... Field Marshal Erwin Rommel Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (November 15, 1891–October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals and commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps in World War II. He is also known by his nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs). ...


Keyes died on December 26, 1945, at Buckingham, England. He was 73 years old. After a funeral at Westminster Abbey, he was buried at Dover in a cemetery reserved for those who fell at Zeebrugge. He is commemorated, along with his eldest son, on a plaque in the Crypt of St Paul's Cathedral. December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Buckingham is a town situated in north Buckinghamshire approximately 10 miles from the border with Northamptonshire. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ...


He was succeeded by Roger George Bowley Keyes.


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Roger Keyes (6618 words)
Keyes was born on October 4, 1872, at Tundiani Fort on the North West Frontier Province of India, where his father commanded the; Punjab Frontier force, and had achieved a reputation as an heroic figure.
Keyes was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the autumn of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany.
Roger Keyes and his wife were happily married and had five children, three daughters and two sons, as well as a number of grandchildren.
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Admiral of the Fleet Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes (1872 – 1945) was a noted British admiral and hero,...
Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Na...
John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
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