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Encyclopedia > Roger Bacon

For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). Roger Stuart Bacon (born 1926) is a retired Nova Scotia politician. ...

Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum
Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum

Roger Bacon, O.F.M. (c. 12141294), also known as Doctor Mirabilis (Latin: "wonderful teacher"), was one of the most famous Franciscan friars of his time. An English philosopher who placed considerable emphasis on empiricism, he was one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method. Download high resolution version (700x694, 48 KB)Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Download high resolution version (700x694, 48 KB)Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...

Contents

Life

Roger Bacon was born in Ilminster in Somerset in 1214, and not as some believe near Ilchester in Somerset, though he has also been claimed by Bisley in Gloucestershire. His date of birth is equally uncertain. The only source is his statement in the Opus Tertium, written in 1267, that forty years have passed since I first learned the alphabet. The 1214 birth date assumes he was not being literal, and meant 40 years had passed since he matriculated at Oxford at the age of 13. If he had been literal, his birth date was more likely around 1220. In the same passage he reports that for all but two of those forty years he had always been engaged in study.[1] His family appears to have been well-off, but, during the stormy reign of Henry III of England, their property was despoiled and several members of the family were driven into exile. Ilminster is a quiet country town in the countryside of south west Somerset, England, with a population of 4,781[1]. Bypassed a few years ago, the town now lies just east of the intersection of the A303 (London to Exeter) and the A358 (Taunton to Chard and Axminster). ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Ilchester is a village and civil parish, situated on the River Yeo five miles north of Yeovil, in the English county of Somerset. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


Bacon studied and later became a Master at Oxford, lecturing on Aristotle. There is no evidence he was ever awarded a doctorate — the title Doctor Mirabilis was posthumous and figurative. Sometime between 1237 and 1245, he began to lecture at the university of Paris, then the center of intellectual life in Europe. His whereabouts between 1247 and 1256 are uncertain, but about 1256 he became a Friar in the Franciscan Order. As a Franciscan Friar, Bacon no longer held a teaching post and after 1260, his activities were further restricted by a Franciscan statute forbidding Friars from publishing books or pamphlets without specific approval.[2] Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 ( 2001 census). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...


Bacon circumvented this restriction through his acquaintance with Cardinal Guy le Gros de Foulques, who became Pope Clement IV in 1265. The new Pope issued a mandate ordering Bacon to write to him concerning the place of philosophy within theology. As a result Bacon sent the Pope his Opus Majus, which presented his views on how the philosophy of Aristotle and the new science could be incorporated into a new Theology. Besides the Opus maius Bacon also sent his Opus minus, De multiplicatione specierum, and, perhaps, other works on alchemy and astrology.[3] Pope Clement IV (Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year uncertain – November 29, 1268 in Viterbo), born Gui Faucoi le Gros (English: Guy Foulques the Fat; Italian: Guido il Grosso), was elected Pope February 15, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while cardinals argued over... Bacons optic studies, from Opus Majus The Opus Majus was a work written by Roger Bacon during the Middle Ages and was his most and important book. ...


Pope Clement died in 1268, and sometime between 1277 and 1279, Bacon was placed under house arrest by Jerome of Ascoli, the Minister-General of the Franciscan Order. Bacon's difficulties are probably related to the Condemnations of 1277, which banned the teaching of certain philosophical doctrines, including deterministic astrology. Sometime after 1278 Bacon returned to the Franciscan House at Oxford, where he continued his studies.[4] Pope Nicholas IV (Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), born Girolamo Masci, was Pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. ... This is a list of the ministers general of the Order of Friars Minor; // Francis of Assisi (1210-1226) Johannes Parenti (1227-1232) 1st Minister general Elias of Cortona (1232-1239) 2nd Minister general Albert of Pisa (1239-1240) 3rd Minister general Haymo of Faversham (1240-1243) 4th Minister general... The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted with papal authority to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. ...


Changing interpretations of Bacon

Bacon performed and described various experiments, which were for a time claimed as the first instances of true experimental science, some 500 years before the rise of science in the West. This widely held interpretation of Bacon as a modern experimental scientist, emerging before his time, originated in the nineteenth century. This image reflected the emphasis, dominant at that time, upon experiment as the principal form of scientific activity and the general acceptance of the characterization of the Middle Ages as the "Dark Ages".[5] Some writers of this period, such as Andrew Dickson White, carried the account further by describing a concerted opposition to Bacon's ideas in which he was repeatedly persecuted and imprisoned as part of a medieval "Warfare of Science with Theology."[6] In this view Bacon would be an advocate of modern experimental science who somehow emerged as an isolated figure in an age supposed to be hostile toward scientific ideas. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Andrew Dickson White in 1885 Andrew Dickson White (November 7, 1832 – November 4, 1918) was a U.S. diplomat, author, and educator, best known as the co-founder of Cornell University. ... Galileo before the Holy Office by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, a classic depiction of science clashing with religion The conflict thesis, also known as the warfare thesis, the warfare model or the Draper-White thesis, is an interpretive model of the relationship between religion and science. ...


In the course of the twentieth century the philosophical understanding of the role of experiment in the sciences has been substantially modified. And new historical research has shown not only that medieval Christians were not generally opposed to science,[7][8] but also revealed the extent and variety of medieval scientific activity. Consequently, the picture of Bacon has changed. His advocacy of scientia experimentalis has been argued to differ from modern experimental science,[9] and many medieval sources of and influences on his scientific activity have been identified.[10] In relation to this, one recent study summarized that: "Bacon was not a modern, out of step with his age, or a harbinger of things to come, but a brilliant, combative, and somewhat eccentric schoolman of the thirteenth century, endeavoring to take advantage of the new learning just becoming available while remaining true to traditional notions… of the importance to be attached to philosophical knowledge".[11] The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ...


As to his assumed persecution for science, although texts indicate that Bacon was briefly confined for his doctrinal digressions, some modern accounts of his life show no evidence for any lengthy period of imprisonment and modern historians speak of his "alleged imprisonment."[12] As the historian of science David Lindberg writes: "his imprisonment, if it occurred at all (which I doubt) probably resulted with his sympathies for the radical "poverty" wing of the Franciscans (a wholly theological matter) rather than from any scientific novelties which he may have proposed".[13] Others do still argue that the Franciscans kept Bacon in isolated confinement for many years, and prevented from teaching his scientific views. Bacon is quoted as writing in 1267, about his time in a small cell in Paris, "…for my superiors and brothers, disciplining me with hunger, kept me under close guard and would not permit anyone to come to me, fearing that my writings would be divulged to others [rather] than to the chief pontiff and themselves," and that they treated him with "unspeakable violence" and "for ten years had been exiled from former University fame."[14] David C. Lindberg is an American historian of science. ...


A recent review of the variety of visions that each age has held about Roger Bacon says contemporary scholarship still neglects one of the most important aspects of Bacon's life and thought: his commitment to the Franciscan order. "His Opus maius was a plea for reform addressed to the supreme spiritual head of the Christian faith, written against a background of apocalyptic expectation and informed by the driving concerns of the friars. It was designed to improve training for missionaries and to provide new skills to be employed in the defence of the Christian world against the enmity of non-Christians and of the Antichrist. It cannot usefully be read solely in the context of the history of science and philosophy."[15] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ...


His works

Optic studies by Bacon
Optic studies by Bacon

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (336x664, 49 KB) Summary Roger Bacons circular diagrams relating to the scientific study of optics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (336x664, 49 KB) Summary Roger Bacons circular diagrams relating to the scientific study of optics. ... See also list of optical topics. ...

His view of the past

The scientific training Bacon had received showed him the defects in existing academic debate. Aristotle was known only through translations, as none of the professors would learn Greek; the same was true of Scripture and many of the other auctores ("authorities") referenced in traditional education. In contrast to Aristotle's argument that facts be collected before deducing scientific truths, physical science was not carried out by experiment, but by arguments based solely on tradition and prescribed authorities (see Scholasticism). For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...


Bacon withdrew from the scholastic routine and devoted himself to languages and experimental research. The mathematicians whom he considered perfect were Peter of Maricourt and a John of London, and two were adequate: Campanus of Novara and a Master Nicholas. Peter was the author of a manuscript treatise, "De Magnete," and Campanus wrote several important works on astronomy, astrology, and the calendar.[16] Bacon often mentioned his debt to the work of Robert Grosseteste and Adam Marsh, as well as to other lesser figures. He was clearly not an isolated scholar in the thirteenth century.[17] Peter of Maricourt (13th century), a French savant, to whom his disciple, Roger Bacon, pays the highest tribute in his opus tertium and other works. ... Johannes Campanus (in Italian, Giovanni Campano; also known as Campanus of Novara or similar) (1220-1296) was an Italian astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician who devised a house system for the horoscope which bears his name. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... Adam Marsh (Adam de Marisco) (d. ...


A new approach

In his writings, Bacon calls for a reform of theological study. Less emphasis should be placed on minor philosophical distinctions than had been the case in scholasticism. Instead, the Bible itself should return to the centre of attention and theologians should thoroughly study the languages in which their original sources were composed. He was fluent in several languages and lamented the corruption of the holy texts and the works of the Greek philosophers by numerous mistranslations and misinterpretations. Furthermore, he urged all theologians to study all sciences closely, and to add them to the normal university curriculum. With regard to the obtaining of knowledge, he strongly championed experimental study over reliance on authority, arguing that "thence cometh quiet to the mind". Bacon did not restrict this approach to theological studies. He rejected the blind following of prior authorities, both in theological and scientific study, which was the accepted method of undertaking study in his day.


In the Opus Minus he criticizes his contemporaries Alexander of Hales and Albertus Magnus who, he says, had not studied the philosophy of Aristotle but only acquired their learning during their life as preachers.[18] Albert was received at Paris as an authority equal to Aristotle, Avicenna, and Averroes[19] and "never in the world [had] such monstrosity occurred before."[20] Bacon was always an outspoken man who stated what he believed to be true and attacked those with whom he disagreed, which repeatedly caused him great trouble. Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


Legacy

Bacon possessed one of the most commanding intellects of his age, or perhaps of any, and, notwithstanding all the disadvantages and discouragements to which he was subjected, made many discoveries, and came near to many others. His Opus Majus contains treatments of mathematics and optics, alchemy and the manufacture of gunpowder, the positions and sizes of the celestial bodies, and anticipates later inventions such as microscopes, telescopes, spectacles, flying machines, hydraulics and steam ships. Bacon studied astrology and believed that the celestial bodies had an influence on the fate and mind of humans. The study of optics in part five of Opus Majus seems to draw on the works of the Arab writers Kindi and Alhazen, including a discussion of the physiology of eyesight, the anatomy of the eye and the brain, and considers light, distance, position, and size, direct vision, reflected vision, and refraction, mirrors and lenses. He is credited with the invention of the magnifying glass. Bacons optic studies, from Opus Majus The Opus Majus was a work written by Roger Bacon during the Middle Ages and was his most and important book. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. ...


Bacon also wrote a criticism of the Julian calendar which was then still in use. He first recognized the visible spectrum in a glass of water, four centuries before Sir Isaac Newton discovered that prisms could disassemble and reassemble white light. The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Visible light redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


He was an enthusiastic proponent and practitioner of the experimental method of acquiring knowledge about the world. He planned to publish a comprehensive encyclopedia, but only fragments ever appeared. The American pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce said of him that "To Roger Bacon, that remarkable mind who in the middle of the thirteenth century was almost a scientific man, the schoolmen's conception of reasoning appeared only an obstacle to truth. He saw that experience alone teaches anything…. Of all kinds of experience, the best, he thought, was interior illumination, which teaches many things about Nature which the external senses could never discover, such as the transubstantiation of bread."[21] Cyclopedia redirects here. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ...


Other attributed works

Roger Bacon is considered by some to be the author of the Voynich Manuscript, because of his studies in the fields of alchemy, astrology, and languages. Bacon is also the ascribed author of the alchemical manual Speculum Alchemiae, which was translated into English as The Mirror of Alchimy in 1597. The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


In fiction

Probably the most comprehensive and accessible description of Roger Bacon's life and times to a modern reader is contained in the book Doctor Mirabilis, written in 1964 by the science fiction writer James Blish. This is the second book in Blish's quasi-religious trilogy After Such Knowledge, and is a complete, at times biographical recounting of Bacon's life and struggle to develop a 'Universal Science'. Though thoroughly academically researched, with a host of accurate references, including extensive use of Bacon's own writings, frequently in the original Latin, the book is written in the style of a novel, and Blish himself referred to it as 'fiction' or 'a vision'. James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Blish's view of Bacon is uncompromisingly that he was the first scientist, and he provides a postscript to the novel in which he sets forth these views. Central to his depiction of Roger Bacon is that 'He was not an inventor, an Edison or Luther Burbank, holding up a test tube with a shout of Eureka!' He was instead a theoretical scientist probing fundamental realities, and his visions of modern technology were just by-products of "…the way he normally thought - the theory of theories as tools…" Blish indicates where Bacon's writings, for example, consider Newtonian metrical frameworks for space, then reject these for something which reads remarkably like Einsteinian Relativity, and all '...breathtakingly without pause or hiccup, breezily moving without any recourse through over 800 years of physics'. Einstein redirects here. ...


Many writers of earlier times have been attracted to Roger Bacon as the epitome of a wise and subtle possessor of forbidden knowledge, similar to Faustus. A succession of legends and unverifiable stories has grown up about him, for example, that he created a brazen talking head which could answer any question. This has a central role in the play Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay written by Robert Greene in about 1589. Faust is the protagonist of a popular German tale that has been used as the basis for many different fictional works. ... A Brazen Head (or Brass Head or Bronze Head) was a prophetic device attributed to many medieval scholars who were believed to be wizards. ... The Honourable History of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay is an Elizabethan era stage play, a comedy written by Robert Greene. ... Robert Greene Robert Greene, BA, MA, (1558 – September 3, 1592) was an English playwright, poet, pamphleteer, and prose writer. ...


This more legendary view of Roger Bacon shows up as a major character in John Bellairs' book The Face in the Frost.[22] In particular, quoting this fictional Bacon: Image:Notre Dame years. ... The Face in the Frost is a short 1969 fantasy novel by the author John Bellairs. ...

"…and so I went to work on a brazen head that was going to tell me how to encircle England with a wall of brass, to keep out marauding Danes and other riffraff."

In his children's books, Bellairs also had characters refer to Roger Bacon when quoting esoteric knowledge.


Many references to Roger Bacon occur in the novel The Name of the Rose by Italian author and professor of semiotics, Umberto Eco. In the text the main protagonist, the fictional monk William of Baskerville, refers to Bacon as his 'master'. He also alludes to many of his discoveries, including those in optics. For the feature-length film of the same story, see The Name of the Rose (film). ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ...


Roger Bacon also surfaces in Umberto Eco's novel Foucault's Pendulum, described as a rogue magician. Foucaults Pendulum (original title: Il pendolo di Foucault) is a novel by Italian novelist and philosopher Umberto Eco. ...



A greatly fictionalised version of Roger Bacon appears in the role-playing Video game series Shadow Hearts, wherein Bacon is portrayed as an insane (but harmless, and well-meaning) thousand-year-old hermit living in pre-World War I Europe. Roger Bacon has also appeared in the game's sequels and prequel, Koudelka. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shadow Hearts is a small series of role-playing games for the Sony PlayStation 2. ...


Bacon also features in Staton Rabin's children's adventure Black Powder. In this time travel story, a twenty-first century youth travels back to attempt to stop the development of gunpowder in the West.


Most recently, Bacon is a character in Stephen Baxter's novel Navigator, the third volume in his "Time's Tapestry" quartet. Stephen Baxter (born in Liverpool, 13 November 1957) is a British hard science fiction author. ...


Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Roger Bacon

Bacon's approach is well-characterized by two quotations from his works: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics."

Opus Majus, bk. 1, ch. 4

Mathematics is the gate and key of the sciences. …Neglect of mathematics works injury to all knowledge, since he who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or the things of this world."

Opus Majus

I am a delicious breakfast meat."

Opus Majus, bk. 1, ch. 2

See also

Roger Bacon High School is a parochial high school in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA based in the Franciscan Tradition. ... The Oxford Franciscan school was the name given to a group of scholastic philosophers that, in the context of the Renaissance of the 12th century, gave special contribution to the development of science and scientific methodology during the High Middle Ages. ... The history of the scientific method is indivisible from the history of science itself. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Witelo - also known as Erazmus Ciolek Witelo, Witelon, Vitellio, Vitello, Vitello Thuringopolonis, Erazm Ciołek, (born ca. ... Baco is a lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged southern highlands on the near side of the Moon. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon: His Life, Career, and Works," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 9–11.
  2. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon: His Life, Career, and Works," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 13–17.
  3. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon: His Life, Career, and Works," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 17–19.
  4. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon: His Life, Career, and Works," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 19–20.
  5. ^ William Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences from the Earliest Times to the Present Times, vol. 1, New York, 1859, p. 245; cited in Jeremiah Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, p. 279
  6. ^ Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, chapter 12, part 1.[1]
  7. ^ When Science & Christianity Meet, By Donald R. Shanor, David C. Lindberg, Ronald L. Numbers, p. 8
  8. ^ Quotation: "If revolutionary rational thoughts were expressed in the Age of Reason [the 18th century], they were only made possible because of the long medieval tradition that established the use of reason as one of the most important of human activities". (p. 9) In: Edward Grant: God and Reason in the Middle Ages, Cambridge 2001.
  9. ^ David C. Lindberg, Roger Bacon and the Origins of Perspectiva in the Middle Ages: A Critical Edition and English Translation of Bacon's Perspectiva with Introduction and Notes, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, p. lv ISBN 0-19-823992-0
  10. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon on Scientia Experimentalis," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 279–84
  11. ^ Lindberg, "Science as Handmaiden," p. 520
  12. ^ Steven J. Williams, "Roger Bacon and His Edition of the Pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum secretorum," Speculum, 69 (1994): 57–73, see p. 71, n. 74.
  13. ^ (p. 70) Lindberg, D.C. (1995). "Medieval Science and Its Religious Context". Osiris 10: 60–79. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. 
  14. ^ Lawrence Goldstone and Nancy Goldstone (2006). The Friar and the Cipher: Roger Bacon and the Unsolved Mystery of the Most Unusual Manuscript in the World. Broadway Books. ISBN 0767914724. 
  15. ^ (p. 692) Power, A. (2006). "A Mirror for Every Age: The Reputation of Roger Bacon". The English Historical Review 121 (492): 657-692. doi:10.1093/ehr/cel102. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. 
  16. ^ George Molland, "Roger Bacon's Knowledge of Mathematics," pp. 151-174 in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences.
  17. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon: His Life, Career, and Works," in Hackett, Roger Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 11-12.
  18. ^ Jeremiah Hackett, "Roger Bacon on the Classification of the Sciences," in Hackett, Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 49, 51-2
  19. ^ Stewart C. Easton, Roger Bacon and his Search for a Universal Science, New York: Columbia Univ. Pr., 1952, pp. 210-219
  20. ^ Richard LeMay, "Roger Bacon's Attitude toward the Latin Translations and Translators of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, in Hackett, Bacon and the Sciences, pp. 40-41
  21. ^ Charles Sanders Peirce (1877). The Fixation of Belief.
  22. ^ Bellairs, John (1986). The Face In The Frost. Ace. 0-441-22531-4. 

David C. Lindberg is an American historian of science. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Roger Bacon", a publication now in the public domain.
  • This article incorporates public domain text from: Cousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London, J.M. Dent & sons; New York, E.P. Dutton.
  • Clegg, Brian (2003). The First Scientist: A Life of Roger Bacon. Constable & Robinson. ISBN 0-7867-1358-5. 
  • Easton, Stewart C. Roger Bacon and his Search for a Universal Science, New York: Columbia Univ. Pr., 1952.
  • Hackett, Jeremiah, ed. Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 57, Leiden: Brill, 1997. ISBN 90-04-10015-6
  • Lindberg, David C. "Science as Handmaiden: Roger Bacon and the Patristic Tradition," Isis, 78 (1987): 518–36; reprinted in Michael H. Shank, ed., The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000. ISBN 0-226-74951-7

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John W. Cousin, published around 1910. ... David C. Lindberg is an American historian of science. ...

External links

  • "Roger Bacon" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Feynman got it wrong article on Roger Bacon's place in the history of science
  • Roger Bacon Quotes at Convergence

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roger Bacon (3371 words)
Roger Bacon (1214-1294), also known as Doctor Mirabilis (Latin: "wonderful teacher"), was an English philosopher who placed considerable emphasis on empiricism, and is thought of as one of the earliest advocates of the modern scientific method.
Roger Bacon studied at Oxford, lectured on Aristotle and later became a Franciscan friar and a professor at Oxford.
Bacon's abilities were soon recognised, and he enjoyed the friendship of such eminent men as Adam de Marisco[?] and Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln.
Roger Bacon - LoveToKnow 1911 (3096 words)
Roger completed his studies at Oxford, though not, as current traditions assert, at Merton or at Brasenose, neither of which had then been founded.
In this work Bacon makes a vehement attack upon the ignorance and vices of the clergy and monks, and generally upon the insufficiency of the existing studies.
Bacon then discusses vision in a right line, the laws of reflection and refraction, and the construction of mirrors and lenses.
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