FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Roderick Murchison
Sir Roderick Murchison
Sir Roderick Murchison

Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (February 19, 1792October 22, 1871), was an influential Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian era. Found at http://www. ... Found at http://www. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe and a constituent nation of the United Kingdom. ... A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 439 million years ago (mega years ago, mya), to the beginning of the Devonian period, about 408. ...


He was born at Tarradale, in Ross-shire, Scotland, the son of Kenneth Murchison (died 1796). He attended Durham grammar school, and then the military college at Great Marlow to be trained for the army. In 1808 he landed with Wellesley in Galicia, and was present at the actions of Roliça and Vimiero. Subsequently under Sir John Moore he took part in the retreat to Corunna and the final battle there. Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois in Gaelic), a traditional county of Scotland, borders on Sutherland, Cromartyshire (of which it contains many enclaves), Inverness-shire and on an exclave of Nairnshire. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe and a constituent nation of the United Kingdom. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city in the north east of England. ... The Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, PC, FRS (1 May 1769–14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ... Motto: Capital Santiago de Compostela Official languages Galician and Castilian Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 7th  29 574 km²  5,8% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 5th  2 737 370  6,5%  92,36/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Galician  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Portuguese  Galician  galego  gallego  galego Statute of Autonomy April... The Battle of Roliça was fought on August 17, 1808 near the village of Roliça in Portugal, between the British under the Duke of Wellington and the French under General Delaborde. ... The Battle of Vimeiro was fought on August 20, 1808 and resulted the victory of the British under the Duke of Wellington against the French under General Junot. ... Sir John Moore (November 13, 1761 – January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ... A Coruña province A Coruña (Spanish, La Coruña), is a province of extreme northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Galicia. ...


After eight years of service he left the army, and married the daughter of General Hugonin, of Nursted House, Hampshire. They spent two years in Europe, particularly in Italy. They then settled in England in 1818, and Murchison made the acquaintance of Sir Humphry Davy, who urged him to turn his energy to science. He became fascinated by the young science of geology. He joined the Geological Society of London and soon showed himself one of its most active members. His colleagues there included Adam Sedgwick, William Conybeare, William Buckland, William Fitton and Charles Lyell. Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was a Cornish chemist. ... The Geological Society of London is a learned society based in the United Kingdom with the aim of investigating the mineral structure of the Earth. It is the oldest geological society in the world. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... William Daniel Conybeare (June 7, 1787 - August 12, 1857) was an English geologist and paleontologist. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... William Henry Fitton (January 1780 - May 13, 1861) was a British geologist Fitton was born in Dublin and educated at Trinity College in that city. ... Charles Lyell Sir Charles Lyell (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), British lawyer, geologist, and popularizer of uniformitarianism. ...


Exploring with his wife, the geology of the south of England, he devoted special attention to the rocks of the north-west of Sussex and the adjoining parts of Hampshire and Surrey, on which, aided by Fitton, he wrote his first scientific paper, read to the society in 1825. Turning his attention to Continental geology, he explored with Lyell the volcanic region of Auvergne, parts of southern France, northern Italy, Tyrol and Switzerland. A little later, with Sedgwick as his companion, he attacked the difficult problem of the geological structure of the Alps, and their joint paper giving the results of their study is one of the classics in the literature of Alpine geology. Sussex as a traditional county. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, one of the Home Counties. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... This article is about the Tyrol, the region in the eastern Alps. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. ...


In 1831 he went to the border of England and Wales, to attempt to discover whether the greywacke rocks underlying the Old Red Sandstone could be grouped into a definite order of succession. The result was the establishment of the Silurian system under which were grouped for the first time a remarkable series of formations, each replete with distinctive organic remains other than and very different from those of the other rocks of England. These researches, together with descriptions of the coal-fields and overlying formations in south Wales and the English border counties, were embodied in The Silurian System (1839). National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 439 million years ago (mega years ago, mya), to the beginning of the Devonian period, about 408. ...


The establishment of the Silurian system was followed by that of the Devonian system, an investigation in which Murchison assisted, both in the south-west of England and in the Rhineland. Soon afterwards Murchison projected an important geological campaign in Russia with the view of extending to that part of the Continent the classification he had succeeded in elaborating for the older rocks of western Europe. He was accompanied by Edouard de Verneuil (1805 - 1873) and Count Alexander von Keyserling (1815 - 1891), in conjunction with whom he produced a work on Russia and the Ural Mountains. The publication of this monograph in 1845 completes the first and most active half of Murchison’s scientific career. The Devonian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Silurian period (360 million years ago (mya)) to the beginning of the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous (408. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Phillippe Edouard Poulletier de Verneuil (February 13, 1805 - May 29, 1873) was a French paleontologist. ... Alexander Friedrich Michael Lebrecht Nikolaus Arthur, graf von Keyserling (August 15, 1815 - May 8, 1891) was a German geologist and paleontologist. ... The Ural Mountains (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


In 1846 he was knighted, and in the same year he presided over the meeting of the British Association at Southampton. During the later years of his life a large part of his time was devoted to the affairs of the Royal Geographical Society, of which he was in 1830 one of the founders, and he was president 1843-1845, 1851-1853, 1856-1859 and 1862-1871. The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... Civic Centre, Southampton Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a learned society, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the African Association founded by Joseph Banks in 1788. ...


The chief geological investigation of the last decade of his life was devoted to the Highlands of Scotland, where he believed he had succeeded in showing that the vast masses of crystalline schists, previously supposed to be part of what used to be termed the Primitive formations, were really not older than the Silurian period, for that underneath them lay beds of limestone and quartzite containing Lower Silurian (Cambrian) fossils. Subsequent research, however, has shown that this infraposition of the fossiliferous rocks is not their original place, but has been brought about by a gigantic system of dislocations, whereby successive masses of the oldest gneisses, have been torn up from below and thrust bodily over the younger formations. The Scottish Highlands are considered to be the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Metamorphic rocks ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Quartzite Quartzite is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 million years before the present (BP) at the end of the Proterozoic eon and ended about 490 million years BP with the beginning of the Ordovician period. ... For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ... Banded gneiss with dike of granite orthogneiss Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ...


In 1855 Murchison was appointed director-general of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and director of the Royal School of Mines and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London, in succession to Sir Henry De la Beche, who had been the first to hold these offices. Official routine now occupied much of his time, but he found opportunity for the Highland researches just alluded to, and also for preparing successive editions of his work Siluria (1854, ed. 5, 1872), which was meant to present the main features of the original Silurian System together with a digest of subsequent discoveries, particularly of those which showed the extension of the Silurian classification into other countries. St. ... Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche (1796 - April 13, 1855) was an English geologist. ...


In 1863 he was made a K.C. B., and three years later was raised to a baronet. The learned societies of his own country bestowed their highest rewards upon him: the Royal Society gave him the Copley medal, the Geological Society its Wollaston medal, and the Royal Society of Edinburgh its Brisbane medal. There was hardly a foreign scientific society of note which had not his name enrolled among its honorary members. The French Academy of Sciences awarded him the prix Cuvier, and elected him one of its eight foreign members in succession to Michael Faraday. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London. ... The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ...


One of the closing public acts of Murchison’s life was the founding of a chair of geology and mineralogy in the university of Edinburgh. Under his will there was established the Murchison Medal and geological fund to be awarded annually by the council of the Geological Society in London. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


The Murchison crater on the Moon and at least fifteen geographical locations on Earth are named after him. Murchison is a lunar crater on the north edge of the Sinus Medii. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ...


References

King of Siluria — How Roderick Murchison Changed the Face of Geology John L. Morton 2004. ISBN 0-9546829-0-4 Brocken Spectre Publishing

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain.
  • The Great Devonian Controversy: The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Specialists (1985) Martin J. S. Rudwick (University of Chicago Press) — the rise of Murchison to power
  • Controversy in Victorian Geology: The Cambrian-Silurian Dispute (1986) by James A. Secord (Princeton University Press) — documents the battle between Murchison and Adam Sedgwick.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roderick Murchison - definition of Roderick Murchison in Encyclopedia (998 words)
Soon afterwards Murchison projected an important geological campaign in Russia with the view of extending to that part of the Continent the classification he had succeeded in elaborating for the older rocks of western Europe.
In 1855 Murchison was appointed director-general of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and director of the Royal School of Mines and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London, in succession to Sir Henry De la Beche, who had been the first to hold these offices.
One of the closing public acts of Murchison’s life was the founding of a chair of geology and mineralogy in the university of Edinburgh.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m