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Encyclopedia > Rococo

A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. It was largely supplanted by the Neoclassic style. It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that...

North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint.
North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint.
The ballroom of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo
The ballroom of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo
The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria): architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life
The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria): architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life

The word Rococo is seen as a combination of the French rocaille, or shell, and the Italian barocco, or Baroque style. Due to Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts, some critics used the term to derogatively imply that the style was frivolous or merely fashion; interestingly, when the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning "old-fashioned". However, since the mid 19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general, Rococo is now widely recognized as a major period in the development of European art. Catherine palace north side. ... Catherine palace north side. ... South side - view from the garden. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 versts (km) south from the center of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Catherine_Palace_ballroom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Catherine_Palace_ballroom. ... South side - view from the garden. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 versts (km) south from the center of St. ... The Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria) Copyleft for Wikipedia from the Haberhaeusle website in[Upper Swabia] Dierk 16:26, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC) For more Rococo pictures see the German Wikipedia entry. ... The Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria) Copyleft for Wikipedia from the Haberhaeusle website in[Upper Swabia] Dierk 16:26, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC) For more Rococo pictures see the German Wikipedia entry. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Art history usually refers to the history of the visual arts. ...

Contents

Historical development

Rococo developed first in the decorative arts and interior design. Louis XV's succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the old king's reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves and natural patterns. These elements are obvious in the architectural designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life moved away from Versailles and this artistic change became well established, first in the royal palace and then throughout French high society. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XV's regime. Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Nicolas Pineau (1684 — 1754) was a French carver and ornamental designer, one of the leaders who initiated the exuberant asymmetrical phase of the high Rococo. ... Régence is the French word for (and root of the English word) regency (see that article). ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...


The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France. The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture, exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. Rococo still maintained the Baroque taste for complex forms and intricate patterns, but by this point, it had begun to integrate a variety of diverse characteristics, including a taste for Oriental designs and asymmetric compositions. Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French Rococo painter. ... François Boucher The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ...


The Rococo style spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in the Catholic parts of Germany, Bohemia, and Austria, where it was merged with the lively German Baroque traditions. German Rococo was applied with enthusiasm to churches and palaces, particularly in the south, while Frederician Rococo developed in the Kingdom of Prussia. Architects often draped their interiors in clouds of fluffy white stucco. In Italy, the late Baroque styles of Borromini and Guarini set the tone for Rococo in Turin, Venice, Naples and Sicily, while the arts in Tuscany and Rome remained more wedded to Baroque. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Frederican Rococo is a form of rococo, which developed in Prussia during the reign of Frederick the Great and combined influences from both France and the Netherlands. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Francesco Borromini (September 25, 1599 – August 3, 1667 in Rome) was a prominent and influential Baroque architect, and active in Rome and contemporary with the prolific papal architect and often rival, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Camillo-Guarino Guarini (1624 - 1683) was a Theatine priest, mathematician, writer and architect. ...

Le Dejeuner by Francois Boucher, demonstrates elements of Rococo. (1739, Louvre)
Le Dejeuner by Francois Boucher, demonstrates elements of Rococo. (1739, Louvre)

Rococo in England was always thought of as the "French taste." The architectural stylings never caught on, though silverwork, porcelain, and silks were strongly influenced by the continental style. Thomas Chippendale transformed English furniture design through his adaptation and refinement of the style. William Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty. Though not intentionally referencing the movement, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty (1753) that the undulating lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace and beauty in art or nature (unlike the straight line or the circle in Classicism). The development of Rococo in England is considered to have been connected with the revival of interest in Gothic architecture early in the 18th century. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x1942, 276 KB) See also http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x1942, 276 KB) See also http://www. ... Rinaldo and Armida gained Bouchers admission to the Académie royale François Boucher (1703 in Bordeaux - May 30, 1770) was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste, known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories representing the arts or pastoral occupations, and several... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... A provincial Chippendale-style chair with elaborate Gothick tracery back Thomas Chippendale (June 5, 1718 – November 13, 1779), born at Farnley near Otley, West Yorkshire, was a London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


The beginning of the end for Rococo came in the early 1760s as figures like Voltaire and Jacques-François Blondel began to voice their criticism of the superficiality and degeneracy of the art. Blondel decried the "ridiculous jumble of shells, dragons, reeds, palm-trees and plants" in contemporary interiors[1]. By 1785, Rococo had passed out of fashion in France, replaced by the order and seriousness of Neoclassical artists like Jacques Louis David. In Germany, late 18th century Rococo was riduculed as Zopf und Perücke ("pigtail and periwig"), and this phase is sometimes referred to as Zopfstil. Rococo remained popular in the provinces and in Italy, until the second phase of neoclassicism, "Empire style," arrived with Napoleonic governments and swept Rococo away. For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Jacques-François Blondel (January 17, 1705-January 9, 1774) was a French architect. ... Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ...


There was a renewed interest in the Rococo style between 1820 and 1870. The English were among the first to revive the "Louis XIV style" as it was miscalled at first, and paid inflated prices for second-hand Rococo luxury goods that could scarcely be sold in Paris. But prominent artists like Delacroix and patrons like Empress Eugénie also rediscovered the value of grace and playfulness in art and design. Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Maria Eugenia Ignacia Augustina Palafox de Guzmán Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick, 9th Countess de Teba, popularly known as Eugénie de Montijo (May 5, 1826 – July 11, 1920) was Empress Consort of France (1853-1871), the wife of Napoléon III. The last Empress of France was born in Granada...


Rococo in different artistic modes

Furniture and decorative objects

The lighthearted themes and intricate designs of Rococo smell presented themselves best on a smaller scale than the imposing Baroque architecture and sculpture. It is not surprising, then, that French Rococo art was at home indoors. Metalwork, porcelain figures,frills and especially furniture rose to new pre-eminence as the French upper classes sought to outfit their homes in the now fashionable style.


Rococo style took pleasure in asymmetry, a taste that was new to European style. This practice of leaving elements unbalanced for effect is called contraste.


In a full-blown Rococo design, like the Table d'appartement (ca. 1730), by German designer J. A. Meissonnier, working in Paris (illustration, below), any reference to tectonic form is gone: even the marble slab top is shaped. Apron, legs, stretcher have all been seamlessly integrated into a flow of opposed c-scrolls and "rocaille." The knot (noeud) of the stretcher shows the asymmetrical "contraste" that was a Rococo innovation.

Design for a table by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier, Paris ca 1730

For small plastic figures of gypsum, clay, biscuit, porcelain (Sèvres, Meissen), Rococo is not unsuitable; in wood, iron, and royal metal, it has created some valuable works. However, confessionals, pulpits, altars, and even facades lead ever more into the territory of the architectonic, which does not easily combine with the curves of Rococo, the light and the petty, with forms whose whence and wherefore poobaffle inquiry. Download high resolution version (900x624, 124 KB)Juste-Aurele Meissonnier engraved design for a side table, c 1730 engraving of c. ... Download high resolution version (900x624, 124 KB)Juste-Aurele Meissonnier engraved design for a side table, c 1730 engraving of c. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Bisque, also biscuit, is a fired piece of unglazed ceramic. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ... Old town of Meißen. ... This refers to the Roman Catholic practice. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Dynasties of Parisian ébénistes, some of them German-born, developed a style of surfaces curved in three dimensions (bombé), where matched veneers (marquetry temporarily being in eclipse) or vernis martin japanning was effortlessly complemented by gilt-bronze ("ormolu") mounts: Antoine Gaudreau, Charles Cressent, Jean-Pierre Latz, François Oeben, Bernard II van Risenbergh are the outstanding names. The image on the cover of this box was made using the technique of marquetry. ... Antoine-Robert Gaudreau (c. ... Charles Cressent (1685 - 1768) was a French furniture-maker, sculptor and fondeur-ciseleur of the régence style. ...


French designers like François de Cuvilliés, Nicholas Pineau and Bartolomeo Rastrelli exported Parisian styles in person to Munich and Saint Petersburg, while the German Juste-Aurèle Meissonier found his career at Paris. The guiding spirits of the Parisian rococo were a small group of marchands-merciers, the forerunners of modern decorators, led by Simon-Philippenis Poirier. Schloss Türnich. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Juste Aurèle Meissonier (1695-1750) was a French goldsmith, sculptor, painter, architect, and furniture designer. ...


In France the style remained somewhat more reserved, since the ornaments were mostly of wood, or, after the fashion of wood-carving, less robust and naturalistic and less exuberant in the mixture of natural with artificial forms of all kinds (e.g. plant motives, stalactitic representations, grotesques, masks, implements of various professions, badges, paintings, precious stones).


English Rococo tended to be more restrained. Thomas Chippendale's furniture designs kept the curves and feel, but stopped short of the French heights of whimsy. The most successful exponent of English Rococo was probably Thomas Johnson, a gifted carver and furniture designer working in London in the mid 1700s. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Thomas Johnson (1714-1778) was an English wood carver and furniture maker. ...


Interior Design

A Rococo interior in Gatchina.
A Rococo interior in Gatchina.

Solitude Palace in Stuttgart and Chinese Palace in Oranienbaum, the Bavarian church of Wies and Sanssouci in Potsdam are examples of how Rococo made its way into European architecture. Eduard Gau. ... Eduard Gau. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... This article has been translated, and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Oranienbaum (Russian: ) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Bay of Finland west of St. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The pilgrimage church of Wies (Wieskirche) is one of the most beautiful rococo churches in the world. ... This article is about the German palace. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ...


In those Continental contexts where Rococo is fully in control, sportive, fantastic, and sculptured forms are expressed with abstract ornament using flaming, leafy or shell-like textures in asymmetrical sweeps and flourishes and broken curves; intimate Rococo interiors suppress architectonic divisions of architrave, frieze and cornice for the picturesque, the curious, and the whimsical, expressed in plastic materials like carved wood and above all stucco (as in the work of the Wessobrunner School). Walls, ceiling, furniture, and works of metal and porcelain present a unified ensemble. The Rococo palette is softer and paler than the rich primary colors and dark tonalities favored in Baroque tastes. In philosophy, Architectonic (or archetectonic) is used to mean the scientific systematisation of all knowledge. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... The Wessobrunner School is the name for a group of stucco-workers that, beginning at the end of the 17th century, developed in the Benedictine Wessobrunn Abbey. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ...


A few anti-architectural hints rapidly evolved into full-blown Rococo at the end of the 1720s and began to affect interiors and decorative arts throughout Europe. The richest forms of German Rococo are in Catholic Germany (illustration, above). The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ...

Rococo movement enlivens the façade of the Cathedral, Càdiz
Rococo movement enlivens the façade of the Cathedral, Càdiz

Rococo plasterwork by immigrant Italian-Swiss artists like Bagutti and Artari is a feature of houses by James Gibbs, and the Franchini brothers working in Ireland equalled anything that was attempted in England. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1329 KB) A shot of the Cathedral in the Old City of Cádiz, Spain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1329 KB) A shot of the Cathedral in the Old City of Cádiz, Spain. ... St Martins-in-the-Fields, London, is the prototype of many New England churches. ...


Inaugurated in some rooms in Versailles, it unfolds its magnificence in several Parisian buildings (especially the Hôtel Soubise). In Germany, French and German artists (Cuvilliés, Neumann, Knobelsdorff, etc.) effected the dignified equipment of the Amalienburg near Munich, and the castles of Würzburg, Potsdam, Charlottenburg, Brühl, Bruchsal, Solitude (Stuttgart), and Schönbrunn. The corps de logis The Hôtel de Soubise is a city palace, located at 60 rue des Francs-Bourgeois, in the IIIe arrondissement of Paris. ... Schloss Türnich. ... Johann Balthasar Neumann (January 27, 1687 - August 19, 1753) was a German Baroque architect who designed the Vierzehnheiligen and several churches in Würzburg. ... Officer, architect and painter Georg Wenzeslaus Baron von Knobelsdorff in a portrait by Adam Manyoki, a court painter from Dresden Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (Born 17 February 1699 at Kuckädel in what is now Krosno OdrzaÅ„skie (Crossen an der Oder); Died 16 September 1753 in Berlin) was a... Exterior Amalienburg is a hunting lodge constructed in 1734-1739 by François de Cuvilles for Charles VII and his wife, Maria Amalia of Austria, in the park of Nymphenburg Palace in Munich and in the eyes of many experts, it is the finest example of the German Rococo. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Würzburg Residenz. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Location of Charlottenburg in Berlin Charlottenburg palace Charlottenburg is an area of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... Brühl is a city in Germany, located 20 km south of Cologne, in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis. ... Bruchsal is a city approximately 20 km to the northeast of Karlsruhe in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... This article has been translated, and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Schönbrunn Palace (Schloss Schönbrunn) in Vienna is one of the most important cultural monuments in Austria and since the 1860s has also been one of the major tourist attractions in Vienna. ...


In England, one of Hogarth's set of paintings forming a melodramatic morality tale titled Marriage à la Mode, engraved in 1745, shows the parade rooms of a stylish London house, in which the only rococo is in plasterwork of the salon's ceiling. Palladian architecture is in control. Here, on the Kentian mantel, the crowd of Chinese vases and mandarins are satirically rendered as hideous little monstrosities, and the Rococo wall clock is a jumble of leafy branches. A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, in a modestly priced English translation published in London, 1736. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ...


Painting

Pilgrimage to Cythera by Jean-Antoine Watteau, captures the frivolity and sensuousness of Rococo painting. (1721, Louvre)
Pilgrimage to Cythera by Jean-Antoine Watteau, captures the frivolity and sensuousness of Rococo painting. (1721, Louvre)

Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. These painters used delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was also popular among Rococo painters. Some works show a sort of naughtiness or impurity in the behavior of their subjects, showing the historical trend of departing away from the Baroque's church/state orientation. Landscapes were pastoral and often depicted the leisurely outings of aristocratic couples. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1739, 516 KB) Description: Title: de: Einschiffung nach Kythera Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 128 × 193 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other notes: Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1739, 516 KB) Description: Title: de: Einschiffung nach Kythera Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 128 × 193 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other notes: Source: The... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French Rococo painter. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ...


Jean-Antoine Watteau (16841721) is generally considered the first great Rococo painter. He had a great influence on later painters, including François Boucher (17031770) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (17321806), two masters of the late period. Even Thomas Gainsborough's (17271788) delicate touch and sensitivity are reflective of the Rococo spirit. Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French painter. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... François Boucher The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... The Bathers, 1765 Inspiration, 1769 The Reader, c. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Sculpture

Sculpture was another area that Rococo artists branched into. Étienne-Maurice Falconet (17161791) is widely considered one of the best representatives of French Rococo. In general, this style was best expressed through delicate porcelain sculpture rather than imposing marble statues. Falconet himself was director of a famous porcelain factory at Sèvres. The themes of love and gaiety were reflected in sculpture, as were elements of nature, curving lines and asymmetry. Falconets awesome statue of Peter I has become one of the symbols of St Petersburg Étienne Maurice Falconet (1716 - 1791), is counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, patronized by Mme de Pompadour. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ...


The sculptor Bouchardon represented Cupid engaged in carving his darts of love from the club of Hercules; this serves as an excellent excellent symbol of the Rococo style—the demigod is transformed into the soft child, the bone-shattering club becomes the heart-scathing arrows, just as marble is so freely replaced by stucco. In this connection, the French sculptors, Robert le Lorrain, Michel Clodion, and Pigalle may be mentioned in passing. Edmé Bouchardon (29 May 1698 - 27 July 1762) was a French sculptor, esteemed in his day as the greatest sculptor of his time. ... It has been suggested that Cupid (holiday character) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... MICHEL, CLAUDE, known as CLODION (1738-1814), French sculptor, was born on the 20th of December 1738 in Nancy. ... Pigalle is the name of an area in Paris, France around Place Pigalle (a plaza) on the border between the 9th and the 18th arrondissements, named after the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (1714-1785). ...


Music

The Galante Style was the equivalent of Rococo in music history, too, between Baroque and Classical, and it is not easy to define in words. The rococo music style itself developed out of baroque music, particularly in France. It can be characterized as intimate music with extremely refined decoration forms. Exemplars include Jean Philippe Rameau and Louis-Claude Daquin. A new style of European classical music, fashionable from the 1720s to the 1770s, was called Galante music. ... A History of Western Music Seventh Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca is one of several popular books used to teach Music History in North America. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Louis-Claude Daquin (or dAcquin), (July 4, 1694 – June 15, 1772) was a French composer of Jewish birth writing in the Baroque and Galant styles. ...


Boucher's painting (above) provides a glimpse of the society which Rococo reflected. "Courtly" would be pretentious in this upper bourgeois circle, yet the man's gesture is gallant. The stylish but cozy interior, the informal decorous intimacy of people's manners, the curious and delightful details everywhere one turns one's eye, the luxury of sipping chocolate: all are "galante."


Rococo "worldliness" and the Roman Catholic Church

A critical view of the unsuitable nature of Rococo in ecclesiastical contexts was taken up by the Catholic Encyclopedia: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Hints of Rococo can be discerned in the churches by the Portuguese-Brazilian master Aleijadinho.
Hints of Rococo can be discerned in the churches by the Portuguese-Brazilian master Aleijadinho.

For the church the Rococo style may be, generally speaking, compared with worldly church music. Its lack of simplicity, earnestness, and repose is evident, while its obtrusive artificiality, unnaturalness, and triviality have a distracting effect. Its softness and prettiness likewise do not become the house of God. However, shorn of its most grievous outgrowths, it may have been less distracting during its proper epoch, since it then harmonized with the spirit of the age. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x669, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x669, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Church of the Third Order of St Francis in Ouro Preto. ...


As a development of Baroque, it will be found a congruous decoration for baroque churches.


In general it makes a vast difference whether the style is used with moderation in the finer and more ingenious form of the French masters, or is carried to extremes with the consistency of the German. The French artists seem ever to have regarded the beauty of the whole composition as the chief object, while the German laid most stress on the bold vigour of the lines; thus, the lack of symmetry was never so exaggerated in the works of the former.


In the church Rococo may at times have the charm of prettiness and may please by its ingenious technic, provided the objects be small and subordinate: a credence table with cruets and plate, a vase, a choir desk, lamps,pens,key and lock, railings or balustrade, do not too boldly challenge the eye, and fulfill all the requirements of mere beauty of form. An elaborate Rococo credence table with marble top A Credence table is a small side table in the sanctuary of a Christian church which is used in the celebration of the Eucharist. ...


Rococo is indeed really empty, solely a pleasing play of the fancy. In the sacristy (for presses etc.) and ante chambers it is more suitable than in the church itself—at least so far as its employment in conspicuous places is concerned.


The Rococo style accords very ill with the solemn office of the monstrance, the tabernacle, and the altar, and even of the pulpit. The naturalism of certain Belgian pulpits, in spite or perhaps on account of their artistic character, has the same effect as have outspoken Rococo creations. A solar monstrance Monstrance is the vessel used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Anglican Churches to display the consecrated Eucharistic Host, during Eucharistic adoration or Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ... The Tabernacle at St. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ...


The purpose of the confessional and the baptistery would also seem to demand more earnest forms. This refers to the Roman Catholic practice. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ...


In the case of the larger objects, the sculpture of Rococo forms either seems pretty, or, if this prettiness be avoided, resembles Baroque. The phantasies of this style agree ill with the lofty and broad walls of the church. However, everything must be decided according to the object and circumstances; the stalls in the cathedral of Mainz elicit not only our approval but also our admiration, while the celebrated privileged altar of Vierzehnheiligen repels us both by its forms and its plastic decoration. Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...


There are certain Rococo chalices (like that at the monastery of Einsiedeln) which are, as one might say, decked out in choice festive array; there are others, which are more or less misshapen owing to their bulging curves or figures. Chandeliers and lamps may also be disfigured by obtrusive shellwork or want of all symmetry, or may amid great decorativeness be kept within reasonable limits. Monastery of St. ... , Einsiedeln abbey Einsiedeln abbey Lady Fountain Einsiedeln is a Benedictine monastery in Einsiedeln town, in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits, that title being derived from the circumstances of its foundation, from which the name Einsiedeln is also said to have originated. ...


The material and technique are also of consequence in Rococo. Woven materials, wood carvings, and works in plaster of Paris are evidently less obtrusive than works in other materials, when they employ the sportive Rococo. Iron (especially in railings) and bronze lose their coldness and hardness, when animated by the Rococo style; in the case of the latter, gilding may be used with advantage. Gilding and painting belong to the regular means through which this style, under certain circumstances, enchants the eye and fancy. All things considered, we may say of the Rococo style—as has not unreasonably been said of the Baroque and of the Renaissance—that it is very apt to introduce a worldly spirit into the church, even if we overlook the figural accessories, which are frequently in no way conducive to sentiments of devotion, and are incompatible with the sobriety and greatness of the architecture and with the seriousness of sacred functions. Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. ... This article is about the building material. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ...

See also

A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... The Cathedral of Murcia is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Murcia, south-eastern Spain, and dating from the 14th century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rococo

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Fiske Kimball, 1943. Creation of the Rococo (Reprinted as The Creation of the Rococo Decorative Style, 1980).
  • Arno Schönberger and Halldor Soehner, 1960. The Age of Rococo Published in the US as The Rococo Age: Art and Civilization of the 18th Century (Originally published in German, 1959).
  • Michael Levey, 1980. Painting in Eighteenth-Century Venice, (Revised edition).
  • Pal Kelemen, 1967. Baroque and Rococo in Latin America, (2nd edition).


  Results from FactBites:
 
ArtLex on Rococo (713 words)
Jean-Antoine Watteau (French, 1684-1721) is often referred to as the greatest of the Rococo painters, and his picture of the Embarkation for Cythera demonstrates the elegance of this style.
The Rococo is sometimes considered a final phase of the Baroque period.
It depicts a fashionably dressed lady revealing her charms to her lover, carefully positioned in a bed of roses; the lady's husband is an unwitting accomplice to this act of amorous intrigue.
Rococo - LoveToKnow 1911 (342 words)
ROCOCO, or Rocaille, literally "rock-work," a style of architectural and mobiliary decoration popular throughout the greater part of Europe during the first half of the 18th century.
The very exuberance of the rococo forms is, indeed, the negation of art, which is based upon restraint.
Everything, indeed, in the rococo manner is involved and tortured, though before a superb example of Jacques Caffieri, such as the famous commode in the Wallace Collection, it is impossible not to admire the art with which genius can treat even the defects and weaknesses of a peculiarly mannered fashion.
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