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Encyclopedia > Rocket
A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad.
A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad.
Early Chinese rocket.

A rocket or rocket vehicle is a missile, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. Chemical rockets operate due to hot exhaust gas made from "propellant" acting against the inside of combustion chambers and expansion nozzles. This generates forces that both accelerate the gas to extremely high speed, as well as, since every action has an equal and opposite reaction, generating a large thrust on the rocket. Look up rocket in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apollo Soyuz Test Project Soyuz booster on launch pad. ... Apollo Soyuz Test Project Soyuz booster on launch pad. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... In classical mechanics, Newtons third law states that forces occur in pairs, one called the Action and the other the Reaction (actio et reactio in Latin). ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Figure 1: A de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow The main type of rocket engine nozzles used in modern rocket engines is the de Laval nozzle which is used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases, from burning propellants... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... Newtons laws of motion are the three scientific laws which Isaac Newton discovered concerning the behaviour of moving bodies. ...


The history of rockets goes back to at least the 13th century, possibly earlier[1]. By the 20th century it included human spaceflight to the Moon, and in the 21st century rockets have enabled commercial space tourism. ISS in earth orbit. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ...


Rockets are used for fireworks and weaponry, as launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight and exploration of other planets. While they are inefficient for low speed use, they are, compared to other propulsion systems, very lightweight, enormously powerful and can achieve extremely high speeds. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ...


Chemical rockets contain a large amount of energy in an easily liberated form, and can be very dangerous, although careful design, testing, construction and use can minimise the risks.

Contents

History of rockets

The earliest rockets were used for fireworks
The earliest rockets were used for fireworks

According to the writings of the Roman Aulus Gellius, in c. 400 BC, a Greek Pythagorean named Archytas, propelled a wooden bird using steam.[2] However, the only knowledge that exists of it, is in Aulus's writings, from 5 centuries later, no diagrams survive, and whether it was truly propelled by rocket power is unknown. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1294x835, 405 KB) Summary Photo taken (26th Jan 2006) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1294x835, 405 KB) Summary Photo taken (26th Jan 2006) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... Aulus Gellius ( 125 - after 180), Latin author and grammarian, possibly of African origin, probably born and certainly brought up at Rome. ... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... This article or section should be merged with Hellenes Greeks in Ancient History In Latin literature, Græci (or Greeks, in English) is the name by which Hellenes are known. ... The Pythagoreans were an Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers; who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ... Archytas Archytas (428 BC - 347 BC) was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, strategist and commander-in-chief. ...


The availability of black powder to propel projectiles was a precursor to the development of the first solid rocket. Ninth Century Chinese Taoist alchemists discovered black powder in a search for the Elixir of life; this accidental discovery led to experiments in forms of weapons like bombs, cannon, incendiary fire arrows and rocket-propelled fire arrows. Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Exactly when the first flights of rockets occurred is contested, some say that the first recorded use of a rocket in battle was by the Chinese in 1232 against the Mongol hordes. Reports were of fire arrows and 'iron pots' that could be heard for 5 leagues - 15 miles - and that, upon impact, exploded causing devastation for 2,000 feet in all directions, apparently due to shrapnel.[3] The lowering of iron pots may have been a way for a besieged army to blow up invaders. The fire arrows were either arrows with explosives attached, or arrows propelled by gunpowder, such as the Korean Hwacha.[4] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hwacha or Hwacha [1] was an anti-personnel saltpeter weapon used in Korea, inspired by Chinese fire arrows. ...


Less controversially, one of the earliest devices recorded that used internal-combustion rocket propulsion was the 'ground-rat,' a type of firework, recorded in 1264 as having frightened the Empress-Mother Kung Sheng at a feast held in her honor by her son the Emperor Lizong.[5] Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ... Emperor Lizong 理宗 (1205 - 1264) was the 14th emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song. ...


Subsequently, one of the earliest texts to mention the use of rockets was the Huolongjing, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid 14th century; this text also mentioned the use of the first known multistage rocket; this was the 'fire-dragon issuing from the water' (huo long chu shui), used mostly by the Chinese navy.[6] That southern China and Laotian community rocket festivals might then have been key in the spread of rocketry in the Orient was proposed by Frank H. Winter in The Proceedings of the Twentieth and Twenty-First History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics.[7] Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is a rocket that uses two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. ... LAOS redirects here. ... This article is about the traditional Rocket Festival of Lao ; for another meaning, see Rocket Festival Spain Rocket Festival Lao A rocket on a float in Yasothon, prior to the parade. ...


Spread of rocket technology

Genghis Khan's Mongols spread Chinese technology
Genghis Khan's Mongols spread Chinese technology

Rocket technology first became known to Europeans following their use by the Mongols Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan when they conquered parts of Russia, Eastern, and Central Europe. The Mongolians had acquired the Chinese technology by conquest of the northern part of China and also by the subsequent employment of Chinese rocketry experts as mercenaries for the Mongol military. Reports of the Battle of Sejo in the year 1241 describe the use of rocket-like weapons by the Mongols against the Magyars.[8] Rocket technology was also spread to Korea, with the 15th century wheeled hwacha that would launch singijeon rockets. These first Korean rockets had an amazingly long range at that time, and these rockets were designed and built by Byun Eee-Joong. Also these rockets were just like arrows but had small explosives attached to the back and flew in swarms. This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... This article is about the person. ... This article is about the person. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Hwacha or Hwacha [1] was an anti-personnel saltpeter weapon used in Korea, inspired by Chinese fire arrows. ... Singijeon is a Korean gunpowder artillery weapon, first built in 1448 A.D. and used during the Joseon period. ...


Additionally, the spread of rockets into Europe was also influenced by the Ottomans at the siege of Constantinople in 1453, although it is very likely that the Ottomans themselves were influenced by the Mongol invasions of the previous few centuries. They appear in literature describing the capture of Baghdad in 1258 by the Mongols.[9] Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


In their history of rockets published on the internet NASA says “the Arabs adopted the rocket into their own arms inventory and, during the Seventh Crusade, used them against the French Army of King Louis IX in 1268.".[10] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


The name Rocket comes from the Italian Rocchetta (i.e. little fuse), a name of a small firecracker created by the Italian artificer Muratori in 1379.[11] Year 1379 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


For over two centuries, the work of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobleman Kazimierz Siemienowicz, "Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima" ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part". also known as "The Complete Art of Artillery"), was used in Europe as a basic artillery manual. The book provided the standard designs for creating rockets, fireballs, and other pyrotechnic devices. It contained a large chapter on caliber, construction, production and properties of rockets (for both military and civil purposes), including multi-stage rockets, batteries of rockets, and rockets with delta wing stabilizers (instead of the common guiding rods). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... 20th century artistic vision of Kazimierz Siemenowicz Siemienowicz coat of arms, Ostoja Siemenowicz multi-stage rocket, from his Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Lithuanian: Kazimieras Simonavičius, (born c. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Look up fireball in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is a rocket that uses two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ... The tail of a Lufthansa airliner (Airbus A319) in flight, showing the horizontal and vertical stabilizer For aircraft, the horizontal stabilizer is a fixed or adjustable surface from which an elevator may be hinged, while a vertical stabilizer (also called a fin) is fixed to the aircraft and supports the...


In 1792, iron-cased rockets were successfully used militarily by Tipu Sultan, Ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in India against the larger British East India Company forces during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The British then took an active interest in the technology and developed it further during the 19th century. The major figure in the field at this time was William Congreve.[12] From there, the use of military rockets spread throughout Europe. At the Battle of Baltimore in 1814, the rockets fired on Fort McHenry by the rocket vessel HMS Erebus were the source of the rockets' red glare described by Francis Scott Key in The Star-Spangled Banner. Rockets were also used in the Battle of Waterloo. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... William Congreve Sir William Congreve (May 20, 1772-May 16, 1828), was an English inventor and rocket pioneer. ... Combatants Great Britain United States of America Commanders Robert Ross† Alexander Cochrane Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker George Armistead Strength 5,000 2,000 (Baltimore defenses) 1,000 (Fort McHenry garrison) Casualties 46 dead, 300 wounded 310 killed or wounded In the Battle of Baltimore, one of the turning... Fort McHenry Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ... A ship firing Congreve rockets A rocket vessel was a ship equipped with rockets as a weapon. ... HMS Erebus was a Royal Navy rocket vessel built in 1807, converted to an 18-gun sloop in 1808, to a fire ship in 1809, and to a 24-gun sixth-rate in 1810. ... Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...

The Congreve rocket

Early rockets were very inaccurate. Without the use of spinning or any gimballing of the thrust, they had a strong tendency to veer sharply off course. The early British Congreve rockets[12] reduced this somewhat by attaching a long stick to the end of a rocket (similar to modern bottle rockets) to make it harder for the rocket to change course. The largest of the Congreve rockets was the 32-pound (14.5 kg) Carcass, which had a 15-foot (4.6 m) stick. Originally, sticks were mounted on the side, but this was later changed to mounting in the center of the rocket, reducing drag and enabling the rocket to be more accurately fired from a segment of pipe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 290 KB) Summary Congreve rocket, from schematic by Sir William Congreve, dated 1814. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 290 KB) Summary Congreve rocket, from schematic by Sir William Congreve, dated 1814. ... A gimbal is a mechanical device that allows the rotation of an object in multiple dimensions. ... The Congreve Rocket was a British military weapon designed by Sir William Congreve in 1804. ...


In 1815, Alexander Zasyadko began his work on creating military gunpowder rockets. He constructed rocket-launching platforms, which allowed to fire in salvos (6 rockets at a time), and gun-laying devices. Zasyadko elaborated a tactic for military use of rocket weaponry. In 1820, Zasyadko was appointed head of the Petersburg Armory, Okhtensky Powder Factory, pyrotechnic laboratory and the first Highest Artillery School in Russia. He organized rocket production in a special rocket workshop and created the first rocket sub-unit in the Russian army.


The accuracy problem was mostly solved in 1844 when William Hale[13] modified the rocket design so that thrust was slightly vectored to cause the rocket to spin along its axis of travel like a bullet. The Hale rocket removed the need for a rocket stick, travelled further due to reduced air resistance, and was far more accurate. William Hale (1797-1870)[1], was a British inventor and rocket pioneer. ... Harrier AV-8A - worlds first operational fighter jet with thrust vectoring A thrust-vectoring jet engine nozzle Thrust vectoring is the ability of an aircraft or other vehicle to direct the thrust from its main engine(s) in a direction other than parallel to the vehicles longitudinal axis. ...


Early manned rocketry

According to legend, a manned rocket sled with 47 gunpowder-filled rockets was attempted in China by Wan Hu in about AD 1232[14], or the 16th Century[15]. The alleged flight is said to have been ended by an explosion at the start, and he does not seem to have survived (the pilot was never found). There are no known Chinese sources for this event, and the earliest known account is an unsourced reference in a book by an American, Herbert S. Zim in 1945[16]. A rocket sled is essentially a small railroad car with rockets attached. ... Illustration of Wan Hus takeoff. ... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In Ottoman Turkey in 1633 Lagari Hasan Çelebi took off with what was described to be a cone shaped rocket and then glided with wings through Bosporus from Topkap Palace into a successful landing, winning a position in the Ottoman army.[17] The flight was accomplished as a part of celebrations performed for the birth of Ottoman Emperor Murat IV's daughter and was rewarded by the sultan. The device was composed of a large winged cage with a conical top with 7 rockets filled with 70 kg of gunpowder. The flight was estimated to have lasted about 200 seconds and the maximum height reached around 300 metres. Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Lagari Hasan Çelebi is considered the first person to have flown. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Theories of interplanetary rocketry

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the first work on space travel
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the first work on space travel

In 1903, high school mathematics teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) published Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами[18] (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), the first serious scientific work on space travel. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation—the principle that governs rocket propulsion—is named in his honor (although it had been discovered previously[19]). His work was essentially unknown outside the Soviet Union, where it inspired further research, experimentation and the formation of the Cosmonautics Society. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский, Konstanty CioÅ‚kowski) (September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... Tsiolkovskys rocket equation, named after Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who independently derived it, considers the principle of a rocket: a device that can apply an acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed in the opposite direction, due to the conservation of momentum. ...

Robbert Goddard

In 1920, Robert Goddard published A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes[20], the first serious work on using rockets in space travel after Tsiolkovsky. The work attracted worldwide attention and was both praised and ridiculed, particularly because of its suggestion that a rocket theoretically could reach the Moon. A New York Times editorial famously expressed disbelief that it was possible at all as it stated that: "after the rocket quits our air and really starts on its longer journey it will neither be accelerated nor maintained by the explosion of the charges it then might have left" and suggested that Professor Goddard actually: "does not know of the relation of action to reaction, and the need to have something better than a vacuum against which to react" and talked of "such things as intentional mistakes or oversights." Download high resolution version (460x602, 195 KB)Robert Goddard, from NASA, not under copyright Gotten from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (460x602, 195 KB)Robert Goddard, from NASA, not under copyright Gotten from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Robert Goddard Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was one of the pioneers of modern rocketry. ... A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes is a book written by Robert Goddard describing his theories of rocket flight. ... Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Konstanty Ciołkowski), (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский; September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian of Polish ancestry, rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics. ...


Goddard, the Times declared, apparently suggesting bad faith, "only seems to lack the knowledge ladled out daily in high schools."[21]


After these and some other scathing criticisms, Goddard began working in isolation, and avoided publicity.


Nevertheless in Russia, Tsiolkovsky's work was then republished in the 1920s in response to Russian interest raised by the work of Robert Goddard. Among other ideas, Tsiolkovsky accurately proposed to use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as a nearly optimal propellant pair and determined that building staged and clustered rockets to increase the overall mass efficiency would dramatically increase range.


In 1923, Hermann Oberth[22] (1894-1989) published Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("The Rocket into Planetary Space"), a version of his doctoral thesis, after the University of Munich rejected it. Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. ...


Modern rocketry

Pre-World War II

Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled rocket about to discover the Pendulum Rocket Fallacy.
Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled rocket about to discover the Pendulum Rocket Fallacy.

Modern rockets were born when Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to a liquid fuelled rocket engine's combustion chamber. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas; more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2 to 64%[23][24]. Early rockets had been grossly inefficient because of the heat energy that was wasted in the exhaust gases. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Massachusetts. Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... The Pendulum Rocket Fallacy is a common fundamental misunderstanding of the mechanics of rocket flight and how rockets remain on a stable trajectory. ... Diagram of a de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making an hourglass-shape. ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... Auburn is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ...

Hermann Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. Left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger, Major General Holger Toftoy, Oberth, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and Dr. Robert Lusser.
Hermann Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. Left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger, Major General Holger Toftoy, Oberth, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and Dr. Robert Lusser.

During the 1920s, a number of rocket research organizations appeared in America, Austria, Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Germany, and Russia. In the mid-1920s, German scientists had begun experimenting with rockets which used liquid propellants capable of reaching relatively high altitudes and distances. A team of amateur rocket engineers had formed the Verein für Raumschiffahrt (German Rocket Society, or VfR) in 1927, and in 1931 launched a liquid propellant rocket (using oxygen and gasoline).[25] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (546x720, 304 KB) Five pioneers pose with scale models of their missiles they created in the 1950s. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (546x720, 304 KB) Five pioneers pose with scale models of their missiles they created in the 1950s. ... Hermann Oberth (front) with officials of the ABMA in 1956. ... Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger is an American atomic, electrical and rocket scientist born in Niederrimbach, Germany, on December 19, 1913. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Robert Lusser (1900 - 1969) was a German engineer and aircraft designer. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Members of the VfR, circa 1930. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ...


From 1931 to 1937, the most extensive scientific work on rocket engine design occurred in Leningrad, at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory. Well funded and staffed, over 100 experimental engines were built under the direction of Valentin Glushko. The work included regenerative cooling, hypergolic propellant ignition, and fuel injector designs that included swirling and bi-propellant mixing injectors. However, the work was curtailed by Glushko's arrest during Stalinist purges in 1938. Similar work was also being done by the Austrian professor Eugen Sänger who worked on rocket powered spaceplanes such as Silbervogel (sometimes called the 'antipodal' bomber.)[26] Valentin Petrovich Glushko (born September 2, 1908 in Odessa, Ukraine, died January 10, 1989) was a Russian engineer and rocketry pioneer. ... Regenerative cooling in rockets is where the propellant is passed through tubes around the combustion chamber or nozzle as the fuel is a good conductor of heat. ... A hypergolic propellant is either of the two rocket propellants used in a hypergolic rocket engine, which spontaneously ignite when they come into contact. ... Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Eugen Sänger (September 22, 1905 - February 10, 1964) was an Austrian aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology. ... Silverbird is also the name of a Telecomsoft software label. ...


On November 12, 1932 at a farm in Stockton NJ, the American Interplanetary Society's attempt to static fire their first rocket (based on German Rocket Society designs) fails in a fire.[27]


In 1932, the Reichswehr (which in 1935 became the Wehrmacht) began to take an interest in rocketry. Artillery restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles limited Germany's access to long distance weaponry. Seeing the possibility of using rockets as long-range artillery fire, the Wehrmacht initially funded the VfR team, but seeing that their focus was strictly scientific, created its own research team, with Hermann Oberth as a senior member. At the behest of military leaders, Wernher von Braun, at the time a young aspiring rocket scientist, joined the military (followed by two former VfR members) and developed long-range weapons for use in World War II by Nazi Germany, notably the A-series of rockets, which led to the infamous V-2 rocket (initially called A4).[28] Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Aggregate series was a set of rocket designs developed in 1933–1945 by a research program of Nazi Germanys army. ... For other uses, see V2. ...


World War II

A German V-2 rocket on a Meillerwagen.
A German V-2 rocket on a Meillerwagen.
Layout of a V2 rocket
Layout of a V2 rocket

In 1943, production of the V-2 rocket began. The V-2 had an operational range of 300 km (185 miles) and carried a 1000 kg (2204 lb) warhead, with an amatol explosive charge. Highest point of altitude of its flight trajectory is 90 km. The vehicle was only different in details from most modern rockets, with turbopumps, inertial guidance and many other features. Thousands were fired at various Allied nations, mainly England, as well as Belgium and France. While they could not be intercepted, their guidance system design and single conventional warhead meant that the V-2 was insufficiently accurate against military targets. The later versions however, were more accurate, sometimes within metres, and could be devastating.[29] 2,754 people in England were killed, and 6,523 were wounded before the launch campaign was terminated. While the V-2 did not significantly affect the course of the war, it provided a lethal demonstration of the potential for guided rockets as weapons. ImageMetadata File history File links V-2_Rocket_On_Meillerwagen. ... ImageMetadata File history File links V-2_Rocket_On_Meillerwagen. ... The Meillerwagen (English: Meiller Vehicle) was a German World War II trailer used to transport a V-2 rocket from the transloading point[2] of the Technical Troop Area to the launching point, to erect the missile on the Brennstand (English: firing stand),[3] and to act as the service... Image File history File links V-2_rocket_diagram_(with_English_labels). ... Image File history File links V-2_rocket_diagram_(with_English_labels). ... For other uses, see V2. ... Amatol is a highly explosive material, a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate, and used as an explosive in military weapons. ... A turbopump can refer to either of two types of pump. ... A guidance system is a device or group of devices used to navigate a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or other craft. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Under Projekt Amerika Nazi Germany also tried to develop and use the first submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBMs) and the first intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) A9/A10 Amerika-Raketen[30] to bomb New York and other American cities. The tests of SLBM-variants of the A4 rocket was achieved with U-boat submarines towing launch platforms. The second stage of the A9/A10 rocket was tested a few times in January, February and March 1945. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The Aggregate series was a set of rocket designs developed in 1933–1945 by a research program of Nazi Germanys army. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


In parallel with the guided missile programme in Nazi Germany, rockets were also being used for aircraft, either for rapid horizontal take-off (JATO) or for powering the aircraft (Me 163,etc) and for vertical take-off (Bachem Ba 349 "Natter"). Americas first rocket-assisted Take-off, an Ercoupe fitted with a GALCIT booster, in 1941 JATO is an acronym for Jet-Assisted Take Off. ... The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft. ... Bachem Ba 349 Natter (Adder) was a World War II era German experimental rocket-powered interceptor aircraft which was to be used in a very similar way as surface-to-air missiles. ...


Post World War II

Dornberger and Von Braun after being captured by the Allies
Dornberger and Von Braun after being captured by the Allies

At the end of World War II, competing Russian, British, and U.S. military and scientific crews raced to capture technology and trained personnel from the German rocket program at Peenemünde. Russia and Britain had some success, but the United States benefited the most. The US captured a large number of German rocket scientists (many of whom were members of the Nazi Party, including von Braun) and brought them to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip[31]. In America, the same rockets that were designed to rain down on Britain were used instead by scientists as research vehicles for developing the new technology further. The V-2 evolved into the American Redstone rocket, used in the early space program. Peenemündes position in Germany Peenemünde is a village in the northeast of the German (Western) part of the Usedom island. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ...


After the war, rockets were used to study high-altitude conditions, by radio telemetry of temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, detection of cosmic rays, and further research; notably for the Bell X-1 to break the sound barrier. This continued in the U.S. under von Braun and the others, who were destined to become part of the U.S. scientific complex. Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... The Bell X-1, originally designated XS-1, was a joint NACA-U.S. Army Air Forces/US Air Force supersonic research project and the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled, level flight. ...

R-7 8K72 "Vostok"
R-7 8K72 "Vostok"

Independently, research continued in the Soviet Union under the leadership of the chief designer Sergei Korolev[32]. With the help of German technicians, the V-2 was duplicated and improved as the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles. German designs were abandoned in the late 1940s, and the foreign workers were sent home. A new series of engines built by Glushko and based on inventions of Aleksei Isaev formed the basis of the first ICBM, the R-7.[33] The R-7 launched the first satellite, the first man into space and the first lunar and planetary probes, and is still in use today. These events attracted the attention of top politicians, along with more money for further research. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 382 KB) Photo made by my brother, Alex Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 382 KB) Photo made by my brother, Alex Zelenko. ... The Vostok rocket (Russian Восток, translated as East) was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for other satellite launches. ... Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner) (and its evolved version R-2 or SS-2 Sibling) was a copy of the German V-2 rocket manufactured by the Soviet Union. ... The R-1 rocket (SS-1) (and its evolved version R-2 or SS-2) was a copy of the German V-2 rocket manufactured by the Soviet Union. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka (Russian: ) was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ...


Rockets became extremely important militarily in the form of modern intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) when it was realised that nuclear weapons carried on a rocket vehicle were essentially not defensible against once launched, and they became the delivery platform of choice for these weapons. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...

The Apollo 10 Command Module in orbit around the moon
The Apollo 10 Command Module in orbit around the moon

Fueled partly by the Cold War, the 1960s became the decade of rapid development of rocket technology particularly in the Soviet Union (Vostok, Soyuz, Proton) and in the United States (e.g. the X-15[34] and X-20 Dyna-Soar[35] aircraft, Gemini). There was also significant research in other countries, such as Britain, Japan, Australia, etc. This culminated at the end of the 60s with the manned landing on the moon via the Saturn V, causing the New York Times to retract their earlier editorial implying that spaceflight couldn't work: Apollo 10 CSM Charlie Brown. (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 10 CSM Charlie Brown. (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Vostok rocket (Russian Восток, translated as East) was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for other satellite launches. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


"Further investigation and experimentation have confirmed the findings of Isaac Newton in the 17th century and it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error."[36]


Current day

Rockets remain a popular military weapon. The use of large battlefield rockets of the V-2 type has given way to guided missiles. However rockets are often used by helicopters and light aircraft for ground attack, being more powerful than machine guns, but without the recoil of a heavy cannon. In the 1950s there was a brief vogue for air-to-air rockets, ending with the AIR-2 'Genie' nuclear rocket,[37] but by the early 1960s these had largely been abandoned in favor of air-to-air missiles. A missile (British English: miss-isle; U.S. English: missl) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... RS-82 rockets mounted under the wing of a LaGG-3 fighter. ... An AIR-2 Genie on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force The Genie was an unguided air-to-air missile with a nuclear warhead, used by interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ...

SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne

Economically, rocketry is the enabler of all space technologies particularly satellites, many of which impact people's everyday lives in almost countless ways, satellite navigation,[38] communications satellites and even things as simple as weather satellites. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1112 KB) Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne (SS1) under White Knight on display at the Oshkosh Airventure 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1112 KB) Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne (SS1) under White Knight on display at the Oshkosh Airventure 2005. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ... GPS redirects here. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. ... A weather satellite is a type of artificial satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and/or climate of the Earth. ...


Scientifically, rocketry has opened a window on our universe, allowing the launch of space probes to explore our solar system, satellites to view the Earth itself, and space-based telescopes to obtain a clearer view of the rest of the universe.[39] Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


However, in the minds of much of the public, the most important use of rockets is perhaps manned spaceflight. Vehicles such as the Space Shuttle for scientific research, the Soyuz for orbital tourism and SpaceShipOne for suborbital tourism may show a way towards greater commercialisation of rocketry,[40] away from government funding, and towards more widespread access to space. Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... Space transport is the use of spacecraft to transport people or cargo through outer space. ...


Types

There are many different types of rockets, and a comprehensive list of the basic engine types can be found in rocket engine — the vehicles themselves range in size from tiny models such as water rockets or small solid rockets that can be purchased at a hobby store, to the enormous Saturn V used for the Apollo program, and in many different vehicle types such as rocket cars and rocket planes. RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ... Water Rocket Launch A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. ... A hobby store is a place dedicated to the selling of things that people usually employ for their personal satisfaction. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... A rocket car is a land vehicle powered by a rocket engine. ... A rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket for propulsion, sometimes in addition to jet engines. ...

Saturn V is the biggest rocket to have successfully flown
Saturn V is the biggest rocket to have successfully flown

Most current rockets are chemically powered rockets (usually internal combustion engines[41], but some employ a decomposing monopropellant) that emit a hot exhaust gas. A chemical rocket engine can use gas propellant, solid propellant, liquid propellant, or a hybrid mixture of both solid and liquid. With combustive propellants a chemical reaction is initiated between the fuel and the oxidizer in the combustion chamber, and the resultant hot gases accelerate out of a nozzle (or nozzles) at the rearward-facing end of the rocket. The acceleration of these gases through the engine exerts force ("thrust") on the combustion chamber and nozzle, propelling the vehicle (in accordance with Newton's Third Law). See rocket engine for details. For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... A (usually liquid) rocket propellant that can be used by itself, without the need for a second component. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... NASA Image of the final solid rocket booster (right) being mated to a Delta II rocket (blue). ... A liquid rocket engine has fuel and oxidizer in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid rocket or gaseous propellant. ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Rocket Nozzle A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet...


Rockets in which the heat is supplied from a souce other than a propellant, such as solar thermal rockets, can be classed as external combustion engines. Other examples of external combustion rocket engines include most designs for nuclear powered rocket engines. Use of hydrogen as the propellant for such engines gives very high exhaust velocities (around 6-10 km/s).[42] Solar thermal propulsion is a form of spacecraft propulsion that makes use of solar power to directly heat reaction mass, and therefore does not require an electrical generator as most other forms of solar-powered propulsion do. ... An external combustion engine is an engine which burns its fuel to heat a separate working fluid which then in turn performs work. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

Water rockets are flown for recreational purposes
Water rockets are flown for recreational purposes

Steam rockets, are another example of non chemical rockets. These rockets release very hot water through a nozzle[43] where, due to the lower pressure there, it instantly flashes to high velocity steam, propelling the rocket. The efficiency of steam as a rocket propellant is relatively low, but it is simple and reasonably safe, and the propellant is cheap and widely available. Most steam rockets have been used for propelling land-based vehicles but a small steam rocket was tested in 2004 on board the UK-DMC satellite, as an alternative, with higher performance, to cold gas thrusters for attitude jets. There are even proposals to use steam rockets for interplanetary transport using either nuclear or solar heating as the power source to vaporize water collected from around the solar system, at system costs that are claimed to be greatly lower than hydrogen-based systems.[44] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x1853, 927 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rocket ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x1853, 927 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rocket ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... A cold gas thruster is a rocket engine/thruster that uses a (typically inert) gas as the reaction mass. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...




Uses

Rockets or other similar reaction devices carrying their own propellant must be used when there is no other substance (land, water, or air) or force (gravity, magnetism, light) that a vehicle may usefully employ for propulsion, such as in space. In these circumstances, it is necessary to carry all the propellant to be used. A reaction engine is an engine which provides propulsion by expelling reaction mass, in accordance with Newtons third law of motion. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ...


However, they are also useful in other situations:

A Boeing MIM-115 surface-to-air missile
A Boeing MIM-115 surface-to-air missile
Weaponry
Main article: Missile

In many military weapons, rockets are used to propel payloads to their targets. A rocket and its payload together are generally referred to as a missile, especially when the weapon has a guidance system. Image File history File links http://www. ... Image File history File links http://www. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... A guidance system is a device or group of devices used to navigate a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or other craft. ...

A Bumper sounding rocket
A Bumper sounding rocket
Science
Main article: Sounding rocket
See also: Space probe

Sounding rockets[45] are commonly used to carry instruments that take readings from 50 kilometers (30 mi) to 1,500 kilometers (930 mi) above the surface of the Earth, the altitudes between those reachable by weather balloons and satellites. Bumper car image, altered patent drawing This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bumper car image, altered patent drawing This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Bumper was a V2-derived sounding rocket used by the United States to gather data from high altitudes. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ...

Launch
Space Shuttle Atlantis during launch phase, showing both solid (SRBs) and liquid fueled (Shuttle) rocket engines in use.
Space Shuttle Atlantis during launch phase, showing both solid (SRBs) and liquid fueled (Shuttle) rocket engines in use.
Main article: Launch vehicle

Due to their high exhaust velocity (Mach ~10+), rockets are particularly useful when very high speeds are required, such as orbital speed (Mach 25+). Indeed, rockets remain the only way to launch spacecraft into orbit. They are also used to rapidly accelerate spacecraft when they change orbits or de-orbit for landing. Also, a rocket may be used to soften a hard parachute landing immediately before touchdown (see Soyuz spacecraft). Spacecraft delivered into orbital trajectories become artificial satellites. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x1929, 610 KB) http://www1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x1929, 610 KB) http://www1. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...

Hobby, sport and entertainment

Hobbyists build and fly Model rockets of various types and rockets are used to launch both commercially available fireworks and professional fireworks displays. A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ...


Hydrogen peroxide rockets are used to power jet packs,[46] and have been used to power cars and a rocket car holds the all time drag racing record.[47] R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... A jet pack is a technology that is not yet practical but often appears in fiction. ... A rocket car is a land vehicle powered by a rocket engine. ... Top Fuel dragster Drag racing is a sport in which cars race down a track with a set distance as fast as possible. ...




Components of a rocket

Rockets at minimum have a place to put propellant (such as a propellant tank), one or more rocket engines and nozzle, directional stabilization device(s) (such as fins, attitude jets or engine gimbals) and a structure (typically monocoque) to hold these components together. Rockets intended for high speed atmospheric use also have an aerodynamic fairing such as a nose cone. RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... Figure 1: A de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow The main type of rocket engine nozzles used in modern rocket engines is the de Laval nozzle which is used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases, from burning propellants... // In the context of spacecraft, attitude control is control of the angular position and rotation of the spacecraft, either relative to the object that it is orbiting, or relative to the celestial sphere. ... FINS is a network protocol used by Omron PLCs, over different physical networks like Ethernet, Controller Link, DeviceNet and RS-232C. Categories: | ... A gimbal is a mechanical device that allows the rotation of an object in multiple dimensions. ... Monocoque (French for single shell) is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... A nose cone that contained one of the Voyager spacecraft is seen here as it is mounted on top of a Titan III/Centaur launch vehicle. ...


Noise

For all but the very smallest sizes, rocket exhaust compared to other engines is generally very noisy indeed. As the hypersonic exhaust mixes with the ambient air, shock waves are formed. The sound intensity from these shock waves depends on the size of the rocket, and on large rockets could potentially kill at close range.[48] Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... The sound intensity, I, (acoustic intensity) is defined as the sound power Pac per unit area A. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listeners location. ...


The Space Shuttle generates over 200 dB(A) of noise around its base. A Saturn V launch was detectable on seismometers a considerable distance from the launch site. This article is about the space vehicle. ... The A-weighting curve dB(A) or dBA stands for decibels adjusted. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Seismometers (in Greek seismos = earthquake and metero = measure) are used by seismologists to measure and record the size and force of seismic waves. ...


Generally speaking, noise is most intense when a rocket is close to the ground, since the noise from the engines radiates up away from the plume, as well as reflecting off the ground. This noise can be reduced somewhat by flame trenches with roofs, by water injection around the plume and by deflecting the plume at an angle.[48]


For manned rockets various methods are used to reduce the sound intensity as much as possible, and typically the placement of the astronauts as far from the rocket engines as possible helps. When a vehicle goes supersonic the sound cuts off as the sound waves are no longer able to keep up with the vehicle.[48]




Physics

Operation

Main article: Rocket engine

In all rockets, the exhaust is formed from propellants carried within the rocket prior to use.[49] Rocket thrust is due to the rocket engine, which propels the rocket forwards by exhausting the propellant rearwards at extreme high speed. RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ...

Rocket thrust is caused by pressures acting on the combustion chamber and nozzle
Rocket thrust is caused by pressures acting on the combustion chamber and nozzle

In a closed chamber, the pressures are equal in each direction and no acceleration occurs. If an opening is provided at the bottom of the chamber then the pressure is no longer acting on that side. The remaining pressures give a resultant thrust on the side opposite the opening; as well as permitting exhaust to escape. Using a nozzle increases the forces further, in fact multiplies the thrust as a function of the area ratio of the nozzle, since the pressures also act on the nozzle. As a side effect the pressures act on the exhaust in the opposite direction and accelerate this to very high speeds (in accordance with Newton's Third Law). Image File history File links RocketThrust. ... Image File history File links RocketThrust. ... Newtons laws of motion are the three scientific laws which Isaac Newton discovered concerning the behaviour of moving bodies. ...


If propellant gas is continuously added to the chamber then this disequilibrium of pressures can be maintained for as long as propellant remains.


It turns out (from conservation of momentum) that the speed of the exhaust of a rocket determines how much momentum increase is created for a given amount of propellant, and this is termed a rocket's specific impulse. In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ...


As the remaining propellant decreases, the vehicle's becomes lighter and acceleration tends to increase until eventually it runs out of propellant, and this means that much of the speed change occurs towards the end of the burn when the vehicle is much lighter.


Forces on a rocket

Forces on a rocket in flight

The general study of the forces on a rocket or other spacecraft is called astrodynamics. Astrodynamics is the study of the motion of rockets, missiles, and space vehicles, as determined from Sir Isaac Newtons laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. ...


Rockets are primarily affected by the following during flight:[50]

In addition, the inertia/centrifugal pseudo-force can be significant due to the path of the rocket around the center of a celestial body; when high enough speeds in the right direction and altitude are achieved a stable orbit or escape velocity is obtained. Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... The lift force, lifting force or simply lift is a mechanical force generated by solid objects as they move through a fluid. ... A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket for propulsion, sometimes in addition to jet engines. ... Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum centre and fugere to flee) is a term which may refer to two different forces which are related to rotation. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ...


During a rocket launch, there is a point of maximum aerodynamic drag called Max Q. This determines the minimum aerodynamic strength of the vehicle. A visible shock wave formed as the Apollo 11 Saturn V encountered Maximum Dynamic Pressure (Max Q) at about 1 minute 20 seconds into the flight (altitude 12. ...


These forces, with a stabilising tail present will cause the vehicle to follow a gravity turn trajectory, and this trajectory is often used during a launch. A gravity turn is a maneuver used in launching spacecraft into, and descending from, orbits around a celestial body such as a planet or a moon. ... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch...

Due to the supersonic nature of the exhaust jet the exit pressure can be different to atmospheric pressure. Nozzles are said to be underexpanded (higher than ambient pressure), ambient or overexpanded (below ambient pressure). If under or overexpanded then loss of efficiency occurs, grossly overexpanded nozzles lose less efficiency, but the exhaust jet is usually unstable. Rockets become progressively more underexpanded as they gain altitude. Note that almost all rocket engines will be momentarily grossly overexpanded during startup in an atmosphere.
Due to the supersonic nature of the exhaust jet the exit pressure can be different to atmospheric pressure. Nozzles are said to be underexpanded (higher than ambient pressure), ambient or overexpanded (below ambient pressure). If under or overexpanded then loss of efficiency occurs, grossly overexpanded nozzles lose less efficiency, but the exhaust jet is usually unstable. Rockets become progressively more underexpanded as they gain altitude. Note that almost all rocket engines will be momentarily grossly overexpanded during startup in an atmosphere.[51]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Net thrust

The thrust of a rocket is often deliberately varied over a flight, to provide a way to control the airspeed of the vehicle so as to minimise aerodynamic losses but also so as to limit g-forces that would otherwise occur during the flight as the propellant mass decreases, which could damage the vehicle, crew or payload. The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ...


Below is an approximate equation for calculating the net thrust of a rocket:

F_n = dot{m};V_{e} + A_{e}(P_{e} - P_{amb})[52]

where:

 dot{m} =,exhaust gas mass flow
V_{e} =,jet velocity at nozzle exit plane
A_{e} =,flow area at nozzle exit plane
P_{e} =,static pressure at nozzle exit plane
P_{amb} =,ambient (or atmospheric) pressure

Since, unlike a jet engine, a conventional rocket motor lacks an air intake, there is no 'ram drag' to deduct from the gross thrust. Consequently the net thrust of a rocket motor is equal the gross thrust.


The dot{m}V_{e}, term represents the momentum thrust, which remains constant at a given throttle setting, whereas the A_{e}(P_{e} - P_{amb}), term represents the pressure thrust term. At full throttle, the net thrust of a rocket motor improves slightly with increasing altitude, because the reducing atmospheric pressure increases the pressure thrust term.


Note that because rockets choke at the throat it turns out that the pressure at the exit is ideally exactly proportional to the propellant flow  dot{m}, provided the mixture ratios and combustion efficiencies are maintained. It is thus quite usual to rearrange the above equation slightly: Choked flow is a hydrodynamic condition caused by the Venturi effect. ...

 Fvac = C_f dot{m} c^*[53]

and so define the vacuum Isp to be:

Vevac = Cfc *

Where:

c^* =, the speed of sound constant at the throat
C_f =, the thrust coefficient constant of the nozzle (typically between 0.8 and 1.9)

And hence:

 F_n = dot{m} V_{evac} - A_{e} P_{amb}

Specific impulse

As can be seen from the thrust equation the effective speed of the exhaust, Ve, has a large impact on the amount of thrust produced from a particular quantity of fuel burnt per second. The thrust-seconds (impulse) per unit of propellant is called Specific Impulse (Isp) or effective exhaust velocity and this is one of the most important figures that describes a rocket's performance. For other uses, see Impulse (disambiguation). ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ...

A map of approximate Delta-v's around the solar system between Earth and Mars[54][55]

General In general physics delta-v is simply the change in velocity. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...

Delta-v (rocket equation)

The delta-v capacity of a rocket is the theoretical total change in velocity that a rocket can achieve without any external interference (without air drag or gravity or other forces). Tsiolkovskys rocket equation, named after Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who independently derived it, considers the principle of a rocket: a device that can apply an acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed in the opposite direction, due to the conservation of momentum. ... General In general physics delta-v is simply the change in velocity. ...


The delta-v that a rocket vehicle can provide can be calculated from the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation[56]: Tsiolkovskys rocket equation, named after Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who independently derived it, considers the principle of a rocket: a device that can apply an acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed in the opposite direction, due to the conservation of momentum. ...

Delta v = v_e ln frac {m_0} {m_1}

where:

m0 is the initial total mass, including propellant, in kg (or lb)
m1 is the final total mass in kg (or lb)
ve is the effective exhaust velocity in m/s or (ft/s) or V_e = I_{sp} cdot g_0
Delta v is the delta-v in m/s (or ft/s)

Delta-v can also be calculated for a particular manoeuvre; for example the delta-v to launch from the surface of the Earth to Low earth orbit is about 9.7 km/s, which leaves the vehicle with a sideways speed of about 7.8 km/s at an altitude of around 200 km. In this manoeuvre about 1.9 km/s is lost in air drag, gravity drag and gaining altitude. A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ...

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation gives a relationship between the mass ratio and the final velocity in multiples of the exhaust speed
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation gives a relationship between the mass ratio and the final velocity in multiples of the exhaust speed

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1014 × 670 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1014 × 670 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Mass ratios

Mass ratio is the ratio between the initial fuelled mass and the mass after the 'burn'.[57] Everything else being equal, a high mass ratio is desirable for good performance, since it indicates that the rocket is lightweight and hence performs better, for essentially the same reasons that low weight is desirable in sports cars.


Rockets as a group have the highest thrust-to-weight ratio of any type of engine; and this helps vehicles achieve high mass ratios, which improves the performance of flights. The higher this ratio, the less engine mass is needed to be carried and permits the carrying of even more propellant, this enormously improves performance. Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ... In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the proportion of a rocket that is propellant. ...


Achievable mass ratios are highly dependent on many factors such as the type of engine the vehicle uses and structural safety margins. Common mass ratios for launch vehicles are 20:1 for dense propellants such as liquid oxygen and kerosene, 25:1 for dense monopropellants such as hydrogen peroxide, and 10:1 or worse for liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ...

Rocket propulsive efficiency as a function of vehicle speed divided by effective exhaust speed

Image File history File links PropulsiveEfficiency. ... Image File history File links PropulsiveEfficiency. ... In aircraft design, overall propulsive efficiency is the efficiency, in percent, with which the energy contained in fuel is converted into propulsive energy. ...

Energy efficiency

Rocket launch vehicles take-off with a great deal of flames, noise and drama, and it might seem obvious that they are grievously inefficient. However while they are far from perfect, their energy efficiency is not as bad as might be supposed.


The energy density of rocket propellant is around 1/3 that of conventional hydrocarbon fuels; the bulk of the mass is in the form of (often relatively inexpensive) oxidiser. Nevertheless, at take-off the rocket has a great deal of energy in the form of fuel and oxidiser stored within the vehicle, and it is of course desirable that as much of the energy stored in the propellant ends up as kinetic or potential energy of the body of the rocket as possible. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. ...


Energy from the fuel is lost in air drag and gravity drag and is used to gain altitude. However, much of the lost energy ends up in the exhaust.[58] In astrodynamics, gravity drag is inefficiency encountered by a spacecraft thrusting while moving against a gravitational field. ...


100% efficiency within the engine (ηc) would mean that all of the heat energy of the combustion products is converted into kinetic energy of the jet. This is not possible, but the high expansion ratio nozzles that can be used with rockets come surprisingly close: when the nozzle expands the gas, the gas is cooled and accelerated, and an energy efficiency of up to 70% can be achieved. Most of the rest is heat energy in the exhaust that is not recovered.[58] This compares very well with other engine designs. The high efficiency is a consequence of the fact that rocket combustion can be performed at very high temperatures and the gas is finally released at much lower temperatures, and so giving good Carnot efficiency. A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... Figure 1: A de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow The main type of rocket engine nozzles used in modern rocket engines is the de Laval nozzle which is used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases, from burning propellants... The Carnot heat engine uses a particular thermodynamic cycle studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Thomas Benoit in the 1840s and 50s. ...


However, engine efficiency is not the whole story. In common with many jet-based engines, but particularly in rockets due to their high and typically fixed exhaust speeds, rocket vehicles are extremely inefficient at low speeds irrespective of the engine efficiency. The problem is that at low speeds, the exhaust carries away a huge amount of kinetic energy rearward. This phenomenon is termed propulsive efficiency (ηp).[58] A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... In aircraft design, overall propulsive efficiency is the efficiency, in percent, with which the energy contained in fuel is converted into propulsive energy. ...


However, as speeds rise, the resultant exhaust speed goes down, and the overall vehicle energetic efficiency rises, reaching a peak of around 100% of the engine efficiency when the vehicle is travelling exactly at the same speed that the exhaust is emitted. In this case the exhaust would ideally stop dead in space behind the moving vehicle, taking away zero energy, and from conservation of energy, all the energy ends up in the vehicle. The efficiency then drops off again at even higher speeds as the exhaust ends up travelling forwards behind the vehicle.


The propulsive efficiency ηp for a rocket moving at speed u with an exhaust velocity c is:

eta_p= frac {2 frac {u} {c}} {1 + ( frac {u} {c} )^2 }[58]

And the overall energy efficiency η is:

η = ηpηc

Since the energy ultimately comes from fuel, these joint considerations mean that rockets are mainly useful when a very high speed is required, such as ICBMs or orbital launch, and they are rarely if ever used for general aviation. For example, from the equation, with an ηc of 0.7, a rocket flying at Mach 0.85 (which most aircraft cruise at) with an exhaust velocity of Mach 10, would have a predicted overall energy efficiency of 5.9%, whereas a conventional, modern, air breathing jet engine achieves closer to 30% or more efficiency. Thus a rocket would need about 5x more energy; and allowing for a ~3x lower specific energy of rocket fuel than conventional air fuel, roughly 15x more mass of propellant would need to be carried for the same journey. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) in the general sense is a spaceflight where the trajectory of a spacecraft reaches the height of, and through having an appropriate velocity enters into, orbit around an astronomical body. ...


Thus jet engines which have a better match between speed and jet exhaust speed such as turbofans (in spite of their worse ηc) dominate for subsonic and supersonic atmospheric use while rockets work best at hypersonic speeds. On the other hand rockets do also see many short-range relatively low speed military applications where their low-speed inefficiency is outweighed by their extremely high thrust and hence high accelerations. CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ...

Staging involves dropping off unnecessary parts of the rocket to reduce weight

This image was downloaded from http://artgallery. ... This image was downloaded from http://artgallery. ...

Staging

Main article: Multistage rocket

Often, the required velocity (delta-v) for a mission is unattainable by any single rocket because the propellant, tankage, structure, guidance, valves and engines and so on, take a particular minimum percentage of take-off mass. The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is a rocket that uses two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... A guidance system is a device or group of devices used to navigate a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or other craft. ...


The mass ratios that can be achieved with a single set of fixed rocket engines and tankage varies depends on acceleration required, construction materials, tank layout, engine type and propellants used, but for example the first stage of the Saturn V, carrying the weight of the upper stages, was able to achieve a mass ratio of about 10.

Apollo 6 while dropping the interstage ring
Apollo 6 while dropping the interstage ring

This problem is frequently solved by staging — the rocket sheds excess weight (usually empty tankage and associated engines) during launch to reduce its weight and effectively increase its mass ratio. Staging is either serial where the rockets light one after the previous stage has fallen away, or parallel, where rockets are burning together and then detach when they burn out.[59] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x716, 74 KB)Still from film footage showing interstage between the S-IC first stage and S-II second stage falling away during the Apollo 6 flight. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x716, 74 KB)Still from film footage showing interstage between the S-IC first stage and S-II second stage falling away during the Apollo 6 flight. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket Description A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is, like any rocket, propelled by the recoil pressure of the burning gases it emits as it burns fuel. ... In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the proportion of a rocket that is propellant. ...


Typically, the acceleration of a rocket increases with time (if the thrust stays the same) as the weight of the rocket decreases as propellant is burned. Discontinuities in acceleration will occur when stages burn out, often starting at a lower acceleration with each new stage firing.

Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after launch when hot gases escaped the SRBs
Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after launch when hot gases escaped the SRBs

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3555x2879, 1327 KB) Summary Short Description: Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take-off. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3555x2879, 1327 KB) Summary Short Description: Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take-off. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... See also: SRB Srb is a litle town located in the southeastern part of Lika, Croatia. ...

Safety, reliability and accidents

Main article: Space disaster

Rockets are not inherently highly dangerous. In military usage quite adequate reliability is obtained. Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after launch due to hot gases escaping the SRBs cutting a hole into the external tank. ...


Because of the enormous chemical energy in all useful rocket fuels (greater energy per weight than explosives, but lower than gasoline), accidents can and have happened. The number of people injured or killed is usually small because of the great care typically taken, but this record is not perfect. Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... Petrol redirects here. ...


References

  • Harford, James (1997). Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14853-9. 

Notes

  1. ^ Rockets in Ancient Times (100 B.C. to 17th Century)
  2. ^ Leofranc Holford-Strevens, Aulus Gellius: An Antonine Author and his Achievement (Oxford University Press; revised paperback edn. 2005)
    • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  3. ^ A Brief History of Rocketry
  4. ^ (正大九年)其守城之具有火砲名「震天雷」者,铁罐盛药,以火点之,砲起火发,其声如雷,闻百里外,所爇围半亩之上,火点著甲铁皆透。(蒙古)大兵又为牛皮洞,直至城下,掘城为龛,间可容人,则城上不可奈何矣。人有献策者,以铁绳悬「震天雷」者,顺城而下,至掘处火发,人与牛皮皆碎迸无迹。又「飞火枪」,注药以火发之,辄前烧十余步,人亦不敢近。(蒙古)大兵惟畏此二物云。(Rough Translation: [Year 1232] Among the weaponry at the defense city [Kaifeng] are the "thundercrash", which were made of iron pot, and filled with drugs [black powder], when lighted with fire, it exploded, making a noise like thunder. It could be heard over 100 li, and could toasted more than a third of an acre, moreover it could penetrate the armours and iron. The [Mongol] soldiers employed a siege carriage cloaked with cowskin and advance to the city below, they grubbed a niche on the city-wall, which could spare a man between. The [Jin] defenders atop did not know what to do, later an advice had offered. The pot was then dropped with an iron string from the fortress, it reached to the niche area and exploded, men and carriage were blown to pieces without trace. They also have the "flying fire-lance", which was infused with drug [black powder] and ignited it, it flames within a range of over ten paces on the front, men are not dare to near. It is say that the [Mongol] soldiers only terrify by these two objects.) History of Jin ch. 113
  5. ^ Crosby, Alfred W. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 100–103. ISBN 0521791588. 
  6. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 510.
  7. ^ Frank H. Winter, "The `Boun Bang Fai' Rockets of Thailand and Laos:," in Lloyd H. Cornett, Jr., ed., History of Rocketry and Astronautics - Proceedings of the Twentieth and Twenty-First History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics, AAS History Series, Vol. 15 (Univelt Inc.: San Diego, 1993), pp. 3-24.
  8. ^ NASA Spacelink - "A brief history of rocketry". Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  9. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nasa
  10. ^ A Brief History of Rocketry
  11. ^ Von Braun, Wernher & Frederick I. Ordway, III. HISTORY OF ROCKETRY AND SPACE TRAVEL, 1966
  12. ^ a b Stephen Leslie (1887) Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.XII, p.9, Macmillan & Co., New York Congreve, Sir William,
  13. ^ Smithsonian article on Hale rockets.
  14. ^ Fundamentals of Jet Propulsion with Applications
  15. ^ Rockets and Jets by American author Herbert S. Zim in 1945
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ Winter, Frank H. (1992). "Who First Flew in a Rocket?", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 45 (July 1992), p. 275-80
  18. ^ Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices (Russian paper)
  19. ^ Johnson W., "Contents and commentary on William Moore's a treatise on the motion of rockets and an essay on naval gunnery", International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 16, Number 3, June 1995, pp. 499-521
  20. ^ A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes- Goddard 1919
  21. ^ "Topics of the Times", New York Times, January 13, 1920. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. "As a method of sending a missile to the higher, and even highest, part of the earth's atmospheric envelope, Professor Goddard's multiple-charge rocket is a practicable, and therefore promising device. Such a rocket, too, might carry self-recording instruments, to be released at the limit of its flight, and conceivable parachutes would bring them safely to the ground. It is not obvious, however, that the instruments would return to the point of departure; indeed, it is obvious that they would not, for parachutes drift exactly as balloons do. And the rocket, or what was left of it after the last explosion, would have to be aimed with amazing skill, and in dead calm, to fall on the spot where it started." 
  22. ^ (Romanian) Jürgen Heinz Ianzer, Hermann Oberth, pǎrintele zborului cosmic ("Hermann Oberth, Father of the Cosmic Flight"), p. 3, 11, 13, 15.
  23. ^ Goddard, Robert H., Rockets [Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2002], pp. 2, 15.
  24. ^ Clary, David A., Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age [N.Y., N.Y.: Hyperion, 2003], pp. 44-45.
  25. ^ HISTORY OF ROCKETRY: Verein für Raumschiffahrt (VfR)
  26. ^ A Rocket Drive For Long Range Bombers by E. Saenger and J. Bredt, August 1944
  27. ^ van der Linden, Frank H (November 2007), "Out of the Past", Aerospace America: p39
  28. ^ The V-2 ballistic missile
  29. ^ A4/V2 Mobile Firing Operations 1944-45
  30. ^ A9/A10
  31. ^ http://www.archives.gov/iwg/declassified-records/rg-330-defense-secretary/ Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration]
  32. ^ International Space Hall of Fame: Sergei Korolev
  33. ^ Rocket R-7. S.P.Korolev RSC Energia.
  34. ^ (PDF) Hypersonics Before the Shuttle: A Concise History of the X-15 Research Airplane (NASA SP-2000-4518, 2000)
  35. ^ Houchin, Roy (2006). U.S. Hypersonic Research and Development: The Rise and Fall of Dyna-Soar, 1944–1963. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36281-4. 
  36. ^ New York Times 17 June 1969 - A Correction
  37. ^ Mcdonnell Douglas AIR-2A "Genie" rocket
  38. ^ GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS WING
  39. ^ NASA's great observatories
  40. ^ Futron report
  41. ^ Concise Britannica- internal combustion engines
  42. ^ Nuclear Rocket Technologies
  43. ^ tecaeromex- steam rockets
  44. ^ Neofuel-new fuel: Near Earth Object fuel
  45. ^ Marconi, Elaine M. (April 12, 2004). What is a Sounding Rocket?. Research Aircraft. NASA. Retrieved on October 10, 2006.
  46. ^ THE ROCKET BELT
  47. ^ Sammy Miller
  48. ^ a b c NASA CR-566
  49. ^ [Rocket Propulsion Elements - 7th edition, chapter 1]
  50. ^ NASA- Four forces on a model rocket
  51. ^ Huzel, D. K. and Huang, D. H. (1971). NASA SP-125, Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, 2nd Edition, NASA. 
  52. ^ Rocket Propulsion Elements seventh edition eq-2-14
  53. ^ Rocket Propulsion Elements seventh edition eq-3-33
  54. ^ table of cislunar/mars delta-vs
  55. ^ cislunar delta-vs
  56. ^ Choose Your Engine
  57. ^ Rocket Mass Ratios
  58. ^ a b c d Rocket Propulsion elements- seventh edition, pg 37-38
  59. ^ Rocket staging

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See also

Lists

General rocketry This is a list of all spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date. ... This article gives a concise timeline of rocket and missile technology. ... These are tables showing all the tests of rockets that have been carried out in Pakistan since the early 1960s. ... The following a list of rockets. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ...

Recreational rocketry F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rockets combustion chamber. ... A Tripropellant rocket is a form of spacecraft propulsion that uses two fuels and one oxidizer. ... A Hot Water Rocket (also steam pressure rocket) is a water rocket, in which the water in the rocket is heated up on high temperature (approx. ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... A pulsed rocket motor is typically defined as a multiple pulse solid propellant rocket motor. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... A rocket launch site is a facility for the launch of rockets. ... Figure 1: A de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow The main type of rocket engine nozzles used in modern rocket engines is the de Laval nozzle which is used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases, from burning propellants... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... Tsiolkovskys rocket equation, named after Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who independently derived it, considers the principle of a rocket: a device that can apply an acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed in the opposite direction, due to the conservation of momentum. ...

Recreational pyrotechnic rocketry A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ... High-power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry, with the major difference being that higher impulse range motors are used. ... Water Rocket Launch A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. ... A balloon rocket is a balloon filled with air (or also another gas). ...

  • Bottle rocket - small firework type rocket often launched from bottles
  • Skyrocket - fireworks that typically explode at apogee

Weaponry For other uses, see Bottle Rocket (disambiguation). ... A skyrocket is a type of firework that uses a solid rocket motor to rise quickly into the sky. ...

Rockets for Research An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shin Ki Chon is a Korean artillery weapon, first built in the year of 1448 A.D. and used during the Choson Dynasty. ... BM-13 Katyusha RS-132 rockets mounted underneath the wing of LaGG-3 fighter Damage caused to a German tank Pz Kpfw 38(t) by direct hit of RS-132 The 82mm BM-8 and 132mm BM-13 Katyusha rocket launchers were built and fielded by the Soviet Union in... Artists impression of a Shkval torpedo. ... Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a large bubble of gas inside a liquid, allowing an object to travel at great speed through the liquid by being wholly enveloped by the bubble. ...

Misc There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket for propulsion, sometimes in addition to jet engines. ... A rocket sled is essentially a small railroad car with rockets attached. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ...

Spaceflight Portal

A Regulus cruise missile was used for one attempt to deliver mail. ... A pulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a very simple form of internal combustion engine wherein the combustion occurs in pulses and the propulsive effort is a jet; a reaction to the rearward flow of hot gases. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of altitude records reached by different aircraft types. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3029 words)
rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine.
After the war, rockets were used to study high-altitude conditions, by radio telemetry of temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, detection of cosmic rays, and further research.
Rockets became extremely military important in the form of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) when it was realised that nuclear weapons carried on a rocket vehicle were essentially not defensible against once launched, and they became the delivery platform of choice for these weapons.
Encyclopedia4U - Rocket - Encyclopedia Article (540 words)
Rockets range in size from tiny models that can be purchased at a hobby store, to the enormous Saturn V used for the Apollo program.
Rockets are commonly used when it is necessary to carry all the fuel a vehicle needs (such as in outer space) and there is no other substance (land, water, or air) that a vehicle may push itself with.
V2 Rockets, designed by Wernher Von Braun, one of the principal players in modern rocket development, were used extensively by Adolf Hitler in the latter stages of World War II as weapons of reprisal against the British population.
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