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Encyclopedia > Rockers reggae
Reggae
Stylistic origins: R&B, Jazz, Mento, Calypso, Nyabinghi drumming, Ska, Rocksteady
Cultural origins: 1960s onwards, Jamaica, especially Kingston
Typical instruments: Bass - Drums - Guitar - Organ - Brass - Melodica
Mainstream popularity: 1970s onwards, worldwide
Derivative forms: Trip hop - Drum and bass
Subgenres
Roots rock reggae - Dub - Dub poetry - Dee jaying - Dancehall - Ragga - Raggamuffin - Rockers reggae
Fusion genres
Reggaeton - Jamoo - Seggae- Trip hop - Drum and bass
Regional scenes
African - UK - Japanese - Dutch - Fijian - Hawaii - New Zealand - Slovenia - Spain
Other topics
Jamaica - Rastafarianism - Haile Selassie - Marcus Mosiah Garvey

Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. It is founded upon its rhythm style, which is characterized by regular chops on the backbeat, played by the rhythm guitarist and the bass drum often hitting on the third beat of each measure-- this is called the "one drop." Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Jazz is a musical art form characterized by blue notes, syncopation, swing, call and response, polyrhythms, and improvisation. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced reggae music. ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in the British and French colonial islands of the Caribbean at about the start of the 20th century it is an especially integral part of Trinidadian music. ... This page is about ska, the musical style. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ... A musical instrument is a device that has been constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Fender Precision Bass Bass Guitar is a commonly spoken phrase used to refer to the electric bass and horizontal acoustic basses, a stringed instrument similar in design to the electric guitar, but larger in size, commonly fretted and sometimes fretless and with a lower range. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... The classical guitar typically has nylon strings. ... This article or section should be merged with Pipe organ The Casavant pipe organ at Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Montreal The organ is a type of keyboard musical instrument, distinctive because the sound is not produced by a percussion action, as on a piano or celesta, or by... Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. ... The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... The term Reggae is, in a proper sense, only supposed to cover the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 or 1985 (depending on how you look at it). ... Roots Reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica, which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and made famous by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Dub Poetry is a form of performance poetry consisting of spoken word over reggae rhythms, that originated in Jamaica in the 1970s. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican reggae which developed around 1979, with artists such as Barrington Levy and others who went on to become the Roots Radics. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... Reggaeton is a Spanish language genre of Dancehall with distinct Hip hop and Pop Music influences, originating in Panama. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... African reggae is true roots music. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or the Rastafarian movement, or simply Rasta as adherents prefer to call it, is a religious movement which reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is seen... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Marcus Garvey (far right) in parade Marcus Mosiah Garvey (August 17, 1887 - June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, crusader for black nationalism and founder of the UNIA-ACL. Garvey, is best remembered as a champion of the so-called back-to-Africa movement, which was interpreted as encouraging... This article needs cleanup. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or the Rastafarian movement, or simply Rasta as adherents prefer to call it, is a religious movement which reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is seen... In popular music back beat is a percussion style or technique used in common time (4/4) where a strong rhythmic accent is sounded on the second and fourth beats of the bar, the backbeats, most often from striking a snare drum. ... Rhythm guitar is the role of the guitar in playing accompaniment in various musical styles. ...

Contents

Origins

Its origins can be found in traditional African Caribbean music as well as US R&B. Ska and rocksteady are 1960s precursors of reggae. In 1963 Jackie Mittoo was asked to run sessions and compose original music by record producer Coxsone Dodd at his Studio One record studio. Mittoo turned the traditional ska beat into reggae. Bob Marley, who later popularized the style on a world-wide basis, also recorded rocksteady records early in his career. By the late 1960's reggae was already getting radio play in the UK on John Peel's radio show. This article needs cleanup. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... This page is about ska, the musical style. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ... Born 3 March 1948 in Browns Town, St. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Studio One is one of Reggaes most renowned record labels, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley ( February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, and songwriter from Saint Ann, Jamaica. ... A career is a course of successive situations that make up some activity. ... John Peel John Robert Parker Ravenscroft, OBE (30 August 1939 – 25 October 2004), known professionally as John Peel, was a British disc jockey and radio presenter. ...


Styles

In Jamaica however, new styles are nowadays becoming more popular, among them, dancehall and ragga (or raggamuffin reggae). Dub is an instrumental sub-style of reggae. Mixing techniques employed in dub probably influenced Hip hop, drum and bass and other styles. In any case, the toasting or dee jaying of raggamuffin reggae—first used by artists such as Dillinger or U-Roy—had a world-wide impact because Jamaican DJ Kool Herc used them as he came up with a new style later called hip hop or rap music. In the Jamaican sense of the word, a DJ is an MC or rapper, whereas the DJ is called (music) selector in Jamaica. Therefore what is called dee jaying or chatting in Jamaica is called rapping in most other parts of the world. Dancehall is a type of Jamaican reggae which developed around 1979, with artists such as Barrington Levy and others who went on to become the Roots Radics. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... for film versions of Dillinger, see Dillinger in film for the gangster, see John Dillinger Dillinger, born Lester Bullocks on January 25, 1953, is a prominent reggae artist. ... U-Roy (born Ewart Beckford September 21, 1942 in Jones Town, Jamaica, also known as The Originator, Hugh Roy) U-Roys musical career began in 1961 (see 1961 in music) when he began DJing at various sound systems, eventually working with King Tubby. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... MC can be used: (along with emcee), as the abbreviation for Master of Ceremonies in reference to MobCulture, a browser-based click-through MMORPG set in the near future. ... Alphanumeric List 1-9 1200 Techniques 2 Live Crew Fresh Kid Ice Luke Skyywalker Mr. ... A selector can be: a reggae disk jockey (who selects music to play) a switch used to choose which function a device will perform This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... The World in Plate Carrée Projection In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is Age of Man. ...


Roots

Music of Jamaica
Kumina Nyabhingi
Mento Ska
Rocksteady Reggae
Jamaican sound system Lovers rock
Dub Dancehall
Dub poetry Toasting
Raggamuffin Rastafarian
Roots reggae Rockers reggae
US UK
Timeline and Samples
British Caribbean Other Anglophone islands
Anguilla Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica
Bermuda Antigua and Barbuda
Montserrat Bahamas and Dominica
Turks and Caicos Barbados and St. Lucia
Caymans Grenada and St. Kitts and Nevis
Virgin Islands St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Other islands
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico

This is the name given to specifically Rastafarian reggae music. It is a spiritual type of music, whose lyrics are predominantly in praise of God or Jah Rastafari, whom they consider to be Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (1892–1975). Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea, known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres, including reggae, dub, raggamuffin and ska. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... Nyabinghi is a legendary Amazon queen, who was said to have possesed a Ugandan woman named Muhumusa in the 19th century. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced reggae music. ... This page is about ska, the musical style. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ... A sound system is a Jamaican patois term for a large street party. ... For the Sade album, Lovers Rock, see Lovers Rock (album) Lovers Rock is Britains main contribution to reggae. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican reggae which developed around 1979, with artists such as Barrington Levy and others who went on to become the Roots Radics. ... Dub Poetry is a form of performance poetry consisting of spoken word over reggae rhythms, that originated in Jamaica in the 1970s. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... Rastafarianism is a religion from Jamaica that has since spread throughout the world. ... Roots Reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica, which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and made famous by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ... The vast majority of the inhabitants of the United States are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. ... 1966 in music Download sample of Alton Ellis rocksteady track Girl Youve Got a Date. Download sample of Cincinatti Kid by Prince Buster, a legendary ska artist. ... Anguilla is best known as part of a wave of Caribbean islands that began producing calypso and related Trinidadian genres, in many cases becoming more popular than artists from the genres homeland. ... The Caribbean state of Trinidad and Tobago is best known as the homeland of calypso music, including 1950s stars Lord Kitchener and Mighty Sparrow. ... Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea, known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres, including reggae, dub, raggamuffin and ska. ... Bermuda is a Caribbean island that is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. ... Antigua and Barbuda is a Caribbean nation in the Lesser Antilles chain. ... Montserrat is a dependency of the United Kingdom. ... The music of the Bahamas is associated primarily with junkanoo, a celebration which occurs on Boxing Day (December 26) and again on New Years Day (January 1). ... In modern Dominica, calypso, zouk and reggae are popular, along with imported soca and rock and roll, and the indigenous jing ping sound. ... The Turks and Caicos Islands are an overseas dependency of the United Kingdom. ... Barbados is home to spouge music, which is played on guitars, mandolins and drums, but is best known as a second home for Trinidadian calypso and soca, as well as a reggae/soca fusion called ragga-soca. ... The island of Saint Lucia, located in the Caribbean, has seen a recent upsurge in interest in its native music. ... The Cayman Islands are a Caribbean island chain, currently a territory of the United Kingdom. ... Grenada is a small Caribbean island nation that has produced several major musicians, including David Emmanuel, one of the best-selling reggae performers ever, and Mighty Sparrow, a legendary calypsonian. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean, known for a number of musical celebrations including Carnival (December 24 to January 2). ... The Virgin Islands are partially controlled by the United Kingdom and the United States, and have had long-standing cultural ties to the island nations to the south as well as to various European colonialists. ... Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Caribbean island with thriving music scenes based on imported steelpan, Big Drum, soca, reggae and calypso. ... Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. ... The Caribbean island of Cuba has been influential in the development of multiple musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Dominican Republic is known primarily for merengue, though bachata and other forms are also popular. ... The music of Haiti is influenced most greatly by French colonial ties and African immigration (through slavery), as well as by its neighbor, the Dominican Republic (see music of the Dominican Republic). ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... The music of Puerto Rico has been influenced by African and European (especially Spanish) forms, and has become popular across the Caribbean and in some communities worldwide. ... This article focuses on the monotheistic concept of a singular God. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to the oppression of government. The creative pinnacle of roots reggae is arguably in the late 1970s, with singers such as Johnny Clarke, Horace Andy, Barrington Levy, and Lincoln Thompson teaming up with studio producers including Lee 'Scratch' Perry, King Tubby, and Coxsone Dodd. The experimental pioneering of such producers within often restricted technological parameters gave birth to dub reggae, and is seen by some music historians as one of the earliest (albeit analogue) contributions to the development of techno. Johnny Clarke was born on 12 January 1955 in Jamaica. ... Horace Andy is a legendary roots reggae singer, notable for such tracks as Government Land, You Are My Angel and Skylarking. ... Barrington Levy (born April 30, 1964) is a reggae and dancehall musician. ... Experience album cover Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, player of instruments and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a Rastafarian. ... King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 - February 6, 1989) is a Jamaican musician, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Dub Reggae is a form of dub music. ... Techno- is a prefix relating to technology. ...


Roots reggae was an important part of Jamaican culture, and whilst other forms of reggae have replaced it in terms of popularity in Jamaica (Dancehall for instance), roots reggae has found a small, but growing, niche globally. Dancehall is a type of Jamaican reggae which developed around 1979, with artists such as Barrington Levy and others who went on to become the Roots Radics. ...


Rockers

Rockers is a sub-genre of popular in the mid to late 1970s, existing simultaneously. The name is derived from the Rockers sound system, owned by Dub legend Augustus Pablo. Rockers is also sometimes known as Lover's Rock, referring to the romantic subject matter prevalent in some artists' work. Important artists and bands include Gregory Isaacs, Horace Andy, Black Uhuru, Junior Murvin and Dennis Brown. Rockers Reggae was also the sub-genre played by British-Jamaican groups Steel Pulse, Aswad and Matumbi. A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954–May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican reggae and dub music record producer and keyboardist, popular during the last half of the 20th century. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... In music, a band is a group of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of a musical arrangement. ... Gregory Isaacs is a Reggae singer, born on 15 July 1951 in Denham Town, Kingston, Jamaica. ... Horace Andy is a legendary roots reggae singer, notable for such tracks as Government Land, You Are My Angel and Skylarking. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Mondays, and Chill Out. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Steel Pulse are a well-known roots reggae outfit. ... Formed by immigrants from the Caribbean, English reggae group Aswad (Black in arabic) are intriguing in that they have performed (according to critics) better music as they added more soul and R&B influences to it. ...

Pogus Caesar is British artist and television producer, director and presenter. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Mondays, and Chill Out. ... Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954–May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican reggae and dub music record producer and keyboardist, popular during the last half of the 20th century. ...

Social issues

One of the main themes of reggae music has been social liberation. This has both political and religious aspects.


Political awakening

The music attempts to raise the political consciousness of the audience:
The American dream
Is not what it seem.
Why do you slumber? (Jimmy Cliff, "American Dream" 1983)


Alternatives to orthodox religious dogma

It also militates for freedom from religious delusion:
Most people think
Great God will come from the skies
Take away everything
And make everybody feel high
But if you know what life is worth
You would look for yours on earth
And now you've seen the light
You stand up for your rights. (Bob Marley, "Get Up, Stand Up")


Freedom of religious expression

Repression of many kinds, and especially repression linked with the prohibition of ganja, or marijuana, which is considered a sacrament by Rastafarians, is another recurring theme in the music. Ganja is both: a slang term for cannabis; and the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. ... Cannabis is a plant which is consumed by humans as a psychoactive drug. ... Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of former emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. ...


Homophobia

In recent years some reggae artists have come under growing criticism and actions for lyrics encouraging homophobia and gay bashing. Homophobic lyrics have been described by J-FLAG, a Jamaican gay right organization, as one aspect of "widespread [Jamaican] cultural bias against homosexuals and bisexuals." Artists whose music features homophobic lyrics, such as Sizzla, have had concerts cancelled. (Sizzla was also banned from entering Great Britain and investigated by Scotland Yard on the accusation that his lyrics incited the audience to murder gays.) This has given cause to the banned artists to claim that their freedom of speech is being curtailed. Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Great Britain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Alternative meanings: Scotland Yard (band), Scotland Yard board game New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, often referred to as simply Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


Reggae music festivals

Jamaican reggae music festivals

Ocho Rios is a city on the northern coast of Jamaica. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ... Montego Bay is a city in Jamaica. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ...

International reggae music festivals

Komárom is a city in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube in Komárom-Esztergom county. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Morrison is a town located in Jefferson County, Colorado. ... There are also three Colorado Rivers: two in the United States and one in Argentina. ... Soča Reggae Riversplash is a music festival in Tolmin, Slovenia at the confluence of the Soča and the Tolminka rivers, dedicated mainly to reggae music and to international musicians. ... Area: 381. ... Slovenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Map of Germany showing Cologne Cologne skyline at night. ... The seaside town of Cannes, in southern France, as seen from a ferry speeding towards lîle Saint Honorat Cannes (Canas in Provençal) ( pronounced ) is a city and commune in southern France, located on the French Riviera, in the Alpes-Maritimes département. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Carnival dancers on Ladbroke Grove. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... For other cities named Perth, see Perth. ... Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) (not included on official coat of arms) Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Governor HE Lieutenant General John Sanderson Premier Dr Geoff Gallop (ALP) Area 2,645,615 km² (1st)  - Land 2,529,875 km²  - Water 115,740 km² (4. ...

Music samples

Music Samples
Buffalo Soldier - Bob Marley

See also

A The Abyssinians Monty Alexander Almamegretta Roland Alphonso Althea & Donna Horace Andy Anthony B Apache Indian Ascher Asher D Arzu Aswad B Backyard Dog The Beat Beatsquad Beenie Man Big Mountain Big Youth Blackstones Black Uhuru Alpha Blondy Bob Marley & the Wailers Born Jamericans Bounty Killer Dennis Bovell Brentford All... Marcus Garvey (far right) in parade Marcus Mosiah Garvey (August 17, 1887 - June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, crusader for black nationalism and founder of the UNIA-ACL. Garvey, is best remembered as a champion of the so-called back-to-Africa movement, which was interpreted as encouraging... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley ( February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, and songwriter from Saint Ann, Jamaica. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafarian God and King Rastafarians call themselves such after Ras (prince) Tafari Makonnen, whose coronation as Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia on November 2, 1930 inspired them to believe that the messiah had returned. ... Heart of the Congos The doctrines of Rastafari depart radically from the norms of the modern western mind, something encouraged deliberately by the Rastas themselves. ... Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea, known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres, including reggae, dub, raggamuffin and ska. ... Location of Kingston Kingston (population 600,000) is the capital of Jamaica and it is located southeast of the country. ...

External links

  • Article (http://www.crosscurrents.org/murrell.htm) — examines the use of psalms in Rasta lyrics
  • [[1]  (http://www.oomgallery.net/gallery.asp?location=36&c=251)]
  • Niceup.com (http://niceup.com/) Oldest Reggae Portal
  • Vibez-Net.com (http://www.vibez-net.com/) Reggae Community
Reggae | Reggae genres
Mento - Rocksteady - Ska
Dub - Dub poetry - Dee jaying - Dancehall - Ragga - Raggamuffin - Reggaeton - Rockers reggae - Roots rock reggae - Skinhead reggae - Two Tone
Other topics
Haile Selassie - Jamaica - Marcus Mosiah Garvey - Rastafarianism - Skinheads

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