FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rockall" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rockall
Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean
Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean

Rockall is a small, uninhabited, rocky islet in the North Atlantic, and one of the sea areas named in the Shipping Forecast broadcast on BBC Radio 4. It could be, in James Fisher's words, the smallest isolated rock, or the most isolated small rock (both ways will do), in the oceans of the world [1]. Image File history File linksMetadata Rockall-photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rockall-photo. ... Mōkōlea Rock in Kailua Bay, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, 2. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... The Shipping Forecast is a four-times-daily BBC radio broadcast of weather reports and forecasts for the seas around the coasts of Britain and Ireland. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... James Fisher (1922 - 1970) was a British author, editor, broadcaster, naturalist and ornithologist. ...


Rockall is within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the United Kingdom.[2][3] In 1997, the UK ratified[4] the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and thus relinquished any claim to an extension of its EEZ beyond the islet. The remaining issue is the status of the continental shelf rights of surrounding ocean floor. These are the exclusive rights to exploit any resources on or under the ocean floor (oil, natural gas, etc.) and should not be confused with the EEZ, as continental shelf rights do not carry any privileges with regard to fisheries. Ownership of these rights in the Rockall area are disputed between the United Kingdom, Denmark (for the Faroe Islands), Ireland and Iceland. Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Name

The origin of the name is debatable but it has been suggested that it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sgeir Rocail which is often translated as "Roaring Rock" although rocail can also be translated as "tearing" or "ripping". There may also be an etymological link with the old Norse hrukka. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...


The first literary reference to the isle, where it is called Rockol, is found in Martin Martin's A Description of the Western isles of Scotland published in 1716 where he gives an account of a voyage to St Kilda where the locals knew the isle as Rockabarra (Rocabarraigh). The name Rocabarraigh is also used in Gaelic folklore for a mythical rock which is supposed to appear three times, the last being at the end of the world. Martin Martin (?1699-1719) was a Scottish writer, he is best known for his work A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland (1695), particularly noted for its information on St Kilda. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... St Kilda (Scottish Gaelic: ) is an isolated archipelago situated 64 kilometres (40 mi) west-northwest of North Uist in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Rocabarra or Rocabarraigh is a phantom island or rock in Gaelic myth, which is supposed to appear three times, the last being at the end of the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

"Nuair a thig Rocabarra ris, is dual gun tèid an Saoghal a sgrios".
(When Rocabarra returns, the world will likely come to be destroyed/ruined)

Geography

The rock is the summit of the eroded core of an extinct volcano and is located at 57°35′48″N, 13°41′19″W, with a diameter of 27 metres, a height of 23 metres and an approximate surface area of 570 m². The surrounding elevated seabed is called Rockall Bank or Rockall Plateau. It is separated from the Western Isles by Rockall Channel (also called Rockall Trough). Anton Dohrn Seamount is a submarine elevation on Rockall Trough about halfway between Rockall and the Outer Hebrides. An Extinct volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting and which is not considered likely to erupt in the future. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ...

Rockall Bank and Trough
Rockall Bank and Trough

Rockall, though nearer to mainland Ireland than it is to mainland Britain, is 301.4 km (187.3 mi or 162.7 nmi) west of the uninhabited island of Soay, St. Kilda, Scotland and 368.7 km (229.1 mi) west of the crofting township of Hogha Gearraidh, on the island of North Uist, Scotland. It is 424 km (265 mi) north-west of Donegal in Ireland. The rock is about 25 metres (83 ft) wide at its base and rises sheer to a height of approximately 22 metres (72 ft). It is regularly washed over by large storm waves, particularly in winter. There is a small ledge of 3.5 by 1.3 metres (11 by 4 ft), known as Hall's Ledge, 4 metres (13 ft) from the summit. The rock's only permanent inhabitants are periwinkles and other marine molluscs. Small numbers of seabirds, mainly fulmars, gannets, kittiwakes, and guillemots, use the rock for resting in summer, and gannets and guillemots occasionally breed successfully if the summer is calm with no storm waves washing over the rock. There is no natural source of fresh water. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Soay (Gaelic:Soaigh) is an uninhabited island in the St Kilda archipelago (British Isles, county Isle of Harris) in the North Atlantic, about 2 km northwest of Hirta. ... A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land, usually small and arable with a crofters dwelling thereon. ... Location of North Uist Landsat image of North Uist North Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Tuath) is an island of the Outer Hebrides. ... This article is about the country. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G924789 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Population ( ) 2,339 (2006) Website: www. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A mollusk ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Species (Linnaeus, 1761) (A. Smith, 1840) For other uses, see Fulmar (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Morus bassanus Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Gannet range The Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus, formerly Sula bassana) is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ...


Rockall is also close to the Darwin Mounds, deep-water coral mounds about 185 km (100 nmi or 115 mi) north-west of Cape Wrath. First discovered in 1998, the Darwin Mounds are unique. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Cape Wrath lighthouse Cape Wrath (, ) is a cape in Sutherland, Highland, in northern Scotland. ...


Geological surveys

The exact position of Rockall and the size and shape of the Rockall Bank was first charted in 1831 by Captain A.T.E. Vidal, a Royal Navy surveyor. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...

The Island of Rockall.
The Island of Rockall.[5]

The first scientific expedition to Rockall was led by Miller Christie in 1896 when the Royal Irish Academy sponsored a study of the flora and fauna.[6] They chartered the Granuaile.[7] The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Irelands premier learned societies and cultural institutions. ...


The RV Celtic Explorer has surveyed the Rockall Bank and North West of Donegal in 2003.[8] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G924789 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Population ( ) 2,339 (2006) Website: www. ...


The ILV Granuaile was chartered by the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), on behalf of the Department of Communications, Marine & Natural Resources (DCMNR), to conduct a seismic survey at the Rockall and Hatton Banks in July 2004.[9] The seismic survey was part of the National Seabed Survey which has been ongoing for 4 years.[9]. The Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources is the senior minister at the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (An Roinn Cumarsáide, Mara agus Achmhainní Nádúrtha) in the Irish Government. ...


Rockall is made of a type of granite that is relatively rich in sodium and potassium. Within this granite are darker bands richer in the alkali pyroxene mineral aegirine and the alkali amphibole mineral riebeckite. The dark bands are a variety of granite commonly known as rockallite. In 1975, a new mineral was discovered on Rockall. The mineral is called bazirite, named after the elements barium and zirconium and has the chemical composition BaZrSi3O9.[10] Rockall was formed approximately 55 million years ago, when the ancient continent of Laurasia was split apart by plate tectonics. Greenland and Europe separated and the north-east Atlantic Ocean was formed between them.[11] For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Aegirine is an inosilicate member of the clinopyroxene group. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Amateur radio visit

There has been one amateur radio visit to Rockall, in 2005, and the following year a second was planned. Unfortunately the high cost of this visit led to its cancellation. A new expedition was considered for June, 2008 but has been cancelled due to the riskiness of the undertaking, and the high cost of travel to the island. [12] Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ...


Disasters

There have been disasters on the neighbouring Hasselwood Rock and Helen's Reef (Helen's Reef was not named until 1830)

  • 1686 — a Spanish, French, or Spanish-French ship ran on Rockall. Several men of the crew, Spanish and French, were able to reach St. Kilda in a pinace and save their lives. Some details of this event were recounted by Martin Martin in his A late voyage to St. Kilda, published in 1698. The ship was perhaps a fishing one based in the Bay of Biscay and bound for North Atlantic cod fisheries.
  • 1812 — survey vessel Leonidas foundered on Helen's Reef
  • 1824 — brigantine Helen of Dundee, bound for Quebec, foundered at Hasselwood Rock; "the crew left most of the passengers to drown, including seven women and six children".
  • 1904 — DFDS steamer SS Norge, 3,318 tons with 727 emigrants and a crew of 68, bound for New York on 28 June 1904; 635 lost

There have also been reports in national newspapers in both Ireland and the United Kingdom that at least two unexploded bombs from World War II lie within a 250-metre radius of Rockall. At present, no attempts have been made to remove them. Mercator projection map of the St. ... Martin Martin (?1699-1719) was a Scottish writer, he is best known for his work A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland (1695), particularly noted for its information on St Kilda. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... DFDS Headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... SS Norge. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Law of the Sea

Location of Rockall. Shaded areas indicate exclusive economic zones.
Location of Rockall. Shaded areas indicate exclusive economic zones.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states, “Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.” Ireland, Denmark, and Iceland all acceded to the convention. The United Kingdom acceded to the convention on 25 July 1997. The United Kingdom and Ireland have agreed to a delineation which ignores Rockall's existence and have granted exploration rights. [13] Download high resolution version (864x832, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (864x832, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


History and conflicting claims

Irish claims to areas around Rockall

Ireland does not have formal claim to Rockall, regarding it as merely an uninhabitable rock without any territorial waters and thus irrelevant when determining the boundaries of the exclusive economic zones of Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, and the United Kingdom. More populist claims to the island are based, in part, on the fact that Rockall is 424 kilometres (265 miles) from Donegal in Ireland.[14] Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G924789 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Population ( ) 2,339 (2006) Website: www. ...


According to a Written Parliamentary Answer from the Irish Minister of Foreign Affairs on June 14, 1990, an agreement[13] was reached between the British and Irish governments on delimitation of the continental shelf between the two countries and that this included a line of delimitation across the Rockall Plateau.[15] As a result, a very extensive area under Irish jurisdiction, including part of the Rockall Trough and Plateau, is undisputed by the United Kingdom. No further negotiations were taking place in relation to the rock at the time. is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ...


More recently, on June 11, 2003, the Irish Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources gave a Written Parliamentary Answer, stating: "Ireland claims an extended continental shelf … up to more than 500 nautical miles (926 km), particularly in the Hatton–Rockall area".[16] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As the United Nations[17] has no mandate regarding issues of delimitation between neighbouring states and cannot consider an area under dispute without the agreement of all the parties concerned, Ireland has participated in informal discussions with Iceland and the Faroe Islands in an attempt to resolve the dispute before making its submission to the Commission. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Nationalist claims

Independent Irish politician Seán Dublin Bay Rockall Loftus (b. 1927), a former Lord Mayor of Dublin (1995–1996), has long advocated that Ireland make a territorial claim on Rockall, and enthusiastically supported Greenpeace's occupation. Loftus, who had changed his name by deed poll to "Seán Dublin Bay Loftus" to highlight his campaign for the protection of the environment of Dublin Bay, changed it again, adding "Rockall" to demonstrate his commitment to an Irish claim on the islet. Seán Dublin Bay Rockall Loftus (born 1927) is an Irish barrister, politician and environmentalist. ... The Mansion House The Lord Mayor of Dublin is the symbolic head of the city government in the capital of Ireland. ... A deed poll is a legal document binding only to a single person or several person acted jointly to express an active intention. ... Dublin Bay in relation to Ireland. ...


The Wolfe Tones, an Irish rebel music band, released a song Rock on Rockall that supports an Irish claim.[18] The Wolfe Tones are an Irish rebel music band deeply rooted in Irish traditional music. ... Irish rebel music is a sub genre of Irish folk music, with much the same instrumentation, but with lyrics predominantly concerned with Irish nationalism, and especially the struggle for independence from British rule. ...


The United Kingdom's claims

Rockall is 461.5 km (286.7 mi) from Ardnamurchan Point (approximately WGS84 Latitude North 56° 43' 38.3", Longitude West 6° 13' 38.1"), the nearest point on the Scottish mainland; and 301.4 km (187.3 mi) from the St Kilda archipelago (approximately WGS84 Latitude North 57° 49' 40.8", Longitude West 8° 38 ' 59.7"), the nearest (undisputed) Scottish islands, which are 53 miles (85 km) west of the Isle of Harris in the Outer Hebrides. Also, Rockall is 367.0 km (228.0 mi) (198.1 nmi) from Aird an Runair on the island of North Uist (approximately WGS84 Latitude North 57° 36' 9.7", Longitude West 7° 32' 56.4"), Outer Hebrides, the nearest inhabited island of Scotland after St Kilda was evacuated in 1930. “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Ardnamurchan Point and Lighthouse – as viewed from the Oban to Lochboisdale ferry. ... This article is about the country. ... St Kilda (Scottish Gaelic: ) is an isolated archipelago situated 64 kilometres (40 mi) west-northwest of North Uist in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Aird an Runair is the most westerly point of the island of North Uist in the Western Isles of Scotland. ... Location of North Uist Landsat image of North Uist North Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Tuath) is an island of the Outer Hebrides. ...


In 1997 the United Kingdom ratified the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. In doing so it relinquished its right to claim an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 200 nmi (370 km) extending onward from the rock, as the agreement states that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf". However, as Rockall lies within 200 nmi (370 km) of both St Kilda and North Uist, the island itself remains within the EEZ of the United Kingdom and as such, under international law the UK can claim "..the sovereignty of the coastal state in relation to the exploitation, conservation and management of natural and living resources fishery and mineral resources" of the rock itself and an area of territorial waters extending for 12 nmi (22 km) around it. Furthermore, the United Kingdom and Ireland have signed a boundary agreement which includes Rockall in the United Kingdom area. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Alternate use: Saint Kilda, island in Scotland. ... Location of North Uist Landsat image of North Uist North Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Tuath) is an island of the Outer Hebrides. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


Rockall, and a large sea area around it, was declared as coming under the jurisdiction of Scots law under the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order (map) in 1999. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 is a statutory instrument of the parliament of the United Kingdom, defining the boundaries between waters which are to be treated as internal waters or territorial sea of the United Kingdom adjacent to Scotland and those which are not. It was introduced in...


The earliest recorded landing on the island was on 8 July 1810 when a Royal Navy officer called Basil Hall led a small landing party from the frigate HMS Endymion to the summit. The frigate was taking depth measurements around Rockall when it drifted away in a haze. The expedition made a brief attempt to find the frigate in the haze, but soon gave up and returned to Rockall. After the haze became a fog, the lookout sent to the top of Rockall spotted the ship again, but it turned away from Rockall before the expedition in their boats reached it. Finally, just before sunset, the frigate was again spotted from the top of Rockall, and the expedition was able to get back on board. The crew of the Endymion reported that they had been searching for five or six hours, firing their cannon every ten minutes. Hall related this experience and other adventures in a book entitled Fragment of Voyages and Travels Including Anecdotes of a Naval Life. is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... This article is about the british frigate Endymion, launched in 1797. ...


The next landing was accomplished by a Mr Johns of HMS Porcupine, whilst the ship was on a mission, from June and August of 1862, to make a survey of the sea bed prior to the laying of a transatlantic telegraph cable. Johns managed to gain foothold on the island, but failed to reach the summit. The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ...


On 18 September 1955 at precisely 10.16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, the island was officially annexed by the UK when Lieutenant-Commander Desmond Scott RN, Sergeant Brian Peel RM, Corporal AA Fraser RM, and James Fisher (a civilian naturalist and former Royal Marine), were deposited on the island by a Royal Navy helicopter from HMS Vidal (coincidentally named after the man who first charted the island). The team cemented in a brass plaque on Hall's Ledge and hoisted the Union Flag to stake the UK's claim. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Lieutenant Commander (Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies superior to a Lieutenant and subordinate to a Commander. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... This article is about the military rank. ... James Fisher (1922 - 1970) was a British author, editor, broadcaster, naturalist and ornithologist. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... Union Jack redirects here. ...


The inscription on the plaque reads:

"By authority of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, and in accordance with Her Majesty's instructions dated the 14th day of September, 1955, a landing was effected this day upon this island of Rockall from HMS Vidal. The Union flag was hoisted and possession of the island was taken in the name of Her Majesty. [Signed] R H Connell, Captain, HMS Vidal, 18 September 1955."

The formal annexation of Rockall was announced by the Admiralty on 21 September 1955. Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Defenders of the Faith. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...

Photograph taken by the Royal Navy in 1974
Photograph taken by the Royal Navy in 1974

The initial incentive for the annexation of Rockall had little to do with any territorial claim to rights of exploitation of the seas around the island. It was the test firing of the UK's first guided nuclear weapon, the American-made Corporal missile. The missile was to be launched from South Uist and over the North Atlantic. The Ministry of Defence was concerned that the unclaimed island would provide a unique opportunity for the Soviet Union to spy on the test by placing surveillance equipment on the island; and so in April of 1955 a request was sent to the Admiralty to seize the island, and declare UK sovereignty lest it become an outpost for foreign observers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The American-made MGM-5 Corporal missile was the first guided weapon authorised by the US to carry a nuclear warhead. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...


On 10 February 1972 the Island of Rockall Act received Royal Assent to make the island administratively part of the Isle of Harris (St Kilda being administratively part of Harris), in what was then Inverness-shire, fully incorporating it into the United Kingdom. A navigational beacon was later installed on the island and the UK declared that no ship would be allowed within a 50-mile (80 km) radius of the rock. In United Kingdom law, it now falls administratively under the Outer Hebrides. is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Island of Rockall Act 1972 (1972 c. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ... Inverness-shire (Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ... Telegraph Signal Tower at Cobbs Hill, near New Market, Virginia, 1864. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ...


Former SAS member and survival expert Tom McLean lived on the island from 26 May 1985 to 4 July 1985 to affirm the UK's claim to the island.[19] See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... For other uses, see Survivalism (disambiguation). ... Tom McLean is a former SAS member and survival expert who lived on the island of Rockall from 26 May to 4 July 1985 to affirm Britains claim to the island. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Icelandic claims in the area

Iceland does not claim the rock itself, considering it irrelevant as far as delimitation of EEZs and continental shelf is concerned. Iceland however claims an extended continental shelf in the Hatton-Rockall area.


Iceland ratified UNCLOS in 1985; it was the first Western country to do so. A regulation was issued by the government in that same year outlining the area where Iceland claimed continental shelf rights for itself; the regulation was based on legislation from 1979 claiming for Iceland the exclusive right to research and exploitation of continental shelf-based resources within the limits of the Icelandic continental shelf. Regarding the Hatton-Rockall area, it claims the area within 60 nautical miles (110 km) from the foot of the continental shelf and assumes that the UK and Ireland cannot claim a continental shelf outside their EEZs. To its fullest extent, this area reaches about 700 nautical miles (1,300 km) to the south from Iceland's coast, which is further south than the United Kingdom's southernmost point. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Occident redirects here. ...


In 2001, Iceland began working on its submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf; it is scheduled to finish in 2007. The most important aspect of this work is to survey the entire ocean floor in the areas claimed outside the EEZ and, in Iceland's case, a part of the area inside the EEZ as well. In all, 1.3 million square kilometres (500,000 sq mi) have been surveyed by Icelandic marine research institutions for this purpose, an area 13 times larger than the land area of Iceland. The commission does however not make proposals regarding areas that are claimed by two or more states unless they have already reached an agreement on its division. Therefore Iceland's submission is expected to deal only with the area that just Iceland has claimed and not the Hatton-Rockall area. Iceland also hosted an informal meeting of all parties to the dispute in 2001. It was the first such meeting regarding the dispute where all four countries participated. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


Danish/Faroese claims in the area

The Faroe Islands are an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Denmark. Since 1948 they have had self-government in almost all matters except defence and foreign affairs. Consequently their interests in Rockall are represented by Denmark. On their behalf, Denmark claims continental shelf rights in the Hatton-Rockall area. It does not claim the islet itself — their position is the same as is Ireland's and Iceland's.


Waveland and the Greenpeace occupation

In 1997 the environmentalist organisation Greenpeace occupied the islet for a short time,[20] calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration under the authority of the British. Greenpeace declared the island to be a “new Global State”, and offered citizenship to anyone willing to take their pledge of allegiance. The British Government's response was simply to give them permission to be there, and otherwise ignore them. Indeed the Home Office when asked, responded that since Rockall was part of the United Kingdom, and since the UK was a free country, Greenpeace were perfectly entitled to be at Rockall. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earths surface. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


The project continued until 1999, when the company sponsoring it collapsed and the experiment ended.


Negotiations

Ongoing talks have been held over the last five years with the aim of reaching an agreement which will end the dispute over territorial rights to Rockall-Hatton basin.


Reykjavík conference

Representatives from the UK, Ireland, Iceland and Denmark (the latter acting on behalf of the Faroe Islands), met in Reykjavík, Iceland for negotiations over territorial rights over the continental shelf in the area. The final boundary will be determined by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. The parties have until May, 2009 to submit reports to the commission, which it will take into account when determining the boundary. The involved nations have the option of submitting separate reports, or a joint one. Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ...


Ownership of the rock itself did not form part of the negotiations.[21]


Copenhagen conference

In November of 2007 talks were held in Copenhagen. Here a template for a deal was secured by Irish, Danish, British and Icelandic diplomats.


Dublin conference

As a follow-up to Copenhagen, the Government of Ireland will host negotiations. They were due to commence in January 2008, but have been postponed because of elections in the Faroe Islands. The talks are hoped to bring the four nations closer to reaching an agreement over the Rockall-Hatton basin. It is understood a final deal is not likely to be agreed at the Dublin meeting.[22] The Government (Irish: Rialtas) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ...


The Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dermot Ahern said "There have certainly been protracted talks, but that is not unusual when one considers the complexity of the issue at hand and the competing interests. However, there was some progress made at the last talks in Copenhagen. I believe further progress can be made in Dublin. The deadline is May 2009 so we have time on our hands. It is in the interests of Ireland, UK, Denmark and Iceland to come to a deal on the division of the seabed area. We have come to outline agreements in relation to other parts of our seabed in the Atlantic. There is no reason ultimately why we also can't do a deal on this protracted issue. Finding a deal is a significant challenge but the rewards are there for future generations from all four countries" The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Department of Foreign Affairs (An Roinn Gnóthaí Eachtracha) in the Irish Government. ... Dermot Ahern (born 2 February 1955) is a senior Irish Fianna Fáil politician who currently serves as the Minister for Foreign Affairs. ...


References to Rockall in Popular Culture

  • It has been suggested that Rockall is the rock which forms the setting for William Golding's novel Pincher Martin.
  • The 1955 British landing, complete with the trappings of hoisting the flag etc., caused a certain amount of popular amusement, with some seeing it as a sort of farcical end to imperial expansion. The satirists Flanders and Swann sang a successful piece entitled "Rockall", playing on the similarity of the word to a then taboo expression.
  • Popular Irish rebel band, the Wolfe Tones sing a song called "Rock on Rockall" that argued against the British ownership of the rock.
  • In Irish folklore, the Giant Fionn mac Cumhaill was said to have thrown a small pebble at a rival across the sea but missed and it ended up in the Atlantic Ocean, becoming Rockall.[citation needed]
  • The Master, a 1957 novel by T. H. White, is set on Rockall.[23]

Pincher Martin (Faber and Faber 1956) is the third novel by William Golding (author of Lord of the Flies). ... Michael Flanders The British duo Flanders and Swann were the actor and singer Michael Flanders (1922–1975) and the composer, pianist and linguist Donald Swann (1923–1994) who collaborated in writing and performing comic songs. ... The Wolfe Tones are an Irish rebel music band deeply rooted in Irish traditional music. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fʲiːn̪ˠ mˠak kuwaːlʲ/ in Irish or /fɪn mɘ kuːl/ in English) (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a mythical hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, occurring also in the mythologies of Scotland... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ...

See also

Okinotorishima Okinotorishima Okinotorishima ) (Traditional Chinese: 沖鳥礁, Simplified Chinese: 冲鸟礁) is an atoll, which in English has multiple designations (Okinotori coral reefs, Okinotori Islands). ... // Aerial view of Uotsuri-jima / Diaoyu-dao Kuba Jima (久場島) or Huangwei Yu (黃尾嶼 Yellow Tail) is located at has an area of 1. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Rocabarra or Rocabarraigh is a phantom island or rock in Gaelic myth, which is supposed to appear three times, the last being at the end of the world. ... Phantom islands are islands that are believed to exist and appear on maps for a period of time (sometimes centuries), and then are removed after they are proven not to exist (or the general population stops believing that they exist). ... Imia/Kardak Imia () are the Greek names, respectively, of a set of two small uninhabited islets in the Aegean Sea, situated between the Greek island chain of the Dodecanese and the southwestern mainland coast of Turkey. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... You may be looking for Socotra in the Indian Ocean Socotra Rock and East China Sea continental shelf map. ... Hans Island, 1 August 2003, HDMS Triton Hans Island (Greenlandic/Inuktitut: Tartupaluk; Danish: Hans Ø; French: ÃŽle Hans) is a small, uninhabited barren knoll measuring 1. ... The Nares strait is a waterway between Canadas Ellesmere Island and Greenland which connects Baffin Bay to the Arctic Ocean. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Dokdo redirects here. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... A satellite NASA World Wind caption of Isla Perejil seen as a tiny island (top middle) The Isla Perejil (Parsley Island in English; Arabic: Leila, night , local, i. ...

References

  1. ^ James Fisher, Rockall, Geoffrey Bles,London 1956 pp 12-13
  2. ^ EEZ of the UK
  3. ^ EEZ of Ireland
  4. ^ Statutory Instrument 1997 No. 1750 - The Fishery Limits Order 1997
  5. ^ Harvie-Brown, J. A. & Buckley, T. E. (1889), A Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides. Pub. David Douglas, Edinburgh. Facing P. LXXXI.
  6. ^ Brochure. The Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  7. ^ John Hamilton (1999/2000). "Granuaile - Not the Irish Lights tender...". BEAM Magazine 28. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  8. ^ Irish National Seabed Survey (2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  9. ^ a b Dermot Gray (2004/2005). "Granuaile carries out seismic survey at Rockall". Beam 33: 14-16. Irish Lighthouse Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  10. ^ Minerals of Scotland by Alec Livingstone, 2002, National Museums of Scotland
  11. ^ Igneous Rocks of the British Isles edited by D.S. Sutherland, 1982, Wiley
  12. ^ The costs would probably have exceeded £20,000 Rockall 2008. DXpedition cancelled. DX World of Ham Radio. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  13. ^ a b Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Ireland concerning the delimitation of areas of the continental shelf between the two countries (7 November 1988). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  14. ^ "The significant fact is that the island is 300 miles (480 km) west of Scotland and 250 miles (400 km) north-west of the coast of Donegal." [1]
  15. ^ "Written Answers - Rockall Ownership" (14 June, 1990). Dáil Éireann 399. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  16. ^ "Written Answers - Exploration Rights" (11 June, 2003). Dáil Éireann 568. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  17. ^ Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  18. ^ Rock On Rockall. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  19. ^ "Written Answers - Rockall Island" (22 May, 1985). Dáil Éireann 358. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  20. ^ SchNEWS issue 131, Justice?, Brighton, 22 August 1997; see also SchNEWS Annual, Justice?, Brighton, 1998, ISBN 0-9529748-1-9
  21. ^ Ross, John. "Why a barren rock in the Atlantic is the focus of an international battle of wills", The Scotsman, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  22. ^ "Government to host Rockall talks", RTÉ News, 2007-12-29. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. 
  23. ^ White, T. H., The Master: An Adventure Story (1957) J. Moulder and M. Schaefer. Retrieved 28 March 2008.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RTÉ News and Current Affairs is a major division of Radio Telefís Éireann responsible for news programming on television, radio and online within the Republic of Ireland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other sources

Cover of the book par excellence on Rockall
  • James Fisher, Rockall, London 1956. The book on Rockall.
  • Fraser MacDonald, 'The last outpost of Empire: Rockall and the Cold War', Journal of Historical Geography, 32 (2006),627-647. available in pdf
  • Martin Martin A Description of the Western isles of Scotland (1716)
  • Birds breeding on Rockall. British Birds 86: 16–17, 320–321 (1993).
  • Oral Questions to the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Dáil Éireann, November 1, 1973
  • Written Answer from the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Dáil Éireann, June 14, 1990
  • Written Answer from the Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources in the Dáil Éireann, June 11, 2003

James Fisher (1922 - 1970) was a British author, editor, broadcaster, naturalist and ornithologist. ... Martin Martin (?1699-1719) was a Scottish writer, he is best known for his work A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland (1695), particularly noted for its information on St Kilda. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 57°35′48″N, 13°41′19″W “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mental Health Media Press release - INTERNET SATIRISTS PLAN CHARITY ASSAULT ON ROCKALL (572 words)
If the team succeed in their mission to conquer Rockall (many have failed in the past), they will be one of only a handful of people ever to have managed it.
Rockall also has a fascinating and chequered history, claimed as it is by no less than four nations: England, Ireland, Iceland and Denmark.
Rockall and its territorial waters contain billions of pounds worth of oil and gas as well as lucrative fishing grounds.
BBC - h2g2 - Rockall - A755787 (757 words)
Rockall is an isolated, uninhabited, pudding shaped sea-rock situated in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Rockall is located 57° N, 13° W, which puts it about 300 miles from the coasts of Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland.
Rockall sits on the Rockall Bank, a massive sea bank which geologists believe may contain significant amounts of natural gas and oil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m