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Encyclopedia > Rock of Gibraltar

The Rock of Gibraltar (sometimes called the Pillar of Hercules or by its Latin name, Calpe[1]) is a monolithic limestone promontory located in Gibraltar, off the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.[2] It is 426 metres (1,396 feet) high. The Rock is Crown property of the United Kingdom, and borders Spain. The sovereignty of Gibraltar was transferred to the United Kingdom of Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 after the War of the Spanish Succession.[3] Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 250 Barbary Macaques, commonly known as 'apes'; they are the only wild monkeys found in Europe. These macaques, as well as a labyrinthine network of tunnels attracts a large number of tourists per year. Rock of Gibraltar (IRE) (bay horse, born 8 Mar 1999, Danehill (USA) - Offshore Boom (GB) [Be My Guest (USA)]) is a champion racehorse and stallion owned by Coolmore, for whom he currently stands in Ireland (during the Northern hemisphere breeding season) and Australia (as a shuttle-stallion during the Southern... Image File history File links Gib_bay. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ... -1... The term promontory has several similar meanings in English, including geographical names: A promontory is a prominent mass of land which overlooks lower lying land or a body of water (e. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... This young barbary macaque will form part of a group of 30 to 50 individuals, an assemblage of several Gibraltarian monkey families. ...


In ancient times the Rock of Gibraltar was one of the Pillars of Hercules and was known to the Greeks as Mons Calpe, the other pillar being Mons Abyla on the African side of the Strait. The Rock of Gibraltar marked the limit to the known world and to pass beyond it was to sail to certain destruction over the bottomless waterfall at the edge of the world.[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ...

Contents

Geology

The Rock of Gibraltar is a monolithic limestone promontory ( 36°08′43″N, 05°20′35″W). The geological formation was created when the African tectonic plate collided tightly with Europe. The Mediterranean became a lake that, in the course of time, dried up during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Atlantic Ocean broke through the Strait of Gibraltar, and the resultant flooding created the Mediterranean Sea. A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ... -1... The term promontory has several similar meanings in English, including geographical names: A promontory is a prominent mass of land which overlooks lower lying land or a body of water (e. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Today, the Rock of Gibraltar forms a peninsula jutting out into the Strait of Gibraltar from the southern coast of Spain. The Rock's highest point stands 426 metres (1396 feet) above the strait. Its east face forms a very impressive near-cliff, while its west slope is relatively gentle. The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ...


Calcite, the mineral which makes up limestone, dissolves slowly in rainwater. Over time, this process can form caves. Since the Rock of Gibraltar is made of limestone, it is not surprising that it contains a number of caves. St. Michael's Cave, located halfway up the western slope of the Rock, is a popular tourist attraction. Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... -1... St. ...


Gorham's Cave is located near sea level on the steep eastern face of the Rock. It is noteworthy because archaeological excavations in the cave have found evidence that Neanderthals used it as far back as 30,000 years ago. It is especially significant because plant and animal remains found in the cave (and others nearby) indicate that the Neanderthals had a highly varied diet.[5] Gorhams Cave is a cave in Gibraltar, considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ...

A panoramic view from the top of the Rock of Gibraltar looking north

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (5400 × 1684 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (5400 × 1684 pixel, file size: 6. ...

Fortification

The Moorish Castle

The Moorish Castle flying the Union flag.
Main article: Moorish Castle

The Moorish Castle is a relic of the Moorish occupation of Gibraltar, which lasted for 750 years. It was built in the year A.D. 711, when Tariq ibn-Ziyad, the Berber chieftain first landed on the Rock which still bears his name. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Moorish Castle as seen from the North West side of The Rock I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Moorish Castle as seen from the North West side of The Rock I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack and Butchers Apron) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Moorish Castle, Gibraltar The Moorish Castle is a fortification in Gibraltar, made up of various buildings, gates, fortified walls and its most dominant features, The Tower of Homage and The Gate House. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ...


The principal building which remains is the Tower of Homage, a massive building of brick and very hard concrete called tapia, in the upper part of which housed the living apartments and Moorish bath of the former occupants.


The Galleries

The Rock of Gibraltar's North Front cliff face from Bayside, c.1810

The unique feature which is always associated with the Rock is the system of underground passages known as Galleries. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


The first of these was dug out towards the end of the four years’ siege which lasted from 1779-1783. General Elliot, afterwards Lord Heathfield, who commanded the garrison throughout the siege, was anxious to bring flanking fire on the Spanish batteries in the plain below the North face of the Rock. On the suggestion of Sergeant Ince of the Royal Engineers a tunnel was bored from a point above Willis’s Battery to communicate with the Notch, a natural projection from the North fact on which it was proposed to mount a battery. There was no intention at first of making embrasures in this tunnel, but an opening was found necessary for ventilation, and as soon as it had been made a gun was mounted in it. By the end of the siege, six such embrasures had been constructed, in which four guns were mounted. Combatants Great Britain Spain, France Commanders George Eliott The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the War of American Independence. ... George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield (December 25, 1717-July 6, 1790) was born at Wells House, near Stobs Castle, Roxburghshire, the 7th son of Sir Gilbert Eliott, 3rd Baronet of Stobs, by Eleanor, daughter of William Elliot, of Wells, also in Roxburghshire. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


The Galleries, which are shown to visitors, were a later development of the same idea and were finished in 1797. They consist of a whole system of halls, embrasures, and passages, of a total length of nearly 1000 feet, and from them may be seen a series of unique views of the Bay of Gibraltar, the isthmus, and Spain. The Bay of Gibraltar as seen from the Rock of Gibraltar The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay, Algeciras Bay or the Bay of Algeciras; Spanish: Bahía de Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The Second World War onwards

See also: Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

When World War II broke out in 1939, the civilian population was evacuated to the United Kingdom, Jamaica, and Madeira so that Gibraltar could be fortified against the possibility of a German attack. By 1942 there were over 30,000 British soldiers, sailors, and airmen on the Rock. The tunnel system was expanded and the Rock became a keystone in the defense of shipping routes to the Mediterranean. Searchlights in action, 1940 (Imperial War Museum) Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years and a vital factor in British strategy in all wars, both as a last foothold on the Continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ...


In February 1997, it was revealed the British had a secret plan called Operation Tracer to bury alive service men in the Rock in case it was captured by the Germans during World War II. The team in the rock would have radio equipment to monitor enemy movements. The team of six was sent to Gibraltar where it waited under cover for two and half years. The Germans never got close to capturing the rock, so the men were never sealed inside, and they were disbanded to resume civilian life when the war ended. Searchlights in action, 1940 (Imperial War Museum) Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years and a vital factor in British strategy in all wars, both as a last foothold on the Continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Invincibility

Despite long sieges it seemed that there was nothing that could destroy the Rock or its people. This history has inspired the simile "solid as the Rock of Gibraltar", which is used to describe a person or situation that cannot be overcome and does not fail. The motto of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment and even Gibraltar itself, Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti (Latin for "Conquerable by No Enemy"), reflects this invincibility. The Rock of Gibraltar is also used in the corporate logo of Prudential Financial.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (997 × 1449 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a drawing, painting, print, or other two-dimensional work of art, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Examples may include the snow was as thick as a blanket, or she was as smart as a crow, or the usage of emotions similes like madder than a bull fast... Cap Badge of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British Colony of Gibraltar. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article refers to Prudential Financial, based in the United States. ...


Upper Rock Nature Reserve

See also: Gibraltar Barbary Macaques

The flora and fauna of the Upper Rock Nature Reserve are of conservation interest. Within it is a range of animals and plants, but the highlights are the Barbary Macaques (the famous 'Rock Apes'), the Barbary Partridges, and flowers such as Gibraltar's own Chickweed, Thyme and the Gibraltar Candytuft.[7] This young barbary macaque will form part of a group of 30 to 50 individuals, an assemblage of several Gibraltarian monkey families. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ... Binomial name Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1791) The Barbary Partridge, Alectoris barbara, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Stellaria Categories: Plant stubs | Caryophyllales ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Iberis gibraltarica L. Iberis gibraltarica (Gibraltar candytuft) is a flowering plant of the genus Iberis and the family Brassicaceae. ...


Ornithology

See also: List of birds of Gibraltar and List of mammals in Gibraltar

The Rock of Gibraltar, at the head of the Strait, is a prominent headland, which accumulates migrating birds during the passage periods. The vegetation on the Rock, unique in southern Iberia, provides a temporary home for many species of migratory birds that stop to rest and feed before continuing migration for their crossing over the desert and sea. In spring they return to replenish before continuing their journeys to Western Europe, journeys which may take them as far as Greenland or Russia.[8] This is a list of the bird species recorded in Gibraltar. ... This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Gibraltar. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

The North Face of the Rock of Gibraltar, as seen from ground level in La Línea de la Concepción, Spain.

Image File history File linksMetadata GibraltarStatue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GibraltarStatue. ... La Línea de la Concepción (generally known as La Línea) is a town in Spain, in the province of Cadiz in Andalucia. ...

See also

  • List of famous rocks

Many rocks or stones have achieved notoriety and fame. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Alternate Names or Name Variants for Gibraltar
  2. ^ Welcome To The Rock of Gibraltar! by costarsure.com
  3. ^ Gibraltar, September 2001
  4. ^ Welcome To The Rock of Gibraltar! by costarsure.com
  5. ^ Earlham College - Physical Geology 2004 - The Rock of Gibraltar and Surroundings
  6. ^ Prudential Financial: Information from Answers.com
  7. ^ Tourist information from Gibnet.com
  8. ^ Official Government of Gibraltar London Website

References

  • (1931) "Gibraltar". Gibraltar: The Travel Key to the Mediterranean: 5-12. Retrieved on 2007-05-22. 

 
 

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