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Encyclopedia > Rock climbing
Climbers on "Valkyrie" at the Roaches.
Climbers on "Valkyrie" at the Roaches.

Rock climbing, broadly speaking, is the act of ascending steep rock formations. Normally, climbers use gear and safety equipment specifically designed for the purpose. Strength, endurance, and mental control, as well as agility and balance, are required to cope with tough, dangerous physical challenges, and knowledge of climbing techniques and the use of essential pieces of gear and equipment are crucial. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Download high resolution version (795x1309, 105 KB)Climbers on Valkyrie at The Roaches in Staffordshire, United Kingdom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (795x1309, 105 KB)Climbers on Valkyrie at The Roaches in Staffordshire, United Kingdom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Roaches (from the French les roches - the rocks) are a geographical feature situated above Leek and Tittesworth reservoir in the Peak District of the United Kingdom. ... Rock redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Although the practice of rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is generally thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in various parts of Europe. Rock climbing evolved gradually from an alpine necessity to an athletic sport in its own right. As rock climbing matured, grading systems were created in order to more accurately compare the relative difficulties between climbs. Over the years, both climbing techniques, and the equipment climbers use to advance the sport, have evolved in a steady fashion. Main article: Rock climbing 400 BC: Chinese watercolors that depict men climbing rocks. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... An open crevasse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ...


Rock climbing basics

Rock climbers in Yosemite National Park
Rock climbers in Yosemite National Park

Climbers usually work in pairs, with one climbing and the other belaying. In lead climbing, the belayer feeds rope to the lead climber through a belay device. The leader climbs up, occasionally placing protection or clipping preplaced bolted hangers, until the top is reached, while the belayer is ready to "lock off" the rope in case the leader falls. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 4. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... In climbing, belaying is the technique of controlling the rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Both climbers attach the rope to their climbing harness, usually tying into their harness with a Figure-of-eight loop or double bowline knot. The leader either places his own protection (Traditional climbing) or clips into permanent protection already attached to the rock (Sport climbing). In traditional climbing, the protection is removable. Usually nuts or Spring-loaded camming device (often referred to as "cams" or "friends") are set in cracks in the rock (although pitons are sometimes used). In sport climbing the protection is metal loops called bolts. Bolts are secured to the rock with either expanding masonry bolts taken from the construction industry, or by placing glue-in bolt systems. In ice climbing the protection is made-up of Ice Screws or similar devices hammered or screwed into the ice by the leader, and removed by the second climber. Canonical Name: figure-of-eight loop. ... A double bowline is a type of knot. ... Traditional climbing. ... Sport climbing is a style of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, especially bolts, for protection. ... Spring loaded camming device in a parallel crack A spring loaded camming device (also SLCD, cam or friend) is a piece of rock climbing or mountaineering protection equipment. ... In climbing, a piton (also called a pin or peg) is a steel spike that is driven into a crack or seam in the rock with a hammer, and which acts as an anchor to protect the climber against the consequences of a fall, or to assist progress in aid... In climbing, a bolt is a permanent anchor fixed into a hole drilled in the rock, usually consisting of a glued in or expansion bolt to which a hanger is permanently fixed (allowing passing climbers to clip a carabiner to the bolt). ... Ice screw Ice screw - A screw used to protect a climb over steep ice or for setting up a crevasse rescue system. ...


The lead climber typically connects the rope to the protection with carabiners or quickdraws. If the lead climber falls, he will fall twice the length of the rope out from the last protection point, plus rope stretch (typically 5% to 8% of the rope out), plus slack. If any of the gear breaks or pulls out of the rock or if the belayer fails to lock off the belay device immediately, the fall will be significantly longer. Thus if a climber is 2 meters above the last protection he will fall 2 meters to the protection, 2 meters below the protection, plus slack and rope stretch, for a total fall of over 4 meters. A screw lock HMS carabiner A carabiner or karabiner (colloquially: crab, d ring, krab, or biner) is a metal loop with a sprung or screwed gate. ... Two quickdraws. ...


If the leader falls, the belayer must arrest the rope to stop the fall. To achieved this the rope is run through a belay device attached to the belayer's harness. The belay device runs the rope through a series of sharp curves that, when operated properly, greatly increase the friction and stop the rope from running. Some of the more popular types of belay devices are the ATC Belay Device, the Figure 8 and various auto-locking belay devices such as the Petzl Gri-Gri This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Grigri An open Grigri A Grigri (or Gri-gri, Gris-gris) is a hand-sized belay device designed to help secure rock-climbing or rope-acrobatic activities. ...


If the route being climbed is a multi-pitch route the leader sets up a secure anchor system at the top of the pitch, also called a belay, from where he can belay as his partner climbs. As the second climber climbs, he/she removes the gear from the rock in case of traditional climbing or removes the quickdraws from the bolts in the case of sport climbing. Both climbers are now at the top of the pitch with all their equipment. Note that the second is protected from above while climbing, but the leader is not, so being the leader is more challenging and dangerous. After completing their climb, with both climbers at the top of the pitch, they must eventually rappel or otherwise descend the climb in order to return to their starting point. All climbs do not necessarily require the lead climber to belay the second climber from the top. The belayer could lower the lead climber down after he/she has completed a single pitch route. Multi-Pitch Climbing is the ascent of climbing routes with one or more stops at a belay station. ... In climbing, belaying is the technique of controlling the rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far. ... Australian rappel demonstrated at a dam in Norway Abseiling (from the German: abseilen, to rope down) is the process of descending on a fixed rope. ...


Occasionally, climbers may decide to "move together", a risky but speedy technique also called simul-climbing, in which both leader and second move at the same time without stopping to belay. The leader - approximately a rope length above the second - usually places multiple pieces of protection as he climbs so that the weight of the second climber might arrest a possible leader's fall. Should it be the second climber to fall, however, the leader may be pulled from his holds, with potentially unpleasant results.


Types of rock climbing

Rock climbing may be divided into two broad categories: free climbing and aid climbing. In free soloing and bouldering, the climber carries nothing but a chalk bag. ... Aid climbing is a style of climbing in which fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress. ...

  • Free climbing requires the climber use only natural features of the rock formation.
  • Aid climbing involves using artificial devices placed in the rock to support all or part of the climber's body weight, and is normally practiced on rock formations that lack necessary natural features suitable for free climbing.

Other kinds of climbing : In free soloing and bouldering, the climber carries nothing but a chalk bag. ... Aid climbing is a style of climbing in which fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress. ...

Climber leading the sport route Spud Boy, Clark Canyon, California, United States
Climber leading the sport route Spud Boy, Clark Canyon, California, United States
  • Lead climbing is a technique where the lead climber or leader ties him/herself to one end of a rope while their partner belays at the other end. The climber then ascends the route, periodically placing protection for safety in the event of a fall.
  • Traditional lead climbing, or "Trad lead climbing", uses mostly removable protection, but also may employ fixed bolts if these were put in on the lead. It is a type of Lead climbing, so the climbing team begins at the bottom of a climb and ascends to the top, with the leader placing protective devices in the rock as he or she climbs. If the climber falls, he/she does not rest on the rope and instead lowers to a stance or the ground to start over. This approach of protection and climbing progress emphasizes the exploratory aspect of the sport and requires a certain amount of boldness. Trad leading is considered by many to be the cleanest style, as the climber to follow the leader, called the second, or sometimes cleaner, removes the protective devices (except any fixed bolts put in on lead) and leaves but marginal traces (if any at all) of their passage.
  • Sport lead climbing is a type of lead climbing which involves the use of pre-placed, permanent bolts for protection. This frees the leader from carrying excessive gear - he/she merely clips in to the bolts with quickdraws, which are simply two carabiners connected by a loop of webbing. However, permanent protective devices, like bolts and fixed pitons, are subject to dislodgment or decay over time and thus may become an insidious hazard for a leader. In case of a fall, sport climbers often rest on the rope before beginning again. Hard sport climbs often entail many falls and rests before being completed without falls and rests. In contrast, traditional style employs no rests on the rope, starting over after falls without rope tension and generally a minimal number of falls.
  • Top rope climbing, or top-roping, involves suspending a rope from an anchor located at the top of a short climb. The climber is then safeguarded by his belayer who holds the rope either at the top of the route or at the base of the climb. This is distinct from lead climbing where the climber places protection as they ascend.
  • Bouldering may be described as climbing short, severe routes on boulders or small outcrops. While safety ropes from above are occasionally used, most boulderers feel that the most ethical form of protection is a bouldering mat or pad similar to those used by gymnasts. In addition, other climbers standing on the ground may "spot" the boulderer, to help break his or her fall.
  • Indoor climbing is a form of climbing that can involve bouldering, top roping, and leading in an indoor environment on wood or plastic holds. For most it will be the easiest way to begin the sport.
  • Free solo climbing: Usually describes free climbing without a rope or other protective gear. Free solo climbing is distinguished from solo climbing where a climber progressing alone uses a rope and protection devices including a self belay system.
Short (one-pitch) climbs on the Calico Hills, west of Las Vegas, Nevada
Short (one-pitch) climbs on the Calico Hills, west of Las Vegas, Nevada

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,906 × 4,372 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,906 × 4,372 pixels, file size: 3. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... In climbing, belaying is the technique of controlling the rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far. ... Traditional climbing. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... Sport climbing is a style of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, especially bolts, for protection. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... Two quickdraws. ... Top roping is a style of climbing in which the rope runs from the belayer at the foot of the route through a carabiner connected to an anchor at the top of the route and back down to the climber. ... In climbing, belaying is the technique of controlling the rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... Bouldering is a style of rock climbing undertaken without a rope and normally limited to very short climbs so that a fall will not result in injury. ... Spotting is a practice used in climbing, especially in bouldering, where the climbers are close to the ground and ropes are not typically used. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying him. ... Download high resolution version (600x1022, 125 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x1022, 125 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Rappelling / Abseiling

Main article: Abseiling

Rappelling (USA usage - French, meaning "recall") or abseiling (UK and Ireland usage - German, meaning "down rope") is a common method for returning to the bottom of a completed climb. On climbs where rappelling is impractical or disallowed the alternative is usually either walking out from the top of the climb, or down-climbing. Australian rappel demonstrated at a dam in Norway Abseiling (from the German: abseilen, to rope down) is the process of descending on a fixed rope. ...


Gear and Equipment

Main article: Climbing Equipment

A wide range of equipment is used during rock climbing. ...

Grades

Main article: Grade (climbing)

Climbing communities in many countries, as well as individual regions, have developed their own climbing rating systems. Ratings are a method to communicate or record the consensus difficulty of climbs. See the main article for details of the various systems, and a comparison chart. In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ...


Indoor Climbing Walls

Main article: Climbing wall

In recent years, indoor climbing walls, basically artificial cliffs, have become quite popular. Climbing walls are often used to teach beginners because the risk of injury or fatal accident is greatly reduced. They are also used by experienced climbers who hone their skills without the need to travel to rock formations. Climbing a rock-textured wall with belay, modular hand holds, incuts, and protrusions A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, used for climbing. ... Climbing a rock-textured wall with belay, modular hand holds, incuts, and protrusions A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, used for climbing. ...


Criticism

Although many climbers adhere to "minimal impact" and "leave no trace" practices, rock climbing is sometimes damaging to the environment. However, the impact is often less than other outdoor recreations such as hiking, due in part to the smaller numbers participating in climbing compared to other outdoor sports. Common environmental damages include: soil erosion, litter, abandoned bolts and ropes, human excrement, introduction of foreign plants through seeds on shoes and clothing, and damage to native plant species. Leave No Trace is an ecological principle of leaving an environment of habitation in such a condition as to render it impossible for future observers to discern the previous presence of the practitioners of the Leave No Trace methodology. ...


Clean climbing is a style of rock climbing which seeks to minimize some of the negative side-effects of climbing. Clean climbing is a style of rock climbing that avoids damage to the rock by eschewing the drilling of bolts and the hammering of pitons. ...


See also

This list of climbers includes both mountaineers and rock climbers, since many (though not all) climbers engage in both types of activities. ... This is a list articles related to climbing and mountaineering. ... This is a list of articles about climbing areas and regions associated with climbing. ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ... This page describes knots related to climbing, rappelling and mountaineering. ... An open crevasse. ... Outdoor education (also known as adventure education) usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. ... A traceur performs an arm jump (cat leap), which in french is called a saut de bras. ... Salto del pastor (English: the Shepherds Leap) is a spectacular folk sport practiced throughout the Canary Islands. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, and kinaesthetic awareness. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...

Further reading

  • Rockclimbing.com: Global Rockclimbing community resource. Includes a large route database of locations all over the world
  • Rock Climbing Tools and Information
  • Rock climbing travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Mountain Project. Includes a large route database of locations all over the world

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Climbing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1519 words)
Rock climbing can be subdivided into free climbing (where ropes and gear are used strictly for safety in the case of a fall), and aid climbing, where a passage up a piece of rock is engineered by using equipment placed in the rock for upward progress.
Climbing is done on a wood and plastic simulation of a rock, often in a dedicated "rock gym".
Rock climbing has been featured in many popular movies, such as Cliffhanger and Vertical Limit, but save for a few exceptions (The Eiger Sanction being one example) it is generally given an inaccurate portrayal by Hollywood and much of the popular media.
Go Rock Climbing (1316 words)
For women, rock climbing harnesses are made with a smaller waist and larger leg loops and the area between the leg loops and the tie in, which is called the rise, is made longer and is also adjustable to fit their pelvic shape.
Rock Climbing is fast becoming a major entertainment for many families that is not only fun and exciting but is also great for body building, strength, and endurance.
Rock climbing in Yosemite National Park is great whether you are a beginner or a pro and they have a package that will be perfect for each person that wishes to join and experience climbing in Yosemite National park.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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