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Encyclopedia > Rock, Paper, Scissors
Rock, Paper, Scissors chart
Rock, Paper, Scissors chart

Rock, Paper, Scissors is a two-person hand game. It is often used as a selection method in a similar way to coin flipping or drawing straws to randomly select a person for some purpose. However, unlike truly random selections, it can be played with skill if the game extends over many sessions, as a player can often recognize and exploit the non-random behavior of an opponent. Image File history File links Rock_paper_scissors. ... Image File history File links Rock_paper_scissors. ... Image File history File links Rock,_Paper,_Scissors. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... For other uses, see Rock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Different types of scissors - sewing, kitchen, paper Scissors are a tool used for cutting thin material which requires little force. ... There are many different hand games, so named because they are played with the hands. ... Selection methods are common techniques used to determine certain initial settings in games and other activities. ... Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to resolve a dispute between two parties or otherwise choose between two alternatives. ... Drawing straws is a selection method used by a group to choose one person to do a task when no one has volunteered for it. ... Random redirects here. ...


Sportsmen often use RPS (both officially and unofficially, in place of a coin toss) to decide on opening plays. Similarly, uncertain calls, or even the whole game in case of rain, may be so decided. It is also often used as a method for creating appropriately non-biased random results in live action role-playing games, as it requires no equipment. It is also used in some gambling sites as a form of novelty betting. “Larp” redirects here. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ...


The exact name of the game can vary, with the three components appearing in a different order, or with "stone" in place of "rock". Non-English speakers may know the game by their local words for "rock, paper, scissors", although it is also known as Janken or Yakyuken[1] in Japan, Kawi Bawi Bo in Korea, Pierre-Papier-Ciseaux in France,[citation needed], Ca-Chi-Pun in Chile, and in South Africa as Ching-Chong-Cha, the words used in the 'count'. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Game play

Image:SssStein.jpg Image:SssPapier.jpg Image:SssSchere.jpg
Each of the three basic hand-signs ( from left to right: rock, paper and scissors ) beats one of the other two.

The players both count aloud to three, or speak the name of the game (e.g. "Rock! Paper! Scissors!" or "Reaux! Sham! Beaux!"), each time raising one hand in a fist and swinging it down on the count. On the third count, or on a further beat after the third count (saying "shoot"), the players change their hands into one of three gestures, which they then "throw" by extending it towards their opponent. stolen from german wikipedia (de:Bild:SssStein. ... stolen from german wikipedia (de:Bild:SssPapier. ... stolen from german wikipedia (de:Bild:SssSchere. ...

  • Rock, represented by a closed fist.
  • Paper, represented by an open hand.
  • Scissors, represented by the index and middle fingers extended.

The objective is to select a gesture which defeats that of the opponent. Gestures are resolved as follows:

  • Rock blunts/smashes scissors; rock wins.
  • Paper covers rock; paper wins.
  • Scissors cut paper; scissors wins.

If both players choose the same gesture, the game is tied and played again.


In some variations of the game, the winner of each round "uses" the weapon on the opponent's weapon, to demonstrate that they have won.


RPS is frequently played in a "best two out of three" match, and tournament players often prepare sequences of three gestures ahead of time.[2][3]


Jason Simmons, a competitive RPS champion, claims that women tend to start with scissors,[4] while the World RPS Society states that males have a tendency to lead with rock. At World RPS tournaments, Paper is statistically the least common throw.[5]


Cheating

A common timing-based tactic on a throw of paper or scissors is to wait until the last possible moment to dupe an opponent into believing that one may actually be throwing a scissors or rock. This is usually regarded as a foul at competitive RPS matches. In competitive RPS, however, a foul can be called on any throw that is revealed after thrower's arm swings past the perpendicular to his torso. In this case, the referee may then assign a throw of rock, or a "forced rock".


Priming is the number of bounces one does before revealing the throw. Another way to cheat is to prime three times to an opponent's twice, so that one sees his opponent's throw without revealing his own. In most such cases, though, the round will be most likely replayed.


To prevent timing-based cheating, the players may be asked to hold their throwing hands behind their backs and reveal their already-formed throws after the count of three.


However, before playing, the two playing must decide which count they are going to throw their hands on.


Variations

There are many cultural variations of Rock, Paper, Scissors, which range from simply having different names for the gestures to increasing the number of players or gestures. For example, American children living in Japan have adapted the Japanese name "Janken" to "John Can Point" with a second line "aiko desho!" (used for a tie in Japan) to "I go to shore" for a second round. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Mathematics

Non-transitivity

RPS is also often used as an example of the mathematical concept of non-transitivity. A transitive relation R is one for which a R b and b R c implies a R c. A reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive relation on a set is known as a partial ordering, from which notions of "greater" and "less" follow. A game option which is "greater" than another is closer to being optimal, but such a notion does not exist in RPS: The relation used to determine which throws defeat which is non-transitive. Rock defeats scissors, and Scissors defeat paper, but rock loses to paper. In fact, RPS could be called "antitransitive" because if A strictly defeats B, and B strictly defeats C, A necessarily loses against C. Intransitivity is a scenario in which weighing several options produces a loop of preference. ... In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is transitive if it holds for all a, b, and c in X, that if a is related to b and b is related to c, then a is related to c. ... In set theory, a binary relation can have, among other properties, reflexivity or irreflexivity. ... In mathematics, a binary relation R on a set X is antisymmetric if, for all a and b in X, if a is related to b and b is related to a, then a = b. ... In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is transitive if it holds for all a, b, and c in X, that if a is related to b and b is related to c, then a is related to c. ... In mathematics, a partially ordered set (or poset for short) is a set equipped with a special binary relation which formalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering. ...


Example of a commutative non-associative magma

In mathematics, it can be shown that there exist magmas that are commutative but not associative. One example is given by the operation of RPS. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... In abstract algebra, a magma (also called a groupoid) is a particularly basic kind of algebraic structure. ... In mathematics, especially abstract algebra, a binary operation * on a set S is commutative if x * y = y * x for all x and y in S. Otherwise * is noncommutative. ... In mathematics, associativity is a property that a binary operation can have. ... In mathematics, it can be shown that there exist magmas that are commutative but not associative. ...


Analogies in nature and computing

Video games

Combat or strategy-based video games often feature RPS-like cycles in their characters' or units' effectiveness against others. These often attempt to emulate cycles in real-world combat (such as where cavalry are effective against archers, archers have an edge over spearmen, and spearmen are strongest against cavalry), or simple elemental trinities such as fire, water and air.


Such game mechanics can make a game somewhat self-balancing, by preventing any one simple strategy from dominating gameplay.


Many card-based video games in Japan use the RPS system as their core fighting system, with the winner of the RPS being able to carry out their designated attack.


The Nintendo Entertainment System video game, Princess Tomato in the Salad Kingdom, uses the RPS system to defeat enemies; although in the game RPS is referred to as "finger wars". “NES” redirects here. ... Princess Tomato in the Salad Kingdom (titled Salad no Kuni no Tomato Hime in Japan) is a video game released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1990 by Hudson Soft. ...


Alex the Kid for the Sega Master System uses RPS as the method of defeating end-of-level bosses similar to Princess Tomato The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ...


Mating strategies

The Common Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana) exhibits a RPS pattern in its different mating strategies.
The Common Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana) exhibits a RPS pattern in its different mating strategies.

Biologist Barry Sinervo from the University of California, Santa Cruz has discovered a RPS evolutionary strategy in the mating behaviour of the side-blotched lizard species Uta stansburiana. Males have either orange, blue or yellow throats and each type follows a fixed, heritable mating strategy:[6] Image File history File links Uta3. ... Image File history File links Uta3. ... “UCSC” redirects here. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Mating rituals: see Mating, for mating rituals in the animal kingdom Courtship, for mating rituals in human culture Category: ... Side-blotched lizards are lizards of the genus Uta. ... Binomial name Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852 Subspecies (Salsipuedes Side-blotched Lizard) (Western Side-blotched Lizard) (Nevada Side-blotched Lizard) (Santa Catalina side-blotched lizard) (Northern Side-blotched Lizard) (San Benito Side-blotched Lizard) (Taylors Side-blotched Lizard - doubtful) (Plateau Side-blotched Lizard) Synonyms Uta antiqua, Uta elegans...

  • Orange-throated males are strongest and do not form strong pair bonds; instead, they fight blue-throated males for their females. Yellow-throated males, however, manage to snatch females away from them for mating.
  • Blue-throated males are middle-sized and form strong pair bonds. While they are outcompeted by orange-throated males, they can defend against yellow-throated ones.
  • Yellow-throated males are smallest, and their coloration mimics females. Under this disguise, they can approach orange-throated males but not the stronger-bonding blue-throated specimens and mate while the orange-throats are engaged in fights.

This can be summarized as "orange beats blue, blue beats yellow, and yellow beats orange", which is similar to the rules of rock, paper, scissors. Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ...


The proportion of each male type in a population is similar in the long run, but fluctuates widely in the short term. For periods of 4-5 years, one strategy predominates, after which it declines in frequency as the strategy that manages to exploit its weakness increases. This corresponds to the stable pattern of the game in the replicator dynamics where the dynamical system follows closed orbits around the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium[citation needed] (Sinervo & Lively, 1996; Sinervo, 2001; Alonzo & Sinervo, 2001; Sinervo & Clobert, 2003; Sinervo & Zamudio, 2001). The replicator equation is a differential equation that defines the dynamics of evolutionary games. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... In game theory a mixed strategy is a strategy which chooses randomly between possible moves. ... In game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Forbes Nash, who proposed it) is a kind of solution concept of a game involving two or more players, where no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. ...


Bacteria also exhibit a rock-paper-scissors dynamic when they engage in antibiotic production. The theory for this finding was demonstrated by computer simulation and in the laboratory by Benjamin Kerr, working at Stanford University with Brendan Bohannan (Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):171-4.). The antibiotics in question are the bacteriocins - more specifically, colicins produced by Escherichia coli. Biologist Benjamin C. Kirkup, Jr. further demonstrated that the colicins were active as E. coli compete with each other in the intestines of mice, and that the rock-paper-scissors dynamics allowed for the continued competition between antibiotic producing and antibiotic sensitive strains, because antibiotic resistant strains would out-compete the producing strains, providing an environment in which sensitive strains could successfully become established again (Nature. 2004 Mar 25;428(6981):412-4.). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s). ... E. coli redirects here. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Cultural references

Because of its widespread use, the game has received substantial references in popular culture. Many television series poke fun at particular characters' incompetence at understanding the rules, or show how mischievous characters are often able to "win" the game by inventing new objects which beat all the others.


Federal case

In 2006, Federal Judge Gregory Presnell from the Middle District of Florida ordered opposing sides in a lengthy court case to settle a trivial (but lengthily debated) point over the appropriate place for a deposition using the game of rock-paper-scissors.[7] The ruling in Avista Management v. Wausau Underwriters stated: In law, a deposition is evidence given under oath and recorded for use in court at a later date. ...

Upon consideration of the Motion – the latest in a series of Gordian knots that the parties have been unable to untangle without enlisting the assistance of the federal courts – it is ORDERED that said Motion is DENIED. Instead, the Court will fashion a new form of alternative dispute resolution, to wit: at 4:00 P.M. on Friday, June 30, 2006, counsel shall convene at a neutral site agreeable to both parties. If counsel cannot agree on a neutral site, they shall meet on the front steps of the Sam M. Gibbons U.S. Courthouse, 801 North Florida Ave., Tampa, Florida 33602. Each lawyer shall be entitled to be accompanied by one paralegal who shall act as an attendant and witness. At that time and location, counsel shall engage in one (1) game of "rock, paper, scissors." The winner of this engagement shall be entitled to select the location for the 30(b)(6) deposition to be held somewhere in Hillsborough County during the period July 11-12, 2006.[8]

Auction house RPS match

When Takashi Hashiyama, CEO of a Japanese television equipment manufacturer, decided to auction off the collection of Impressionist paintings owned by his corporation, including works by Cézanne, Picasso and van Gogh, he contacted two leading U.S. auction houses, Christie's International and Sotheby's Holdings, seeking their proposals on how they would bring the collection to the market as well as how they would maximize the profits from the sale. Both firms made elaborate proposals, but neither was persuasive enough to get Hashiyama’s business. Willing to split up the collection into separate auctions, Hashiyama asked the firms to decide between themselves who would get the Cézanne's "Large Trees Under the Jas de Bouffan", worth $12-16 million. See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... van gogh is a piece of shit Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Netherlands artist. ... The Christies auction house in South Kensington, London Christies American branch in Rockefeller Center, New York Christies is a fine art auction house, the largest and by some accounts the oldest in the world. ... Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ...


The houses were unable to reach a decision. Hashiyama told the two firms to play RPS, to decide who would get the rights to the auction, explaining that "it probably looks strange to others, but I believe this is the best way to decide between two things which are equally good".


The auction houses had a weekend to come up with a choice of move. Christie's went to the 11-year-old twin daughters of an employee, who suggested "scissors" because "Everybody expects you to choose 'rock'." Sotheby's admitted that they treated it as a game of chance and had no particular strategy for the game, but went with "paper".[9] A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants frequently wager money. ...


Christie's won the match, with millions of dollars of commission for the auction house.


Tournaments

WRPS sanctioned tournaments

Starting in 2002, the World Rock Paper Scissors Society (WRPS) standardized a set of rules for international play[10] and has overseen annual International World Championships. These open, competitive championships have been widely attended by players from around the world and have attracted widespread international media attention.[11][12][13][14][15] WRPS events are noted for their large cash prizes, elaborate staging, and colourful competitors.[16] In 2004, the championships were broadcast on the U.S. television network Fox Sports Net. Fox Sports Net headquarters in Los Angeles. ...


World Championship results since 2002

Year Host City Medal Champion Gender Nationality
2002[17] Toronto Gold Peter Lovering Male Flag of Canada Canada
Silver Moe Asem Male Flag of Canada Canada
Bronze Dave Ferris Male Flag of Canada Canada
2003[18] Gold Rob Krueger Male Flag of Canada Canada
Silver Marc Rigaux Male Flag of Canada Canada
Bronze Patrick Merry Male Flag of Canada Canada
2004[19] Gold Lee Rammage Male Flag of Canada Canada
Silver Heather Birrell Female Flag of Canada Canada
Bronze Chris Berggeren Male Flag of the United States United States
2005[20] Gold Andrew Bergel Male Flag of Canada Canada
Silver Stan Long Male Flag of the United States United States
Bronze Stuart Waldman Male Flag of the United States United States
2006[21] Gold Alex Tang Male Flag of the People's Republic of China China
Silver Bryan Bennett Male Flag of the United States United States
Bronze Tom Smith Male Flag of the United States United States

Image File history File links Med_1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Med_2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Med_3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Tour events

In addition to the International World Championships the WRPS also endorses or sanctions a year-round series of tournaments world wide. "Endorsed" tournaments agree to abide by the WRPS standardized international rules of play and code of conduct, while "Sanctioned" tournaments will net the winner a trip to compete at the International World Championships. Some of the major events of this tour include:

Healdsburg is a city located in Sonoma County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 10,722. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Potsdam, New York relates to two locations in Saint Lawrence County, New York, Potsdam (village) Potsdam (town) Both locations are named after the city in Germany: Potsdam. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...

World Series of Roshambo

Professional poker player, Phil Gordon, hosts the annual World Series of Roshambo during the World Series of Poker every year. In 2006, Annie Duke outlasted a field of 64 players who paid $500 each to enter the tournament. First place prize was $10,000. This is the largest buy-in Roshambo event in the world. For the mayor of Phoenix, Arizona, see Phil Gordon (politician) Phil Gordon (born July 6, 1970) is an American professional poker player, based in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Annie Duke (born September 13, 1965) is a professional poker player and author. ...


USARPS Tournaments

USARPS League is the official Rock Paper Scissors League of the United States. It is sponsored by Bud Light. Matti Leshem is the co-commissioner of the USA Rock Paper Scissors League There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Anheuser_Busch (NYSE: BUD), the worlds third largest brewing company in volume after InBev and SABMiller, is based in Saint Louis, Missouri, USA. The company brews 35 different beers and malt liquors. ...


In April 2006, the inaugural USA Rock Paper Scissors League Championship was held in Las Vegas, Nevada. Following months of regional qualifying tournaments held across the US, 257 players were flown to Las Vegas for a single-elimination tournament at the House of Blues where the winner received $50,000. The tournament was shown on the A&E Network on June 12, 2006. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Vegas redirects here. ... House of Blues Sunset, in West Hollywood House of Blues (HOB) is a chain of music halls and restaurants founded in 1992 by Hard Rock Cafe founder Isaac Tigrett and his friend and investor Dan Aykroyd. ... Biography is one of A&Es longest-running and most popular programs. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the first USA Rock Paper Scissors League Championship, Dave "The Drill" McGill defeated Robert "Fast Twitch" Twitchel to win the tournament. In addition, Jason "King of the Morning" Wood won a best-of-500 marathon to earn a brand new car.


The $50,000 2007 USARPS Tournament took place at the Las Vegas Mandalay Bay in May 2007 and was covered by RawVegas.tv and will also be airing on ESPN later this year. The winner was Jamie Langridge from Odessa, Texas and he went home with the Bud Light Trophy and $50,000. RawVegas. ... ESPN/ESPN-DT, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an [[United States|Amer<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here--68. ...


National XtremeRPS Competition 2007-2008

The XtremeRPS National Competition[22] is a Nationwide RPS competition with Preliminary Qualifying contests starting in January 2007 and ending in May 2008, followed by regional finals in June and July 2008. The national finals will be held in Des Moines in August 2008, with a chance to win up to $5,000. This article is about the state capital of Iowa. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Yakyuken, Urban Dictionary.
  2. ^ Steve Vockrodt, "Student rivals throw down at rock, paper, scissors tournament", Lawrence Journal-World, April 8, 2007, retrieved April 13, 2007.
  3. ^ Michael Y. Park, "Rock, Paper, Scissors, the Sport", Fox News, March 20, 2006, retrieved April 13, 2007.
  4. ^ Steve Inskeep, "In the News and On the Air: Iraq, Paper, Scissors", Morning E-dition, NPR.org, November 10, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2007
  5. ^ Graham Walker, "How to beat anyone at Rock Paper Scissors", World RPS Society, 2006, Retrieved April 13, 2007.
  6. ^ Sinervo, Barry (2001-02-20). The rock-paper-scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  7. ^ "Exasperated judge resorts to child's game", Associated Press, 2006-06-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  8. ^ Presnell, Gregory (June 7, 2006). Order of the court: Avista Management vs. Wausau Underwriters Insurance Co.. CNN.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  9. ^ Vogel, Carol (April 29), "Rock, Paper, Payoff: Child's Play Wins Auction House an Art Sale", New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/29/arts/design/29scis.html>
  10. ^ Game Basics. World Rock Paper Scissors Society. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  11. ^ Hruby, Patrick. "Fists fly in game of strategy", Washington Times, 2004-12-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  12. ^ "2003 World Rock Paper Scissors Championship", All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 2003-10-24. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  13. ^ "Rock, Paper, Scissors A Sport?", CBS News, 2003-10-23. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  14. ^ "Rock Paper Scissors contest being held", Associated Press, 2003-10-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  15. ^ Park, Michael Y.. "Rock, Paper, Scissors, the Sport", Fox News, 2006-03-20. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  16. ^ Gallery. World RPS society (2005-11-13). Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  17. ^ 2002 International Rock Paper Scissors Championships Official Results. World RPS society. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  18. ^ 2003 Championships Official Results. World RPS society. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  19. ^ 2004 Championships Official Results. World RPS society. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  20. ^ 2005 Championships Official Results. World RPS society. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  21. ^ 2006 Championships Official Results. World RPS society. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  22. ^ XTreme RPS Competition by Showtime Entertainment. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.

The Lawrence Journal-World is a daily newspaper published in Lawrence, Kansas by The World Company. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “NPR” redirects here. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alonzo, Suzanne H. & Sinervo, Barry (2001): Mate choice games, context-dependent good genes, and genetic cycles in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 49(2-3): 176–186. doi:10.1007/s002650000265 (HTML abstract)
  • Culin, Stewart (1895): Korean Games, With Notes on the Corresponding Games at China and Japan. (evidence of nonexistence of Rock, Paper, Scissors in the West)
  • Gomme, Alice Bertha (1894, 1898): The traditional games of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 2 vols. (more evidence of nonexistence of Rock, Paper, Scissors in the West)
  • Opie, Iona & Opie, Peter (1969): Children's Games in Street and Playground Oxford University Press, London. (Details some variants on Rock, Paper, Scissors such as 'Man, Earwig, Elephant' in Indonesia, and presents evidence for the existence of 'finger throwing games' in Egypt as early as 2000 B.C.)
  • Sinervo, Barry (2001): Runaway social games, genetic cycles driven by alternative male and female strategies, and the origin of morphs. Genetica 112-113(1): 417-434. doi:10.1023/A:1013360426789 (HTML abstract)
  • Sinervo, Barry & Clobert, Jean (2003): Morphs, Dispersal Behavior, Genetic Similarity, and the Evolution of Cooperation. Science 300(5627): 1949-1951. doi:10.1126/science.1083109 (HTML abstract) Supporting Online Material
  • Sinervo, Barry & Lively, C. M. (1996): The Rock-Paper-Scissors Game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. Nature 380: 240-243. doi:10.1038/380240a0 (HTML abstract)
  • Sinervo, Barry & Zamudio, K. R. (2001): The Evolution of Alternative Reproductive Strategies: Fitness Differential, Heritability, and Genetic Correlation Between the Sexes. Journal of Heredity 92(2): 198-205. PDF fulltext
  • Sogawa, Tsuneo (2000): Janken. Monthly Sinica 11(5). [Article in Japanese]
  • Walker, Douglas & Walker, Graham (2004): The Official Rock Paper Scissors Strategy Guide. Fireside. (RPS strategy, tips and culture from the World Rock Paper Scissors Society).

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Peter and Iona (Archibald) Opie were a husband-and-wife team of folklorists, who applied modern techniques to childrens literature, summarized in their studies, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (1952) and The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren (1959) Their collection of some 1200 titles of childrens books... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

 view  Topics in game theory

Definitions Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ...

Normal form game · Extensive form game · Cooperative game · Information set · Preference In game theory, normal form is a way of describing a game. ... It has been suggested that Game tree be merged into this article or section. ... A cooperative game is a game where groups of players (coalitions) may enforce cooperative behaviour, hence the game is a competition between coalitions of players, rather than between individual players. ... In game theory, an information set is a set that, for a particular player, establishes all the possible moves that could have taken place in the game so far, given what that player has observed so far. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ...

Equilibrium concepts Price of market balance In economics, economic equilibrium is simply a state of the world where economic forces are balanced and in the abscence of external shocks the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change. ... In game theory and economic modelling, a solution concept is a process via which equilibria of a game are identified. ...

Nash equilibrium · Subgame perfection · Bayesian-Nash · Perfect Bayesian · Trembling hand · Proper equilibrium · Epsilon-equilibrium · Correlated equilibrium · Sequential equilibrium · Quasi-perfect equilibrium · Evolutionarily stable strategy · Risk dominance In game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Forbes Nash, who proposed it) is a kind of solution concept of a game involving two or more players, where no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. ... Subgame perfect equilibrium is an economics term used in game theory to describe an equilibrium such that players strategies constitute a Nash equilibrium in every subgame of the original game. ... In game theory, a Bayesian game is one in which information about characteristics of the other players (i. ... In game theory, a Bayesian game is one in which information about characteristics of the other players (i. ... The trembling hand perfection is a notion that eliminates actions of players that are unsafe because they were chosen through a slip of the hand. ... Proper equilibrium is a refinement of Nash Equilibrium due to Roger B. Myerson. ... In game theory, an Epsilon-equilibrium is a strategy profile that approximately satisfies the condition of Nash Equilibrium. ... In game theory, a correlated equilibrium is a solution concept that is more general than the well known Nash equilibrium. ... Sequential equilibrium is a refinement of Nash Equilibrium for extensive form games due to David M. Kreps and Robert Wilson. ... Quasi-perfect equilibrium is a refinement of Nash Equilibrium for extensive form games due to Eric van Damme. ... In game theory, an evolutionarily stable strategy (or ESS; also evolutionary stable strategy) is a strategy which if adopted by a population cannot be invaded by any competing alternative strategy. ... Risk dominance and payoff dominance are two related refinements of the Nash equilibrium (NE) solution concept in game theory, defined by John Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten. ...

Strategies In game theory, a players strategy, in a game or a business situation, is a complete plan of action for whatever situation might arise; this fully determines the players behaviour. ...

Dominant strategies · Mixed strategy · Tit for tat · Grim trigger · Collusion In game theory, dominance occurs when one strategy is better or worse than another regardless of the strategies of a players opponents. ... In game theory a mixed strategy is a strategy which chooses randomly between possible moves. ... Tit for Tat is a highly-effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoners dilemma. ... Grim Trigger is a trigger strategy in game theory for a repeated game, such as an iterated prisoners dilemma. ... Look up collusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Classes of games

Symmetric game · Perfect information · Dynamic game · Repeated game · Signaling game · Cheap talk · Zero-sum game · Mechanism design · Stochastic game · Nontransitive game In game theory, a symmetric game is a game where the payoffs for playing a particular strategy depend only on the other strategies employed, not on who is playing them. ... Perfect information is a term used in economics and game theory to describe a state of complete knowledge about the actions of other players that is instantaneously updated as new information arises. ... In game theory, a sequential game is a game where one player chooses his action before the others chooses theirs. ... In game theory, a repeated game (or iterated game) is an extensive form game which consists in some number of repetitions of some base game (called a stage game). ... Signaling games are dynamic games with two players, the sender (S) and the receiver (R). ... Cheap Talk is a term used in Game Theory for pre-play communication which carries no cost. ... Zero-sum describes a situation in which a participants gain (or loss) is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the other participant(s). ... Mechanism design is a sub-field of game theory. ... In game theory, a stochastic game is a competitive game with probabilistic transitions played by two players. ... A non-transitive game is a game for which the various strategies produce one or more loops of preferences. ...

Games Game theory studies strategic interaction between individuals in situations called games. ...

Prisoner's dilemma · Traveler's dilemma · Coordination game · Chicken · Volunteer's dilemma · Dollar auction · Battle of the sexes · Stag hunt · Matching pennies · Ultimatum game · Minority game · Rock, Paper, Scissors · Pirate game · Dictator game · Public goods game · Nash bargaining game · Blotto games  · War of attrition Will the two prisoners cooperate to minimize total loss of liberty or will one of them, trusting the other to cooperate, betray him so as to go free? In game theory, the prisoners dilemma (sometimes abbreviated PD) is a type of non-zero-sum game in which two players... In game theory, the travelers dilemma (sometimes abbreviated TD) is a type of non-zero-sum game in which two players attempt to maximise their own payoff, without any concern for the other players payoff. ... In game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Nash) is a kind of optimal strategy for games involving two or more players, whereby the players reach an outcome to mutual advantage. ... For other uses, see Chicken (disambiguation). ... The Volunteers dilemma game models a situation in which each of N players faces the decision of either making a small sacrifice from which all will benefit or freeriding. ... On eBay, where an auction has a starting price of $1 ... The Battle of the Sexes is a two player game used in game theory. ... In game theory, the Stag Hunt is a game first discussed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. ... Matching Pennies is the name for a simple example game used in game theory. ... The Ultimatum game is an experimental economics game in which two parties interact anonymously and only once, so reciprocation is not an issue. ... Minority Game is a game proposed by Yi-Cheng Zhang and Damien Challet from the University of Fribourg. ... From Howard Pyles Book of Pirates The pirate game is a simple mathematical game. ... The dictator game is a very simple game in experimental economics, similar to the ultimatum game. ... The Public goods game is a standard of experimental economics; in the basic game subjects secretly choose how many of their private tokens to put into the public pot. ... The Nash Bargaining Game is a simple two player game used to model bargaining interactions. ... Blotto games (or Colonel Blotto games) constitute a class of two-person zero-sum games in which the players are tasked to simultaneously distribute limited resources over several objects, with the gain (or payoff) being equal to the sum of the gains on the individual objects. ... In game theory the War of attrition is a model of aggression in which two contestants compete for a resource of value V by persisting while accumulating costs at a constant rate c. ...

Theorems

Minimax theorem · Purification theorems · Folk theorem · Revelation principle · Arrow's theorem “Minmax” redirects here. ... In game theory, the purification theorem was contributed by Nobel laurate John Harsanyi in 1973[1]. The theorem aims to justify a puzzling aspect of mixed strategy Nash equilibria: that each player is wholly indifferent amongst each of the actions he puts non-zero weight on, yet he mixes them... In game theory, folk theorems are a class of theorems which imply that in repeated games, any outcome is a feasible solution concept, if under that outcome the players minimax conditions are satisfied. ... The revelation principle of economics can be stated as, To any equilibrium of a game of incomplete information, there corresponds an associated revelation mechanism that has an equilibrium where the players truthfully report their types. ... In voting systems, Arrow&#8217;s impossibility theorem, or Arrow&#8217;s paradox demonstrates the impossibility of designing a set of rules for social decision making that would meet all of a certain set of criteria. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rock, Paper, Scissors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3065 words)
Paper: is also delivered in the same manner as rock with the exception that all fingers including the thumb are fully extended and horizontal with the points of the fingers facing the opposing player.
Rock, Paper, Scissors is also often used as an example of the mathematical concept of non-transitivity.
Rock, Paper, Scissors also provides an example of a magma that is commutative but not associative, by defining a binary operation on the set {rock, paper, scissors} in which the product of a pair is defined to be the "winner".
Rock, Paper, Scissors: Instructions (656 words)
Rock, Paper, Scissors is a game for two players typically played using the players' hands.
If a rock and scissors are formed, the rock wins, because a rock can smash scissors.
If paper and a rock are formed, the paper wins, because a sheet of paper can cover a rock.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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