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Encyclopedia > Rochester, Kent
Rochester


Rochester Cathedral viewed from the Castle Gardens during a festival Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Rochester shown within Kent
Population 24,000 (1991 Census)
OS grid reference TQ739684
Unitary authority Medway
Ceremonial county Kent
Region South East
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ROCHESTER
Postcode district ME1, ME2
Dialling code 01634
Police Kent
Fire Kent
Ambulance South East Coast
UK Parliament Medway
European Parliament South East England
List of places: UKEnglandKent

Coordinates: 51°23′18″N 0°29′54″E / 51.3883, 0.4982 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... Medway is the name given to a conurbation in the north of Kent, England. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The ME postcode area, also known as the Rochester postcode area[1], is a group of twenty postal districts around Medway in Kent, England. ... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ... Kent Police is the police force covering Kent in England, including the unitary authority of Medway. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... Kent Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Kent covering a geographical area south of London, to the coast and including major shipping routes via the Thames and Medway rivers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... As of 1st July the NHS Ambulance Services Trusts of Kent, Surrey and Sussex are being joined together to form a new South East Coast Ambulance Service . ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Medway is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... South East England is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... This is a list of cities, towns and villages in the ceremonial county of Kent, England. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Rochester is a town in Kent, England, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. With Chatham, Gillingham, Strood and a number of outlying villages it makes up the Borough of Medway. The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Rivers in Kent, showing the Medway. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... , Chatham is a large English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the south-east of London in the county of Kent. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Statistics Population: 33182 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ725695 Administration District: Medway Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South East Coast Post office and telephone Post town: ROCHESTER... Medway is the name given to a conurbation in the north of Kent, England. ...

Contents

Civic Structure

Rochester and its neighbours, Chatham and Gillingham, form a single large urban area known as the Medway Towns with a population of about 250,000. However Rochester has always governed land on the other side of the Medway in Strood. This was known as Strood Intra; before 1835 it was about 100 yards wide and stretched to Gun Lane. In the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act the boundaries were extended to include more of Strood and Frindsbury, and part of Chatham known as Chatham Intra. In 1974, Rochester City Council was abolished and superseded by Medway Borough Council, which also included the parishes of Cuxton, Halling and Cliffe, and the Hoo Peninsula. In 1979 the borough became Rochester-upon-Medway. , Chatham is a large English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the south-east of London in the county of Kent. ... , Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... This article is about Medway in England. ... Statistics Population: 33182 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ725695 Administration District: Medway Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South East Coast Post office and telephone Post town: ROCHESTER... adamsan 15:41, 19 October 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The halling is a Norwegian dance. ... Cliffe-at-Hoo, known as Cliffe, is a village on the Hoo peninsula in Kent, England, reached from the Medway Towns by a three-mile journey along the B2000. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Arms of the City of Rochester-upon-Medway The City of Rochester-upon-Medway was a non-metropolitan district of Kent, England from 1974 to 1998. ...


Rochester had long been a city but was accidentally stripped of its centuries-old city status in 1998 through local government reorganisation. This was not noticed by Medway Council until 2002; it has since written to the Queen asking for city status to be conferred again. Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Watling Street passes through the town, and to the south the River Medway is bridged by the M2 motorway and the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. The modern Watling Street crossing the Medway at Rochester near the Roman and Celt crossings Watling Street is the name given to an ancient trackway in England and Wales that was first used by the Celts mainly between the modern cities of Canterbury and St Albans. ... There are also M2 motorways in Northern Ireland and Australia The M2 motorway is a motorway in England. ... A Eurostar train on the CTRL, near Ashford The Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) is a project to construct a 108 km (67 mile) high-speed railway line from London through Kent to the British end of the Channel Tunnel. ...


Urban environment

The M2 motorway and Channel Tunnel Rail Link crossing the Medway, as viewed from Ranscombe Farm, Cuxton. Borstal can be seen on the far bank.
The M2 motorway and Channel Tunnel Rail Link crossing the Medway, as viewed from Ranscombe Farm, Cuxton. Borstal can be seen on the far bank.

The town is home to a number of important historic buildings, the most prominent of which are the Guildhall, the Corn Exchange, Restoration House, Eastgate House, Rochester Castle and Rochester Cathedral. Many of the buildings in the town centre date from the 18th century or as early as the 14th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 826 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib to Clem Rutter, Rochester,Kent. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 826 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib to Clem Rutter, Rochester,Kent. ... Rochester Castle seen from the cathedral door, showing the four-turreted keep. ... Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Military tradition

Rochester Cathedral and Rochester in the background viewed from the Castle Keep.
Rochester Cathedral and Rochester in the background viewed from the Castle Keep.

Rochester has for centuries been of great strategic importance through its position near the confluence of the Thames and the Medway. Its castle was built to guard the river crossing, and the Royal Dockyard at Chatham was the key to the Royal Navy's long period of supremacy. The town, as part of Medway, is surrounded by two circle of fortresses; the inner line of forts built during the Napoleonic wars are; Fort Clarence, Fort Pitt, Fort Amherst and Fort Gillingham. The outer line of "Palmerston" forts was built during 1860s in light of the Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom report, these consisted of Fort Borstal, Fort Bridgewood, Fort Luton, and Twydall Redoubts, with 2 forts on islands in the Medway; Fort Hoo and Fort Darnet. Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Rivers in Kent, showing the Medway. ... , Chatham is a large English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the south-east of London in the county of Kent. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Fort Clarence is sited across St Margarets Street in Rochester, Kent. ... Chatham Dockyard from Fort Pitt, 1831. ... Fort Amherst was started in 1756 at the Southern end of the Brompton lines protecting Chatham Dockyard, Chatham, Kent, with the last works about 1820, the lower part is now opened to the public by the Fort Amherst and Lines Trust. ... In 1859 Lord Palmerston instigated the Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom because of serious concerns that France might want to invade the UK again. ... An afterthought from the 1859 Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom, Fort Borstal was built between 1875 and 1885 by convict labour to hold the high ground southwest of Rochester, Kent. ... The site of Fort Bridgewoods is on the outskirts of Rochester, Kent next to the Rochester-Maidstone road (B2091). ... Fort Luton was built between 1876 and 1892 south of Chatham, Kent. ... Fort Hoo, like Fort Darnet was built on the recommendations of the 1859 Royal Commission on an island covering the inner navigable channel of the Medway, Kent. ... Fort Darnet, like Fort Hoo was built on the recommendations of the 1859 Royal Commission on an island covering the inner navigable channel of the Medway, Kent. ...


During the First World War the Short Brothers' aircraft company manufactured the first plane to launch a torpedo,the Short Admiralty Type 184, and during the Second World War manufactured the first four-engined bomber, the Stirling, and flying boats at its seaplane factory on the River Medway not far from Rochester Castle. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company, abbreviated Shorts and is now based in Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Founded in 1908, Shorts was the first true aviation company in the world, and was a manufacturer of flying boats during the 1920s and 1930s and throughout the Second World War. ... The Short Type 184 was a British two-seat reconnaissance, bombing and torpedo carrying seaplane designed by Short Brothers. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ...


The decline in naval power and in shipbuilding in general led to the government abandoning the shipyard at Chatham in 1984, and the subsequent demise of much of the marine industry. Rochester and its neighbouring communities were hit hard by this and have experienced a painful adjustment to a post-industrial economy, with much social deprivation and unemployment resulting. On the closure of Chatham Dockyard the area saw an unprecedented surge in unemployment to 15.9%. This dropped to 3.5% in 2004.


History

Etymology

The Romano-British name for Rochester was Durobrivæ. This is commonly translated as 'stronghold by the bridge' or 'stronghold by the bridges'.[1] This could have been a Belgic Settlement or oppidum, but there was no bridge in AD 43.[2] It was also known as Durobrovum and Durobrivis, which could be a Latinisation of the British word 'Dourbruf' meaning swiftstream[3] Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... The first recorded mention of Belgae, part of the mix that make up modern Belgians, was in the year 58 B.C.; Gaius Julius Caesar, departing from the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (now Provence), decided to conquer the rest of the Gauls. ... An oppidum (pl: oppida) was Latin for the main settlement in any administrative area of the Roman Empire. ...


It is recorded as Durobrivis c.730 and Dorobrevis in 844.[1] It was pronounced as 'Robrivis. Bede copied down this name, c730, mistaking its meaning as Hrofi's fortified camp (OE Hrofes cæster). From this we get c730 Hrofæscæstre, 811 Hrofescester, 1086 Rovescester, 1610 Rochester.[1] Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ...


As the name for the city of Rochester contains the Latin word 'castra', which is present in the names of many cities that were once Roman camps (e.g. Chester Latin 'Deva'), it is assumed that Rochester was a fortified Roman town, but no evidence has been found of such fort. The Roman street pattern suggest that it was a line of shops and houses built alongside a road, and systematic fortification did not take place until after AD 175.[2] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In the Roman Empire, a castra (the plural form of castrum, castri, a fortification) was a Roman military camp. ... , For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...


The Latinised adjective 'Roffensis' refers to Rochester.[3]


Traditional parishes

There were three traditional parishes within the city of Rochester, St Margaret's, St Nicholas' and the Cathedral.[4]


Pre Roman

  • Pre-Roman: Evidence of Neolithic settlement nearby at Kit's Coty House. Belgic remains were found in 1961 by R E Chaplin under the Roman levels. Coin moulds suggest that this was a centre of some importance.

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Kits Coty House or Kits Coty is the name of the remains of a Neolithic chambered long barrow on Blue Bell Hill near Aylesford in the English county of Kent. ...

Roman

  • AD 43: The Romans arrived and called the settlement Durobrivae. On the strength of this name alone, one theory suggests that there was a 'fortified town by a bridge'. There was no bridge when the Romans arrived, and no fort has been discovered by archaeologists. Alternatively, Aulus Plautius set up a small fort, which was not needed long, as Kent was soon settled. The Roman settlement provides us with the present High Street and Northgate/Boley Hill.[2] A bridge was built. There is evidence that the Romans bridged the river at the same point as the present bridge. They constructed a sustnatial causeway 14ft wide, over the marshy ground the Strood Side of the river,to the present day Angel Corner.[2]
  • 190+: Systematic earthen fortifications were established.
  • 225+: These were replaced by stone, which are still extant.
  • 427 Romans leave Britain

Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s - 220s - 230s - 240s 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 // Events and trends Commodus is assassinated on the last day of 192, leading to a period of civil war, which ends... Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor Zhuge Liang, Shu Han strategist of impressive intellect Category: ...

Kentish Kings

  • 410 – 604: Tradition states that Rochester was continuously occupied by Celts, Jutes and/or Saxons. The Jutish brothers Hengist and Horsa landed at Ebbsfleet in AD 449, and defeated the Britons at Aylesford.
  • 600: King Ethelbert of Kent (560-616) made a code of about 90 laws dealing with criminal acts, which were copied in twelfth century in the Textus Roffensis.
  • 604: Augustine of Canterbury sends Justus to found a cathedral at Rochester, 42ft high and 28ft wide. The apse is marked in the present cathedral. This was the second see after Canterbury.
  • 604: The King's School is founded.
  • 676: Rochester was sacked by Æthelred of Mercia.
  • 730: Bede writes down the name as Hrofæscæstre.
  • 842: Sacked by the Danes.
  • 877: Alfred of Wessex orders the building of ships to fight the Danes. This could be the start of Medway's military shipbuilding history.
  • 884: Under siege from the Danes again.
  • 930: Rochester has a right to mint coins.
  • 960: Wooden bridge across the Medway.[5]

All this is evidence of an important and thriving continuous civic life. Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Horsa, according to tradition, was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Romano-British and Celtic inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Ebbsfleet. ... Events August 3 - The Second Council of Ephesus opens, chaired by Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Aylesford is a large village on the River Medway in Kent, 4 miles NW of Maidstone in England. ... The Textus Roffensis was a collection of legal documents that detailed the laws of King William I of England and recorded ownership of land, like Domesday Book. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... For other uses, see Justus (disambiguation). ... The Kings School, Rochester is a public school in Rochester, Kent. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of England from 871 to 899, though at no time did he rule over the whole of the land. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...


Norman

Rochester Castle view from River Medway
Rochester Castle view from River Medway
  • 1077: Gundulf is consecrated bishop.
  • 1080: Gundulf commences the new cathedral, on the site between the Roman wall and Watling Street, over the previous cathedral.
  • 1087: Gundulf starts building the Norman castle. Its curtain wall follow Roman walls, and its keep is 113ft high, 70ft × 70ft in breadth.
  • 1130: The Norman cathedral is complete.

Image File history File linksMetadata Rochester_castlemedway. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rochester_castlemedway. ... Rochester Castle seen from the cathedral door, showing the four-turreted keep. ... Gundulf was a Norman monk who came to England following the Conquest. ... The modern Watling Street crossing the Medway at Rochester near the Roman and Celt crossings Watling Street is the name given to an ancient trackway in England and Wales that was first used by the Celts mainly between the modern cities of Canterbury and St Albans. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ...

Middle Ages

  • 1215: Besieged by King John. It fell on November 30.
  • 1227: Completion of Early English quire at the cathedral.
  • 1264: City attacked by Simon de Montfort.
  • 1343: Central tower at cathedral raised.
  • 1461: The first mayor.
  • 1470: The great window at the cathedral is built.

Rochester Cathedral is one of England's smaller cathedrals, yet it demonstrates all styles of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.[5] This article is about the King of England. ... Salisbury Cathedral, built c. ... The choir stalls in the quire of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England A quire is the area of a church where the choir sits, also known as the choir. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ...


Tudor and Stuart

Rochester Guildhall on the High Street.
Rochester Guildhall on the High Street.
Rochester Corn Exchange on the High Street.
Rochester Corn Exchange on the High Street.
  • December 1689: King James II spent his last night as king at Abdication House in the High Street.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib: Clem Rutter, Rochester. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib: Clem Rutter, Rochester. ... Categories: A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature | People stubs | 1469 births | 1535 deaths | Saints ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Nicholas Ridley (died October 16, 1555) was an English clergyman. ... </gallery> |- Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, [[Mary Tudor |}, Queen of France]]. Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or... Upnor is a small village on the western bank of the River Medway in England. ... Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway in Kent, England, came into existence at the time when, following the Reformation, relations with the Catholic countries of Europe had worsened, and thus requiring added defences. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Upchurch village is situated at the junction of numerous minor roads on the edge of the Medway marshes, to the east of Gillingham. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Satis House is a fictional estate in the Charles Dickens novel Great Expectations. ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, 1607&#8211;1676, Lieutenant-Admiral-General of the United Provinces by Ferdinand Bol, painted 1667. ... Upnor is a small village on the western bank of the River Medway in England. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... A portrait of Cloudesley Shovell at the museum in Rochester, Kent, where he was an MP. Sir Cloudesley Shovell (c. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib: Clem Rutter, Rochester. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attrib: Clem Rutter, Rochester. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ...

Georgian and Victorian

  • 1701: Sir Joseph Williamson's Mathematical School, the famous boys' grammar school, was founded.
  • 1765: HMS Victory was launched in neighbouring Chatham. It became flagship of Admiral Lord Nelson at the Trafalgar.
  • 1850: Thomas Aveling financed by his father in law bought a small millwrighting shop in Edwards yard, where he set up a business producing and repairing agricultural plant.[5]
  • 1861: Thomas Aveling and Richard Porter move to Strood and establish Aveling & Porter, the engineering company which was to become the largest manufacturer of agricultural machines and steam rollers in the country.Of the 12,700 steam engines which they made, no fewer than 8,600 of them were steam rollers.[5][7]

The school after it was rebuilt in 1895. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ... , Chatham is a large English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the south-east of London in the county of Kent. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 &#8211; October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Aveling & Porter engine Margaret Thomas Aveling and Richard Thomas Porter entered into partnership in 1862, developed a steam engine 1865 three years later, and produced more of the machines than all the other British manufacturers combined. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Traction engine. ...

20th and 21st centuries

  • 1974: The municipal borough and city of Rochester merged with the borough of Chatham and part of the Strood Rural District including the Hoo Peninsula. The resulting district was the Borough of Medway. It was later renamed Rochester-upon-Medway, and the city status transferred to the entire borough.
  • 1998: the council merged with Gillingham and Chatham to form the Medway unitary authority. The outgoing council chose not to appoint ceremonial "Charter Trustees" to continue to represent the historic Rochester area, causing Rochester to lose its city status [3].
  • The decision is irrevocable, because there no longer exists an entity under the old charter who could appoint Charter Trustees. The main option available is to petition the Queen for new letters patent declaring the whole of Medway to be a city, but it is far from certain this could occur anytime soon.

A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... Chatham is an English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the east of London in the county of Kent. ... Strood Rural District was a rural district with an area of 19,644 hectares in the county of Kent, England. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Chatham is an English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the east of London in the county of Kent. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...

Culture

Dickens

Morris Dance Side at 2006 Sweeps festival
Morris Dance Side at 2006 Sweeps festival

The town was for many years the favourite of Charles Dickens who lived nearby at Gad's Hill, Higham, and who based many of his novels in the area. Descriptions of the town appear in Pickwick Papers , Great Expectations and lightly fictionalised as Cloisterham in The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Restoration house located on Crow Lane was the house Charles Dickens based Miss Havisham's (from Great Expectations) house, Satis House. This link is celebrated in Rochester's Dickens Festival each June in the Summer Dickens Festival and December with the Dickensian Christmas Festival. The 16th-century red-brick Eastgate House once housed the town's museum. In the 1980s the museum was moved further west to the Guildhall so that Eastgate House could become the Charles Dickens Centre. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... Higham is a small village bordering the Hoo Peninsula, in Kent, between Gravesend and Rochester. ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... The Mystery of Edwin Drood is the final novel by Charles Dickens. ... We dont have an article called Restoration House Start this article Search for Restoration House in. ... Miss Havisham is a significant character in the Charles Dickens novel, Great Expectations (1861). ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Satis House is a fictional estate in the Charles Dickens novel Great Expectations. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 through 1600. ...


In the same decade the High Street was redecorated with Victorian-style street lights and hanging flower baskets to give it a more welcoming atmosphere. The town also has revived the annual Sweeps' Festival, which has ancient roots relating to the Green Man, and is celebrated by a large gathering of morris dance sides. The festival starts with the awakening of the Jack in the Green ceremony, atop Bluebell Hill at sunrise on May 1st.[8] Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For other uses, see Green Man (disambiguation). ... Cotswold morris with handkerchiefs A morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied with music. ...


The Dickens Centre was ultimately unprofitable and shut in November 2004. Medway Council's Cabinet agreed proposals for the restoration and development of Eastgate House as a major cultural and tourist facility, and for the project to be recognised as a key cultural regeneration project on 7 November 2006[9]


Library

A new library has been built alongside the Adult Education Centre, Eastgate. This will enable the register office to move from Maidstone Road, Chatham to the Corn Exchange in Rochester High Street (where the library is now housed). According to a report presented to Medway Council's community services overview and scrutiny committee on 28 March 2006, the new library will be open "in late summer" (2006)[10] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Media

It was the setting for the controversial 1965 Peter Watkins television film The War Game. [11]. The opening sequence was shot in Chatham Town Hall, but the credits particularly thank the people of Dover, Gravesend and Tonbridge. Peter Watkins (born October 29, 1935) is an English film and (once) television director. ... The War Game is a 1965 television film on nuclear war. ...

Rochester Castle from across the Medway. Engraving from image by G.F. Sargent c1836.
Rochester Castle from across the Medway. Engraving from image by G.F. Sargent c1836.

The model and actress Kelly Brook went to Delce Junior School, Rochester, and later Thomas Aveling School, Rochester. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Rivers in Kent, showing the Medway. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aveling & Porter engine Margaret Aveling and Porter railway engine for industrial use. ...


Billy Childish, artist, author, poet, photographer and co-founder of the art movement Stuckism lives nearby in Chatham and there is also a growing music scene of Medway groups, including Kid Harpoon and Lupen Crook Billy Childish (real name Steven John Hamper) or William Charlie Hamper (born December 1, 1959) is an English artist, author, poet, photographer, film maker, singer and guitarist. ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... Medway Groups is a term denoting bands in the Medway Towns, north Kent, England. ...


The University College for the Creative Arts, formerly the Kent Institute of Art & Design, can be found on the Rochester-Chatham border. The University College for the Creative Arts at Canterbury, Epsom, Farnham, Maidstone and Rochester (often abbreviated to the University College for the Creative Arts) is an art school based in South East England, with campuses in Canterbury, Epsom, Farnham, Maidstone and Rochester. ...


Sport

The main sports played in the town are cricket with many teams playing in the Kent Cricket League, and football, with teams competing in the Rochester & District Football League on a Saturday and the Medway Messenger Sunday Football League. Rochester F.C. were one of the oldest football clubs but have been defunct for many decades. Nearby Gillingham F.C. are seen to represent the Medway area in football. For the team based in Dorset, see Gillingham Town F.C. Gillingham Football Club is an English professional football club based in the town of Gillingham, Kent, currently playing in the Football League One. ...


Industry

Rochester Airport

Rochester City Council bought the land at Rochester Airfield in September 1933 from the landowner as the site for a municipal airport. One month later Short Brothers, who had started building aircraft in 1909 on the Isle of Sheppey, asked for permission to lease the land for test flying. Rochester Airport (IATA: RCS, ICAO: EGTO) is a small airfield located 1. ... Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company, abbreviated Shorts and is now based in Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Founded in 1908, Shorts was the first true aviation company in the world, and was a manufacturer of flying boats during the 1920s and 1930s and throughout the Second World War. ... View towards Minster from Elmley Marshes The Isle of Sheppey is a small (36 square miles, 94 km²) island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some 38 miles (62km) to the east of central London. ...

Rochester station building. The railway passes at first floor level on a viaduct.
Rochester station building. The railway passes at first floor level on a viaduct.

In 1934-5 Short Brothers took over the Rochester Airport site when they moved some of their personnel from the existing seaplane works. The inaugural flight into Rochester was from Gravesend, John Parker flying their Short Scion G-ACJI. Image File history File linksMetadata Rochesterrear. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rochesterrear. ... Torontos Bloor Street Viaduct bridges the Don valley; road traffic uses the upper deck, rail traffic uses the lower deck. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... Gravesend is a town in northwest Kent, England, on the south bank of the Thames, opposite Tilbury in Essex. ... The Short S.16 Scion and Scion II were 1930s British two-engine, cantilever monoplanes built by Short Brothers and (under licence) by Pobjoy Airmotors and Aircraft Ltd. ...


In 1979 the lease reverted to the council. After giving thorough consideration to closing the airport, GEC (then comprising Marconi and instrument makers Elliot Automation) decided to take over management of the airport. It maintained two grass runways while releasing some land for light industrial expansion. The General Electric Company plc (GEC) is a British company that was renamed Marconi plc on November 30, 1999 after its defence unit Marconi Electronic Systems was divested and sold to British Aerospace. ... The Marconi Company Ltd. ... Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd was an early computer company of the 1950s–60s in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Medway is the name given to a conurbation in the north of Kent, England. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Chatham is an English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the east of London in the county of Kent. ... Statistics Population: 33182 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ725695 Administration District: Medway Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South East Coast Post office and telephone Post town: ROCHESTER... Medway Little Theatre is a theatre in Rochester, England at the heart of Medway. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rochester, Kent

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c The Place names of Kent. Judith Glover.1976 Batsford. 1982 Meresborough Books. ISBN 0905270 614
  2. ^ a b c d Rochester, The evolution of the City. Ronald Marsh. 1974 p&p Medway Borough Council.
  3. ^ a b Kelly's Directory of Rochester 1951.
  4. ^ C Humpherey-Smith, The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers
  5. ^ a b c d e Rochester, The past 2000 years, Published Privately City of Rochester Society 1999.
  6. ^ *The Dutch Raid, published by the City of Rochester Society 1998.
  7. ^ *Discovering Traction Engines, - Harold Bonnett - Shire Publications (1975) - ISBN 0-85263-318-1
  8. ^ *City of Rochester upon Medway Visitors Guide 1996.
  9. ^ [1].
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/W/htmlW/wargamethe/wargamethe.htm
  • Rochester Cathedral, Pitkins Guide ISBN 0-85372-669-8
  • Medway News

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - Kent - Discover Kent - Castles - Rochester Castle (503 words)
In fact, the name 'Rochester' was derived by the Romans from 'Hroffe's Castre', which in turn was derived from the fortified house of a warrior chieftain, Hroffe, who once lived in the area.
Rochester Castle was fortified against the King John and soon became a stronghold and headquarters for the rebels.
In 1870 the castle grounds were leased to the City of Rochester, who turned them into a public park and eventually, in the 20th century, responsibility for this imposing old structure was taken over by English Heritage.
GO BRITANNIA! TRAVEL GUIDE: Rochester - Britannia's Magical History Tour (343 words)
In 604, Augustine established Rochester as England's second bishopric (Canterbury was the first) and consecrated the cathedral at that time.
William the Conqueror recognized Rochester's importance and ordered that a castle should be built to defend it.
Rochester's most famous resident was Charles Dickens, who lived at Gad's Hill Place for many years prior to his death in 1870.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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