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Encyclopedia > Robotics
The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb.
Robotics Portal

Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application.[1] Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics and software, and is usually accompanied by a large working knowledge of many subjects.[2] A person working in the field is a roboticist. Image File history File links Shadow_Hand_Bulb. ... Image File history File links Shadow_Hand_Bulb. ... Comparison of The Shadow Dexterous Hand with the human hand. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... Image File history File links Animation2. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Definition A roboticist conceptualizes, designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots. ...


The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain (its functionality being similar to the skeleton of the human body). The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm. Some robots, such as the Stewart platform, use closed parallel kinematic chains. Other structures, such as those that mimic the mechanical structure of humans, various animals and insects, are comparatively rare. However, the development and use of such structures in robots is an active area of research (e.g. biomechanics). Robots used as manipulators have an end effector mounted on the last link. This end effector can be anything from a welding device to a mechanical hand used to manipulate the environment. ISO 10248 defines a robotic application on the industrial field. For other uses, see Structure (disambiguation). ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. ... In mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering and robotics, degrees of freedom (DOF) describes flexibility of motion. ... An example of Stewart platform Two hexapod positioners. ... For other uses, see Biomechanical. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

 | last = Asimov | first = Isaac | authorlink = Isaac Asimov | title = GREEN 
 | publisher = Eos | year = 2003 }} 

Components of robots

Actuation

A robot leg, powered by Air Muscles.
A robot leg, powered by Air Muscles.

The actuators are the 'muscles' of a robot; the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors, but there are many others, some of which are powered by electricity, while others use chemicals, or compressed air. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 309 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 1024 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 309 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 1024 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Potential energy is the work done by a force (such as gravitational force or Coulomb force) when the relative positions of objects are changed within a physical system. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ...

  • Motors: By far the vast majority of robots use electric motors, of which there are several kinds. DC motors, which are familiar to many people, spin rapidly when an electric current is passed through them. They will spin backwards if the current is made to flow in the other direction.
  • Stepper motors: As the name suggests, stepper motors do not spin freely like DC motors, they rotate in steps of a few degrees at a time, under the command of a controller. This makes them easier to control, as the controller knows exactly how far they have rotated, without having to use a sensor. Therefore they are used on many robots and CNC machining centres.
  • Piezo motors: A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors, also known as ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic legs, vibrating many thousands of times per second, walk the motor round in a circle or a straight line.[3] The advantages of these motors are incredible nanometre resolution, speed and available force for their size.[4] These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.[5][6]
  • Air muscles: The air muscle is a simple yet powerful device for providing a pulling force. When inflated with compressed air, it contracts by up to 40% of its original length. The key to its behavior is the braiding visible around the outside, which forces the muscle to be either long and thin, or short and fat. Since it behaves in a very similar way to a biological muscle, it can be used to construct robots with a similar muscle/skeleton system to an animal.[7] For example, the Shadow robot hand uses 40 air muscles to power its 24 joints.
  • Electroactive polymers: Electroactive polymers are a class of plastics which change shape in response to electrical stimulation.[8] They can be designed so that they bend, stretch or contract, but so far there are no EAPs suitable for commercial robots, as they tend to have low efficiency or are not robust.[9] Indeed, all of the entrants in a recent competition to build EAP powered arm wrestling robots, were beaten by a 17 year old girl.[10] However, they are expected to improve in the future, where they may be useful for microrobotic applications.[11]
  • Elastic nanotubes: These are a promising, early-stage experimental technology. The absence of defects in nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10J per cu cm for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. [12]

Electric motors of various sizes. ... Because of induction of the windings, power requirements, and temperature management some glue circuitry is necessary between digital controller and motor. ... A piezoelectric motor or piezo motor is a type of electric motor based upon the change in shape of a piezoelectric material when an electric field is applied. ... The electronic (gold-plated) contacts of an EF mount lens. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... Air muscle contracting and extending. ... Electroactive Polymers or EAPs are polymers whose shape is modified when a voltage is applied to them. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ...

Manipulation

Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy or otherwise have an effect. Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors[13], while the arm is referred to as a manipulator.[14] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general purpose manipulator, for example a humanoid hand.

A simple gripper
  • Grippers: A common effector is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. See End effectors [1].
  • Vacuum Grippers: Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, will often use very simple vacuum grippers. These are very simple astrictive devices, but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction.
  • General purpose effectors: Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow Hand and the Schunk hand.[15] These highly dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors[16] can be difficult to control. The computer must consider a great deal of information, and decide on the best way to manipulate an object from many possibilities.


Robotic hand holding an egg. ... Robotic hand holding an egg. ... Prehensility is the quality of an organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. ... In mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering and robotics, degrees of freedom (DOF) describes flexibility of motion. ...


For the definitive guide to all forms of robot endeffectors, their design and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers" [17].


Locomotion

Rolling Robots

Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya.
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya.

For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels. However, some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots, with only one or two wheels. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2736 × 3648 pixel, file size: 8. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2736 × 3648 pixel, file size: 8. ... Inventor Dean Kamen demonstrates the Segway HT at the U.S. Department of Commerce on February 14, 2002. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ...

  • Two-wheeled balancing: While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot, it can be thought of as a component of a robot. Several real robots do use a similar dynamic balancing algorithm, and NASA's Robonaut has been mounted on a Segway.[18]
  • Ballbot: Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a new type of mobile robot that balances on a ball instead of legs or wheels. "Ballbot" is a self-contained, battery-operated, omnidirectional robot that balances dynamically on a single urethane-coated metal sphere. It weighs 95 pounds and is the approximate height and width of a person. Because of its long, thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces, it has the potential to function better than current robots can in environments with people.[19]
  • Track Robot: Another type of rolling robot is one that has tracks, like NASA's Urban Robot, Urbie. [20]

Inventor Dean Kamen demonstrates the Segway HT at the U.S. Department of Commerce on February 14, 2002. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Robonaut resting on a Segway HT. Robonaut is a joint DARPA–NASA project designed to create a humanoid robot equivalent to humans during extra-vehicular activity (space walks). ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The Ballbot is a mobile robot, an attempt to solve the robotic unicycle problem, and is designed to balance itself on its single spherical wheel while travelling about. ...

Walking Robots

iCub robot, designed by the RobotCub Consortium
iCub robot, designed by the RobotCub Consortium
Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. Typically, these robots can walk well on flat floors, and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are:
  • ZMP Technique: The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over).[21] However, this is not exactly how a human walks, and the difference is quite apparent to human observers, some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory.[22][23][24] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static, and some dynamic balancing is used (See below). However, it still requires a smooth surface to walk on.
  • Hopping: Several robots, built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory, successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot, could stay upright simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself.[25] Soon, the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults.[26] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot, run, pace and bound.[27] For a full list of these robots, see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page.
  • Dynamic Balancing: A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique, as it constantly monitors the robot's motion, and places the feet in order to main stability.[28] This technique was recently demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot,[29] which is so stable, it can even jump.[30]
  • Passive Dynamics: Perhaps the most promising approach utilises passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.[31][32]


Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... RobotCub is a 5 years long project funded by the European Commission through Unit E5 Cognition of the IST. Started in 2004, its goal is to study cognition through the implementation of a humanoid robot the size of a 2 year old child: the iCub. ... Stairs, staircase, stairway, flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... Zero Moment Point is a concept related with dynamics and control of legged locomotion, e. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... In classical mechanics, Newtons third law states that forces occur in pairs, one called the action and the other the reaction (actio et reactio in Latin). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with torque. ... Flush toilet A toilet is a plumbing fixture devised for the disposal of bodily wastes, including urine, feces, methane, semen and vomit. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... Marc Raibert is a former MIT professor who founded the MIT Leg Lab in the 1980s, and went on to found Boston Dynamics, a simulation and robotics company. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Jumping Freighthopping Island hopping Movie hopping This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... An adult using a Pogo Stick A pogo stick is a device consisting of a pole with a handle at one end, footpads on the other and a spring which supports the stick and user when on the ground. ... Facsimile of a Woodcut in Exercises in Leaping and Vaulting, by A. Tuccaro: 4to (Paris, 1599). ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... The trot is a gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forwards at the same time. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans. ... Trevor Blackwell Trevor Blackwell (born November 4, 1969 in Canada), is a computer programmer based in Silicon Valley. ... Passive dynamics is the study of robotic movement (especially walking), based on utilising the momentum of swinging limbs for greater efficiency. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Look up efficiency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Propulsion method may refer to a number of different articles: For a list of space propulsion methods, see spacecraft propulsion. ... Hills redirects here. ...


Other methods of locomotion

RQ-4 Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
RQ-4 Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
  • Flying: A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to attend it. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight and even landing [33]. Other flying robots are completely automated, and are known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot, and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human. Other flying robots include cruise missiles, the Entomopter and the Epson micro helicopter robot.
Two robot snakes. Left one has 32 motors, the right one 10.
Two robot snakes. Left one has 32 motors, the right one 10.
  • Snaking: Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings.[34] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot [35] can even navigate both on land and in water.[36]
  • Skating: A small number of skating robots have been developed, one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device, Titan VIII. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll[37]. Another robot, Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates, and skate across a desktop.[38]
  • Swimming: It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. [39] Furthermore, they can accelerate and manoeuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and produce less noise and water disturbance. Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion.[40] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish[41], and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics, to analyse and mathematically model thunniform motion.[42]


United States Air Force Global Hawk un-manned reconnaissance aircraft. ... United States Air Force Global Hawk un-manned reconnaissance aircraft. ... The Northrop Grumman (formerly Ryan Aeronautical) RQ-4 Global Hawk (known as Tier II+ during development) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used by the US Air Force as a surveillance aircraft. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ... The de Havilland Comet 1, G-ALYP - The first production Comet. ... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 677 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1916 × 1696 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 677 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1916 × 1696 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Blading redirects here. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Propulsion may refer to: Look up propulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Fish swim by exerting force against the surrounding water. ...


Human interaction

Kismet (robot) can produce a range of Facial expressions
Kismet (robot) can produce a range of Facial expressions

If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics, and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually communicate with humans by talking, gestures and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate, it is quite unnatural for the robot. It will be quite a while before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C3P0. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1203 KB) Description: Photograph of the robot Kismet Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 16 October 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1203 KB) Description: Photograph of the robot Kismet Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 16 October 2005. ... Kismet now resides at the MIT Museum in Cambridge, MA Kismet is a robot at MIT with auditory, visual and expressive systems intended to participate in human social interaction and to demonstrate simulated human emotion and appearance. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ... A facial expression results from one or more motions or positions of the muscles of the face. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... C-3PO (also spelled See-Threepio, called 3PO for short) is a character from the fictional Star Wars universe. ...

  • Speech recognition: Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human (speech recognition), in real time, is a difficult task for a computer, mostly because of the great variability of speech. The same word, spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics, volume, the previous word, whether or not the speaker has a cold, etc.. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent.[43] Nevertheless, great strides have been made in the field since Davis, Biddulph, and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952.[44] Currently, the best systems can recognise continuous, natural speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of 95%.[45]
  • Gestures: One can imagine, in the future, explaining to a robot chef how to make a pastry, or asking directions from a robot police officer. On both of these occasions, making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions. In the first case, the robot would be recognising gestures made by the human, and perhaps repeating them for confirmation. In the second case, the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the road, then turn right". It is quite likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots.[46] A great many systems have been developed to recognise human hand gestures.[47]
  • Facial expression: Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans, and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body language. Whether the person is happy, frightened or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Likewise, a robot like Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.[48]
  • Personality: Many of the robots of science fiction have personality, and that is something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future.[49] Nevertheless, researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality[50][51]: i.e. they use sounds, facial expressions and body language to try to convey an internal state, which may be joy, sadness or fear. One commercial example is Pleo, a toy robot dinosaur, which can exhibit several apparent emotions.[52]

This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... It has been suggested that Real-time computing be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Look up Accent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See mouse gesture for gestures in computing Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... Look up kismet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Personality may refer to: // Personality psychology, a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences Personality development, the study of human personality development over time Personality disorders, a class of mental disorders that is characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ... UGOBE OS LOGO Pleo is a robotic dinosaur, made for all ages, designed to emulate the appearance and behavior of a week-old baby Camarasaurus. ...

Control

The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases - perception, processing and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the position of its joints or its end effector). This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical structure. The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... A robotic paradigm can be described by the relationship between the 3 primitives of robotics: Sense, Plan and Act. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ...


The processing phase can range in complexity. At a reactive level, it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e.g. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. Sensor fusion is the combining of sensory data or data derived from sensory data from disparate sources such that the resulting information is in some sense better than would be possible when these sources were used individually. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ...


At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks, the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Cognitive models try to represent the robot, the world, and how they interact. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. Finally, motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. For example, a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles, falling over, etc. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a technique used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build up a map within an unknown environment while at the same time keeping track of their current position. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... AI redirects here. ...


Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy. Direct interaction is used for haptic or tele-operated devices, and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion. Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding medium-to-high-level tasks, with the robot automatically figuring out how to achieve them. An autonomous robot may go for extended periods of time without human interaction. Higher levels of autonomy do not necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities. For example, robots in assembly plants are completely autonomous, but operate in a fixed pattern. This article is about haptic technology. ...


Education

Robotics as an undergraduate area of study is fairly common, although few universities offer robotics degrees. In the US, only Worcester Polytechnic Institute offers a Bachelor of Science in Robotics Engineering. Universities that have graduate degrees focused on robotics include Carnegie Mellon University, MIT and UCLA . In Australia, there are Bachelor of Engineering degrees at Deakin University, Flinders University, Swinburne University of Technology, and the University of Western Sydney. Others offer degrees in Mechatronics. In the UK, Robotics degrees are offered by a number of institutions including the Napier University,University of Essex, Heriot-Watt University, the University of Liverpool, University of Reading, Sheffield Hallam University, Staffordshire University,University of Sussex, The Robert Gordon University and University of Tunku Abdul Rahman. In Mexico a Bachelor of Science in Digital Systems and Robotics Engineering is offered at Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education[53]. Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is a private university located in Worcester, Massachusetts, in the United States. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Deakin University is a large Australian public university with around 32,000 students studying Bachelor, Masters, Doctoral and Professional programs as of 2004. ... Flinders University, or The Flinders University of South Australia, is a public university in Adelaide, founded in 1966. ... Swinburne University of Technology is a university based in a number of campuses in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. ... The University of Western Sydney (UWS) is a large, multi-campused and comprehensive metropolitan University with 35,000 students and 2,500 staff members. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... The University of Essex rules is a British plate glass university. ... The entrance to main reception at the Edinburgh campus. ... Whiteknights Lake Whiteknights Lake in winter The University Great Hall, on the London Road Campus The University of Reading is a university in the English town of Reading, Berkshire. ... Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) is a university in Sheffield, England. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... The Robert Gordon University (often known as RGU) is a modern University located in Aberdeen, Scotland with an emphasis on providing high quality higher education and research from undergraduate to doctorate level. ... The Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) or simply Tecnológico de Monterrey is a private university in Mexico founded in 1943 by Eugenio Garza Sada (an MIT graduate). ...


References

[Universities & Research]Robotic Platform for University Research

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  16. ^ Shadow Dextrous Hand technical spec
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  18. ^ ROBONAUT Activity Report. NASA (2004-02). Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
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  20. ^ JPL Robotics: System: Commercial Rovers
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  22. ^ Funny Walk. Pooter Geek (2004-12-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
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  27. ^ Quadruped (1984-1987). MIT Leg Laboratory.
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  35. ^ ACM-R5
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  38. ^ Plen, the robot that skates across your desk. SCI FI Tech (2007-01-23). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
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  40. ^ Richard Mason. What is the market for robot fish?.
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  52. ^ Ugobe: Introducing Pleo
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

  • The “official” Hall of Fame for robots Voting is currently underway for a new round of inductees.
  • Robot news and Robotics information
  • Small robots drive trains – A tutorial discussing the different techniques used to build the chassis and drive trains of relatively small robots
  • A review of robotics software platforms Linux Devices.
  • UNSW Computational Mechanics and Robotics Group
  • JPL's Robotic website
  • News and videos about robotics – News and videos about robotics
  • The Basics of Robotics
  • Robotics Research Papers – DMOZ Directory

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