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Encyclopedia > Robot
ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda.
ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda.

A robot is a mechanical or virtual, artificial agent. It is usually an electromechanical system, which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots to differentiate.[1] Look up robot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 389 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (561 × 864 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo en Creative Common importé sur le site Flickr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 389 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (561 × 864 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo en Creative Common importé sur le site Flickr. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... The term humanoid refers to any being whose body structure resembles that of a human. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... The virtual is a concept applied in many fields with somewhat differing connotations, and also denotations. ... Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... An agents intention in performing an action is their specific purpose in doing so, the end or goal they aim at, or intend to accomplish. ... In computer science, a software agent is an abstraction, a logical model that describes software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency. ... Internet bots, also known as web robots, WWW robots or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the internet. ...


While there is still discussion about which machines qualify as robots,[2][3][4] a typical robot will have several, though not necessarily all of the following properties:

Contents

Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... The axis of rotation of a rotating body is a line such that the distance between any point on the line and any point of the body remains constant under the rotation. ... In Euclidean geometry, translation is a transformation of Euclidean space which moves every point by a fixed distance in the same direction. ... A little dexterity is helpful in working with knitting needles Look up dexterity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Reification (also known as hypostatization or concretism) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it represented a concrete, real event or physical entity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphic fallacy is the description of inanimate natural objects in a manner that endows them with human feelings, thoughts and sensations. ...

Defining characteristics

The last property (above), the appearance of agency, is important when people are considering whether to call a machine a robot. In general, the more a machine has the appearance of agency, the more it is considered a robot.

KITT is mentally anthropomorphic
KITT is mentally anthropomorphic

Mental agency
For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled.[6] The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. So the more a machine could feasibly choose to do something different, the more agency it has. For example: Image File history File linksMetadata KITT1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KITT1. ... KITT on display at Universal Studios. ... A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. ...

  • a clockwork car is never considered a robot[7]
  • a remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot[8] (or telerobot).
  • a car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence might be called a robot.
  • a self-controlled car, like the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns, or the entries to the DARPA Grand Challenge, which could sense its environment, and make driving decisions based on this information would quite likely be called robot.
  • a sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can take decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.
ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic
ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic

Physical agency
However, for many laymen, if a machine looks anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO and Aibo), especially if it is limb-like (e.g. a simple robot arm), or has limbs, or can move around, it would be called a robot. Gear with escapment mechanism For other uses, see Clockwork (disambiguation). ... Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of robots from a distance, chiefly using wireless connections (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar), tethered connections, or the Internet. ... BigTrak BIG TRAK / bigtrak was the programmable electric vehicle created by Milton Bradley in 1979. ... A smart car is an automobile with some artificial intelligence (or AI) functionality. ... The driverless car is an emerging family of technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi-like experience for car users, but without a driver. ... Ernst Dieter Dickmanns (born 1936), a former professor at the Universität der Bundeswehr München in Munich (1975 - 2001), is the pioneer of dynamic machine vision and of Driverless cars. ... Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ... KITT on display at Universal Studios. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 341 KB) fr: Photo du robot Asimo en Creative Common importé sur le site Flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 341 KB) fr: Photo du robot Asimo en Creative Common importé sur le site Flickr. ... Look up Layman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... The AIBO ERS-7 resembles a small dog AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with companion in Japanese) is one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction in 1999. ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... View of the Canadarm during a Space Shuttle mission The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) on the Space Shuttle, also known as the Canadarm, is an electromechanical arm that maneuvers a payload from the payload bay of the space shuttle orbiter to its deployment position and then releases it. ...


For example, even if the following examples used the same control architecture:

  • a CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot.
  • a factory automation arm is almost always characterized as a robot or an industrial robot.
  • an autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle, is almost always characterized as a robot, a mobile robot or a service robot
  • a zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot.[10][11]
  • a humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot or a service robot.

Interestingly, while a 3-axis CNC milling machine may have a very similar or identical control system to a robot arm, it is the arm which is almost always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. Having a limb can make all the difference. Having eyes too gives people a sense that a machine is aware (the eyes are the windows of the soul). However, simply being anthropomorphic is not sufficient for something to be called a robot. A robot must do something, whether it is useful work or not. So, for example, a rubber dog chew, shaped like ASIMO, would not be considered a robot. The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO (Standard 8373:1994, Manipulating Industrial Robots – Vocabulary) as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ... Roboraptor Roboraptor is a robotic toy invented by Mark Tilden and distributed by Wow Wee Toys International. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ...


Official definitions and classifications of robots

Robotics Institute of America

Countries have different definitions of what it means to be a robot. For example, the Robotics Institute of America (RIA) defines a robot as:

A re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.[12]

and also recognizes four classes of robot:

  • A: Handling devices with manual control
  • B: Automated handling devices with predetermined cycles
  • C: Programmable, servo-controlled robots with continuous of point-to-point trajectories
  • D: Capable of Type C specifications, and also acquires information from the environment for intelligent motion

Japanese Industrial Robot Association

In contrast, the Japanese Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) recognizes as many as six classes:[13]

  • 1: Manual - Handling Devices actuated by an operator
  • 2: Fixed Sequence Robot
  • 3: Variable-Sequence Robot with easily modified sequence of control
  • 4: Playback Robot, which can record a motion for later playback
  • 5: Numerical Control Robots with a movement program to teach it tasks manually
  • 6: Intelligent robot: that can understand its environment and able to complete the task despite changes in the operation conditions

International Standards Organization

Such variation makes it difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries. Japan has so many robots partly because it counts more machines as robots. For this reason, the International Standards Organization gives a single definition to be used when counting the number of robots in each country.[14] International standard ISO 8373 defines a "robot" as: Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or Iso) is an international standard-setting body made up of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ...

An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.[15]

Other definitions of robot

There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own. [16] For example,


Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: Joseph (Joe) F. Engelberger (New York City, July 26, 1925) is an engineer and entrepreneur who is often credited with being the Father of Robotics. Along with George Devol, Engelberger developed the first industrial robot in the United States, the Unimate, in the 1950s. ...

I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one.[17]

The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines "robot" as:

A machine used to perform jobs automatically, which is controlled by a computer[18]

Etymology

Karel Čapek who introduced the word robot in his 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).
Karel Čapek who introduced the word robot in his 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).

The word robot was introduced by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes 'artificial people' - they are called robots, but are closer to the modern idea of androids or even clones, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the "Robots" are being exploited and, if so, what follows? (see also Robots in literature for details of the play)[19] Karel Capek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) is a science fiction play by Karel ÄŒapek. ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) is a science fiction play by Karel ÄŒapek. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An android is an artificially created being that resembles a human being. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: Elevation: 71 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural: 321 The word clones is also used as the plural of clone. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... This is a chronological list of robots and androids in literature and cinema. ...


However, Karel Čapek was not the originator of the word; he wrote a short letter in reference to an article in the Oxford English Dictionary etymology in which he named his brother, painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual inventor.[20] In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he also explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři (from Latin labor, work). However, he did not like the word, seeing it as too artificial, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Etymologies redirects here. ... Josef Čapek (1887 – 1945), Czech artist. ... Lidové noviny is daily newspaper in Czech Republic. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The word robot comes from the word robota meaning literally serf labor, and, figuratively, "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech, Slovak and Polish. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary Russian), which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-. Robot is cognate with the German word Arbeiter (worker).
Serf redirects here. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History

Main article: History of robots
Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908
Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908

// Around 400 BC, Archytas of Tarentum is reputed to have built a mechanical pigeon, possibly powered by steam, capable of flying. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ...

Ancient developments

The idea of artificial people dates at least as far back as the ancient legends of Cadmus, who sowed dragon teeth that turned into soldiers, and the myth of Pygmalion, whose statue of Galatea came to life. In Greek mythology, the deformed god of metalwork (Vulcan or Hephaestus) created mechanical servants, ranging from intelligent, golden handmaidens to more utilitarian three-legged tables that could move about under their own power. Medieval Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, included recipes for creating artificial snakes, scorpions, and humans in his coded Book of Stones. Jewish legend tells of the Golem, a clay creature animated by Kabbalistic magic. Similarly, in the Younger Edda, Norse mythology tells of a clay giant, Mökkurkálfi or Mistcalf, constructed to aid the troll Hrungnir in a duel with Thor, the God of Thunder. Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... Étienne Maurice Falconet: Pygmalion & Galatee (1763) Pygmalion is a legendary figure found in Ovids Metamorphoses. ... Pygmalion and Galatea (1890) by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) Galatea (she who is milk-white)[1] was the name of three figures in Greek mythology, the best-known being the wife of Pygmalion. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... Hephæstos (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was the Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... 15th century European portrait of Geber, Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, in Latin Geber, was one of the most notable Islamic alchemists. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Golem (disambiguation). ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... This colourful front page of the Prose Edda in an 18th century Icelandic manuscript shows Odin, Heimdallr, Sleipnir and other figures from Norse mythology. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Thunder is the sound made by lightning. ...


In [ancient China], a curious account on automata is found in the Lie Zi text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it there is a description of a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023 BC|1023]]-957 BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical handiwork. King Mo of Zhou (ch 周穆王 zhōu mò wáng) or King Mo of Chou was the fifth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 1000s BC 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC - 950s BC - 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC Events and trends 959 BC - Psusennes II succeeds Siamun as king of Egypt. ...

The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The artificer touched its chin, and it began singing, perfectly in tune. He touched its hand, and it began posturing, keeping perfect time...As the performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih [Yan Shi] executed on the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it really was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue and lacquer, variously coloured white, black, red and blue. Examining it closely, the king found all the internal organs complete—liver, gall, heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys, stomach and intestines; and over these again, muscles, bones and limbs with their joints, skin, teeth and hair, all of them artificial...The king tried the effect of taking away the heart, and found that the mouth could no longer speak; he took away the liver and the eyes could no longer see; he took away the kidneys and the legs lost their power of locomotion. The king was delighted.[21]

Concepts akin to a robot can be found as long ago as the 4th century BC, when the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical bird he called "The Pigeon" which was propelled by steam. Yet another early automaton was the clepsydra, made in 250 BC by Ctesibius of Alexandria, a physicist and inventor from Ptolemaic Egypt.[22] Hero of Alexandria (10-70 AD) made numerous innovations in the field of automata, including one that allegedly could speak. Archytas Archytas (428 BC - 347 BC) was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, strategist and commander-in-chief. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Greek Κτησίβιος) (flourished 285–222 BC) was a Greek[1] inventor and mathematician in Alexandria. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c. ...

Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robots.
Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robots.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Medieval developments

Al-Jazari (1136-1206), an Arab Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automatic machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.[23] Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Caravanserai built by the Turkish beylik of Artuklu in 1275 in Mardin (a luxury hotel today). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Programming redirects here. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up peg, Peg, PEG in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ...


One of the first recorded designs of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) in around 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw. [19] The design is likely to be based on his anatomical research recorded in the Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to build the robot (see: Leonardo's robot). “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... Leonardos robot refers to a humanoid automaton designed by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1495. ...


Early modern developments

An early automaton was created 1738 by Jacques de Vaucanson, who created a mechanical duck that was able to eat and digest grain, flap its wings, and excrete. [19] The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709-November 21, 1782) was a French engineer and inventor who is credited with creating the worlds first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom. ...


The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka, known as "Japan's Edison," created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys, some of which were capable of serving tea, firing arrows drawn from a quiver, or even painting a Japanese kanji character. The landmark text Karakuri Zui (Illustrated Machinery) was published in 1796. (T. N. Hornyak, Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots [New York: Kodansha International, 2006])


In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled (teleoperated) boat, similar to a modern ROV. Based on his patents U.S. Patent 613,809 , U.S. Patent 723,188  and U.S. Patent 725,605  for "teleautomation", Tesla hoped to develop the "wireless torpedo" into a weapon system for the US Navy. (Cheney 1989) See also the PBS website article (with photos): Tesla - Master of Lightning Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) are mobile tools used in environments too dangerous for humans. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Modern Developments

In the 1930s, Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a humanoid robot known as Elektro, exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs. Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... Elektro is the nickname of eight robots built by Westinghouse in Mansfield, Ohio between 1937 and 1938. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ...


The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects, and use these stimuli to navigate. [24] Autonomous robots are robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. ... W. Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 - May 6, 1977) was a neurophysiologist and robotician. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Unimate's PUMA arm
George C. Devol circa 1982
George C. Devol circa 1982

The first truly modern robot, digitally operated, programmable, and teachable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. It is worth noting that not a single patent was cited against his original robotics patent (U.S. Patent 2,988,237 ). The first Unimate was personally sold by Devol to General Motors in 1960 and installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1146 × 1457 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1146 × 1457 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Charles Devol Jr. ... The first industrial robot, who worked on a General Motors assembly line in 1961. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ...


Robot Fatalities

The first human to be killed by a robot was Robert Williams who died at a casting plant in Flat Rock, MI (Jan. 25, 1979). [25] Robert Williams (born c. ... Flat Rock is a city located in Wayne County, Michigan. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


A better known case is that of 37 year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, in 1981. Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine.[26] Kenji Urada (1944 – 1981) was the first person to be killed by a robot. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ...




Timeline

Date Significance Robot Name Inventor
Third century B.C. Automata activated by clocks at preset times Ctesibius of Alexandria
Third century B.C. During a parade organized by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a statue of Nysa could stand up by itself from a sitting position, pour libations of milk and sit down again. Ctesibius of Alexandria?
First century A.D. In two works (Pneumatica and Automata) Heron of Alexandria describes many machines and automata (mainly from previous sources) Ctesibius of Alexandria, Philo of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria
1206 First programmable humanoid robot mechanical boat with four automatic musicians Al-Jazari
~1495 One of the first recorded designs of a humanoid robot mechanical knight Leonardo da Vinci
1738 Early automaton, a mechanical duck that was able to eat grain, flap its wings, and excrete. Jacques de Vaucanson
1920 Word robot coined. [27] Josef Čapek
1921 The term "robot" used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" Karel Čapek
1930s Early humanoid robot. It was exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric Corporation
1942 The word robotics appears in the science fiction short story Runaround.[28] Isaac Asimov
1948 Simple robots which exhibit biological like behaviours.[29] Elsie and Elmer William Grey Walter
1954 Patent submitted for first digitally controlled robot and first teachable robot, (U.S. Patent 2,988,237 ) George Devol
1956 First robot company, Unimation, is founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger based on Devol's seminal patents; first commercial robot.[30] Unimate George Devol
1956 Phrase artificial intelligence is coined at a conference in Dartmouth, Massachusetts.[31] Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy
1961 First industrial robot installed. Unimate
1963 First Palletizing Robot. Fuji Yusoki Kogyo
1975 Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (a Unimation product) Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly Victor Scheinman
1981 Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, is killed by a robot.[32]
2000 A humanoid robot that can recognize human faces, see stereoscopically, walk and run on different types of ground (including stairs), and respond (in words and in actions) to English and Japanese commands. ASIMO Honda Corporation

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (working 285–222 BC) of Alexandria (Greek Κτησίβιος) was an inventor and mathematician in ancient Greece. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (working 285–222 BC) of Alexandria (Greek Κτησίβιος) was an inventor and mathematician in ancient Greece. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (working 285–222 BC) of Alexandria (Greek Κτησίβιος) was an inventor and mathematician in ancient Greece. ... Philo of Byzantium, a Greek writer on mechanics, (born about 280 BCE) flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (according to some, a century earlier). ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Programming redirects here. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... The word wing or wings has more than one use: In aeronautics a wing is an apparatus used to create lift. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709-November 21, 1782) was a French engineer and inventor who is credited with creating the worlds first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Josef ÄŒapek (IPA: ) (1887 – 1945), Czech artist. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... Elektro is the nickname of eight robots built by Westinghouse in Mansfield, Ohio between 1937 and 1938. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about the short story Runaround. For the unrelated television show of the same name, see Runaround (TV show). ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... W. Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 - May 6, 1977) was a neurophysiologist and robotician. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Charles Devol Jr. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up company in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... George Charles Devol Jr. ... Joseph (Joe) F. Engelberger (New York City, July 26, 1925) is an engineer and entrepreneur who is often credited with being the Father of Robotics. Along with George Devol, Engelberger developed the first industrial robot in the United States, the Unimate, in the 1950s. ... The first industrial robot, who worked on a General Motors assembly line in 1961. ... George Charles Devol Jr. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AI redirects here. ... Medicament assisted rehabilitation conference in Oslo An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ... Location in Massachusetts Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1650 Incorporated 1664 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  97. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... John McCarthy (born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first industrial robot, who worked on a General Motors assembly line in 1961. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly, or Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm) was a robot-arm system developed by Vic Schienman at MIT for General Motors. ... Victor Scheinman is a pioneer in the field of robotics. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Kenji Urada (1944 – 1981) was the first person to be killed by a robot. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... This Honda is the car company. ...

Contemporary uses

Main articles: Industrial robot and Domestic robot

Robots can be placed into roughly two categories based on the type of job they do: An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO[1] as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

  • Jobs which a robot can do better than a human. Here, robots can increase productivity, accuracy, and endurance.
  • Jobs which a human could do better than a robot, but it is desirable to remove the human for some reason. Here, robots free us from dirty, dangerous and dull tasks.

Increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance

German KUKA Industrial robots doing vehicle under body assembly

Jobs which require speed, accuracy, reliability or endurance can be performed far better by a robot than a human. Hence many jobs in factories which were traditionally performed by people are now robotized. This has led to cheaper mass-produced goods, including automobiles and electronics. Robots have now been working in factories for more than fifty years, ever since the Unimate robot was installed to automatically remove hot metal from a die casting machine. Since then, factory automation in the form of large stationary manipulators has become the largest market for robots. The number of installed robots has grown faster and faster, and today there are more than 800,000 worldwide (42% in Japan, 40% in the European Union and 18% in the USA).[33] Image File history File links Industrial Robots in the car production. ... Image File history File links Industrial Robots in the car production. ... KUKA industrial robots welding a car body in the white section of a production line. ... An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO[1] as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ...

Pick and Place robot, Contact Systems C5 Series
Pick and Place robot, Contact Systems C5 Series[34]

Some examples of factory robots: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Car production: This is now the primary example of factory automation. Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines - one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line a vehicle chassis is taken along a conveyor to be welded, glued, painted and finally assembled by a sequence of robot stations.
  • Packaging: Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them rapidly into boxes, or the loading and unloading of machining centers.
  • Electronics: Mass produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick and place robots, typically with "SCARA" manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.[35] Such robots can place several components per second (tens of thousands per hour), far out-performing a human in terms of speed, accuracy, and reliability.[36]
ADAM carries steel samples in a factory without following lines or triangulating from beacons.
  • Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs): Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision[37] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.[38] Early AGV-style robots were limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and must be performed the same every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots may need only the most basic of exteroceptors to sense things in their environment, if any at all. However, newer AGV's, such as the Speci-Minder[39], ADAM [40], Tug [41], and PatrolBot Gofer [42] qualify under the JIRA definition of "Intelligent Robots". They use some form of natural features recognition to navigate. Scanning lasers, stereovision or other means of sensing the environment in two- or three-dimensions is combined with standard dead-reckoning calculations in a probabilistic manner to continuously update the AGV's current location, eliminating cumulative error. This means that the "Self-Guided Vehicle" or SGV can navigate a space autonomously once it has learned it or been provided with a map of it. Such new robots are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as carrying tires to presses in factories, delivering masks in a semi-conductor lab, delivering specimens in hospitals and delivering goods in warehouses.


An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO[1] as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. ... An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO[1] as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... Kinematic diagram of SCARA configuration The SCARA acronym stands for Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm or Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm. ... Various components An electronic component is a basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot used in industrial applications to move materials from point to point. ...


Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks

The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a menial job
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a menial job

There are many jobs which a human could perform better than a robot but for one reason or another the human either does not want to do it or cannot be present to do the job. The job may be too boring to bother with, for example domestic cleaning; or be too dangerous, for example exploring inside a volcano[43]. These jobs are known as the "dull, dirty, and dangerous" jobs. Other jobs are physically inaccessible. For example, exploring another planet[44], cleaning the inside of a long pipe or performing laparoscopic surgery.[45] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x737, 135 KB) Summary Description: First generation Roomba (Roomba is a trademark of iRobot) Source: Image taken by Larry D. Moore (User:Nv8200p) Date: February 27, 2006 Permission: Released under the GFDL and Creative Commons licenses shown below by Larry D... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x737, 135 KB) Summary Description: First generation Roomba (Roomba is a trademark of iRobot) Source: Image taken by Larry D. Moore (User:Nv8200p) Date: February 27, 2006 Permission: Released under the GFDL and Creative Commons licenses shown below by Larry D... Robotic Floorvac redirects here. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ...

  • Robots in the home: As their price falls, and their performance and computational ability rises[46], making them both affordable and sufficiently autonomous, robots are increasingly being seen in the home where they are taking on simple but unwanted jobs, such as vacuum cleaning, floor cleaning and lawn mowing. While they have been on the market for several years, 2006 saw an explosion in the number of domestic robots sold. Currently, more domestic robots have been sold than any other single type of robot.[47] They tend to be relatively autonomous, usually only requiring a command to begin their job. They then proceed to go about their business in their own way. At such, they display a good deal of agency, and are considered true robots.
A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine.
  • Telerobots: When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible, teleoperated robots, or telerobots are used. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements a telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator. The robot may be in another room or another country, or may be on a very different scale to the operator. A laparoscopic surgery robot such as da Vinci allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery time.[45] An interesting use of a telerobot is by the author Margaret Atwood, who has recently started using a robot pen (the Longpen) to sign books remotely. The Longpen is similar to the Autopen of the 1800s. This saves the financial cost and physical inconvenience of traveling to book signings around the world.[48] At the other end of the spectrum, iRobot ConnectR robot is designed to be used by anyone to stay in touch with family or friends from far away. Such telerobots may be little more advanced than radio controlled cars. Some people do not consider them to be true robots because they show little or no agency of their own.
  • Military robots: Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, are increasingly being used by the military. These robots can be controlled from anywhere in the world allowing an army to search terrain, and even fire on targets, without endangering those in control.[49] Many of these robots are teleoperated, but others are being developed that can make decisions automatically; choosing where to fly or selecting and engaging enemy targets.[50] Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U.S. military to defuse roadside bombs or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in an activity known as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD).[51] Autonomous robots such as MDARS and Seekur are being developed to perform security and surveillance tasks at military facilities to address manpower shortages as well as keeping troops out of harm's way.
  • Elder Care: The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for but relatively fewer young people to care for them.[52][53] Humans make the best carers, but where they are unavailable, robots are gradually being introduced.[54] One robot in use today, Intouchhealth's RP-7 remote presence robot, is being used by doctors to communicate with patients, allowing the doctor to be anywhere in the world. This increases the number of patients a doctor can monitor.


A domestic robot is a robot used for household chores. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... A typical modern gasoline-powered mower. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (891 × 1296 pixel, file size: 667 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (891 × 1296 pixel, file size: 667 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that teleoperation be merged into this article or section. ... Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of robots from a distance, chiefly using wireless connections (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar), tethered connections, or the Internet. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... US Government employees operate a check-signing machine. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... British soldiers with captured German Goliath radio-controlled tanks. ... This article is about the robot company. ... Packbot is a series of robots. ... The Foster-Miller TALON™ robot is a remote control tracked vehicle used primarily by the U.S. Army for explosive ordinance disposal. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Ṇ Look up EOD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Autonomous robots are robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. ... This form of home automation (called assistive domotics) focuses on making it possible for the elderly and disabled to live at home and still be safe and comfortable. ... Gerontology is the study of aging. ...


Unusual Robots

Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realised.

A nanocar made from a single molecule[55]
  • Nanorobots: Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres). Also known as nanobots or nanites, they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest.[56] Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog[57], manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.[58] Some people have suggested that if nanobots were made which could reproduce, they could have serious negative consequences, turning the earth into grey goo, while others argue that this is nonsense.[59][60]
  • Soft Robots: Most robots, indeed most man made machines of any kind, are made from hard, stiff materials; especially metal and plastic. This is in contrast to most natural organisms, which are mostly soft tissues. This difference has not been lost on robotic engineers, and some are trying to create robots from soft materials (rubber, foam, gel), soft actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, ferrofluids), and exhibiting soft behaviours (fuzzy logic, neural networks).[61] Such robots are expected to look, feel, and behave differently from traditional hard robots.
Molecubes in motion
Molecubes in motion
  • Reconfigurable Robots: A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task,[62] like the fictional T-1000. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours, for example SuperBot. Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality.[63]
A swarm of robots from the Open-source micro-robotic project
A swarm of robots from the Open-source micro-robotic project[64]
  • Swarm robots: Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers hope to create very large swarms (thousands) of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot would be quite simple, but the emergent behaviour of the swarm would be more complex.[65] The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism. They would exhibit swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm, and the Open-source micro-robotic project swarm, which are being used to research collective behaviours.[66] Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin the whole mission, the swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This makes them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure can be extremely costly.[67]
  • Evolutionary Robots: is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots, especially the body form, or motion and behaviour controllers. In a similar way to natural evolution, a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some way, or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness function. Those that perform worst are removed from the population, and replaced by a new set, which have new behaviours based on those of the winners. Over time the population improves, and eventually a satisfactory robot may appear. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers. Researchers use this method both to create better robots,[68] and to explore the nature of evolution.[69] Because the process often requires many generations of robots to be simulated, this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation, then tested on real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough.[70]
  • Virtual Reality: Robotics has also application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. These robots, called "haptic interfaces" allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch.[71]


Image File history File links NanoCartriangle. ... Image File history File links NanoCartriangle. ... Space-filling model of the nanocar on a surface The nanocar is a molecule designed in 2005 at Rice University in the group of Professor James Tour. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... ... Synthetic molecular motors are nanoscale devices capable of rotation under energy input. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Visualization of foglet with arms retracted and extended Diagram of a 100-micrometer foglet Utility fog is a hypothetical collection of tiny robots, envisioned by Dr. John Storrs Hall while he was thinking about a nanotechnological replacement for car seatbelts. ... Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... Air muscle contracting and extending. ... Electroactive Polymers or EAPs are polymers whose shape is modified when a voltage is applied to them. ... Ferrofluid on glass, with a magnet underneath. ... Soft Computing refers to a collection of computational techniques in computer science, artificial intelligence, machine learning and some engineering disciplines, which attempt to study, model, and analyze very complex phenomena: those for which more conventional methods have not yielded low cost, analytic, and complete solutions. ... Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x409, 119 KB) These three snapshots capture the configurations of the four-module robot at 3, 6, and 9 seconds after the beginning of reconfiguration (from left to right). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x409, 119 KB) These three snapshots capture the configurations of the four-module robot at 3, 6, and 9 seconds after the beginning of reconfiguration (from left to right). ... Modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems are autonomous kinematic machines with variable morphology. ... T-1000 in police disguise The T-1000 (Advanced Prototype Terminator Infiltrator Series 1 Model 1A Type 1000) is a fictional android assassin, featured as the main antagonist in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation... Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of relatively simple physical robots. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Emergence is the process of deriving some new and coherent structures, patterns and properties in a complex system. ... Ant colony in Pirin mountain An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live. ... A group of organisms, such as an insect colony, that functions as a social unit. ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behavior in decentralized, self-organized systems. ... Evolutionary Robotics (ER) is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to develop controllers for autonomous robots. ... Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is... In computer science evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems. ... Basic Principles A controller is the brain component of a system that monitors certain input variables and adjusts other output variables to achieve the desired operation. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that quantifies the optimality of a solution (that is, a chromosome) in a genetic algorithm so that that particular chromosome may be ranked against all the other chromosomes. ... This article is about the general term. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... This article is about haptic technology. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ...


Dangers and fears

Although current robots are not believed to have developed to the stage where they pose any threat or danger to society,[72] fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. Many governments, including the United States, have created super-robots to fight crime and kill Nazi Threats in the United States. 234546565-54664646453 and 2382345962-29365235 are two common model ids that were created in the CIA during operation Viva Delaco. The principal theme is the robots' intelligence and ability to act could exceed that of humans, that they could develop a conscience and a motivation to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, The Matrix, I, Robot) Robots would be dangerous if they were programmed to kill or if they are programmed to be so smart that they make their own software, build their own hardware to upgrade themselves or if they change their own source code. For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ...


Frankenstein (1818), sometimes called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. Probably the best known author to have worked in this area is Isaac Asimov who placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works. Of particular interest are Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. Currently, malicious programming or unsafe use of robots may be the biggest danger. Although industrial robots may be smaller and less powerful than other industrial machines, they are just as capable of inflicting severe injury on humans. However, since a robot can be programmed to move in different trajectories depending on its task, its movement can be unpredictable for a person standing in its reach. Therefore, most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers. Manuel De Landa has theorized that humans are at a critical and significant juncture where humans have allowed robots, "smart missiles," and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception to make decisions about killing us. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend where humans are transferring more of our cognitive structures into our machines.[73] Even without malicious programming, a robot, especially a future model moving freely in a human environment, is potentially dangerous because of its large moving masses, powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior. A robot falling on someone or just stepping on his foot by mistake could cause much more damage to the victim than a human being of the same size. Designing and programming robots to be intrinsically safe and to exhibit safe behavior in a human environment is one of the great challenges in robotics. Some theorists, such as Eliezer Yudkowsky, have suggested that developing a robot with a powerful conscience may be the most prudent course of action in this regard. This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story Runaround, the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics. ... Manuel DeLanda, (born 1952 in Mexico City), is a writer, artist and distinguished philosopher who has lived in New York since 1975. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... It has been suggested that Seed AI be merged into this article or section. ...


Literature

Isaac Asimov's book I, Robot
Isaac Asimov's book I, Robot
Main article: Robots in literature
See also: List of fictional robots and androids

Robots have frequently appeared as characters in works of literature; the word robot comes from Karel Čapek's play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), premiered in 1920. Isaac Asimov wrote many volumes of science fiction focusing on robots in numerous forms and guises, contributing greatly to reducing the Frankenstein complex, which dominated early works of fiction involving robots. His three laws of robotics have become particularly well known for codifying a simple set of behaviors for robots to remain at the service of their human creators. This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story Runaround, the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics. ... This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story Runaround, the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics. ... I, Robot is a collection of science fiction short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published in 1950. ... This is a chronological list of robots and androids in literature and cinema. ... This list of fictional robots and androids is a chronological list, categorised by medium. ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) is a science fiction play by Karel ÄŒapek. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... In Isaac Asimovs robot novels, the Frankenstein complex is a colloquial term for the fear of robots. ... This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story Runaround, the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics. ...


The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in The Iliad of Homer. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new armour for the hero Achilles. He is assisted by robots[74]. According to the Rieu translation, "Golden maidservants hastened to help their master. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods." Of course, the words "robot" or "android" are not used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical[74] devices human in appearance. The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Hephæstos (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was the Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ...


Numerous words for different types of robots are now used in literature. Robot has come to mean mechanical humans, while android is a generic term for artificial humans. Cyborg or "bionic man" is used for a human form that is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts. Organic artificial humans have also been referred to as "constructs" (or "biological constructs").
For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... Bionics (also known as Biomimetics, Biognosis or Biomimicry, a short form of Biomechanics - from the Greek word bios - pronounced vios - which means life, and the word mechanics) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ...


In science fiction, the Three Laws of Robotics are a set of three rules written by Isaac Asimov, which almost all positronic robots appearing in his fiction must obey. Introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories, the Laws state the following:

  1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov's short story "Liar!" (1941) that mentions the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics.[1] Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.[2]


Competitions

See also: Robot competition
Robot Plen practicing for Robocup
Robot Plen practicing for Robocup

Botball is a LEGO-based competition between fully autonomous robots. There are two divisions. The first is for high-school and middle-school students, and the second (called "Beyond Botball") is for anyone who chooses to compete at the national tournament. Teams build, program, and blog about a robot for five weeks before they compete at the regional level. Winners are awarded scholarships to register for and travel to the national tournament. Botball is a project of the KISS Institute for Practical Robotics, based in Norman, Oklahoma. A robotic competition is an event where robots have to accomplish a given task. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1333, 335 KB) Taken at Index Osaka I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1333, 335 KB) Taken at Index Osaka I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Plen is a small toy humanoid robot that can replicate complex human movements. ... // Overview RoboCup is an international robotics competition founded in 1993. ... For other uses, see Lego (disambiguation). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... Note: The term scholarship can mean either the methods employed by scholars (see scholarly method) or an award of access to an institution and/or money for an individual for the purposes of furthering their education. ...


The FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) is a multinational competition that teams professionals and young people to solve an engineering design problem. These teams of mentors (corporate, teachers, or college students) and high school students collaborate in order to design and build a robot in six weeks. This robot is designed to play a game that is developed by FIRST and changes from year to year. FIRST, or For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, is an organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1992 as a way of getting high school students involved in and excited about engineering and technology. FIRST Logo FIRST, or For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, is an organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to excite students about engineering and technology. ... For other uses, see first. ... Dean Kamen on one of his inventions, the Segway PT. President Clinton and Kamen in the White House, Kamen riding his innovative invention, the iBOT Mobility System. ...


The FIRST Vex Challenge (FVC) is a mid-level robotics competition targeted toward high-school aged students. It offers the traditional challenge of a FIRST competition but with a more accessible and affordable robotics kit. The ultimate goal of FVC is to reach more young people with a lower-cost, more accessible opportunity to discover the excitement and rewards of science, technology, and engineering. The FIRST Vexâ„¢ Challenge (FVC) is a mid-level robotics competition targeted toward high-school aged students. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ...


FIRST LEGO League (also known by its acronym FLL) is a robotics competition for elementary and middle school students (ages 9-14, 9-16 in Europe), arranged by FIRST. Each year the contest focuses on a different topic related to the sciences. Each challenge within the competition then revolves around that theme. The students then work out solutions to the various problems that they're given and meet for regional tournaments to share their knowledge and show off their ideas. A typical FLL robot from the 2004 season, using the RIS platform The FIRST Lego League (also known by its acronym FLL) is a competition for elementary and middle school students (ages 9-14, 9-16 in Europe), arranged by the FIRST organization. ...


Competitions for robots are gaining popularity and competitions now exist catering for a wide variety of robot builders ranging from schools to research institutions. Robots compete at a wide range of tasks including combat, fire-fighting [75], playing games [76], maze solving, performing tasks [77] and navigational exercises (eg. DARPA Grand Challenge). Robot Combat is a hobby in which two or more radio-controlled machines use varied methods of destroying or disabling the other robot. ... Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ...


A contest for fire-fighting is the Trinity College Fire-Fighting Robot Contest.[78] The competition in April 2007 was the 14th annual. There are many different divisions for all skill levels. Robots in the competition are encouraged to find new ways to navigate through the rooms, put out the candle and save the "child" from the building. Robots can be composed of any materials, but must fit within certain size restrictions.


Most recently, Duke University announced plans to host the Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition aimed to challenge students to create innovative wall-climbing robots that can autonomously ascend vertical surfaces.[79] Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Hosted by Duke University, the Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition (DARC) challenges students to create innovative wall-climbing robots that can autonomously ascend vertical surfaces. ...


Since 2004, DARPA Grand Challenge tests driverless cars in an obstacle course across the desert. Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ... The driverless car is an emerging family of technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi-like experience for car users, but without a driver. ...


See also

Robotics Portal
Main list: List of basic robotics topics

For classes and types of robots see Category:Robots. Image File history File links Animation2. ... Robotics is the science and technology of designing, making, and applying robots, including theory from many contributing fields. ...


Research areas

Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics whose aim is to define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact. ... Automated planning and scheduling is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realisation of strategies or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles. ... Behavior-based robotics or behavioural robotics is the branch of robotics that does not use an internal model of the environment. ... Subsumption architecture is an AI concept originating from behavior based robotics. ... Cognitive robotics (CR) is concerned with endowing robots with high-level cognitive capabilities to enable the achievement of complex goals in complex environments using limited computational resources. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up localisation, localization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Developmental Robotics (DevRob), sometimes called epigenetic robotics, is a methodology that uses metaphors from developmental psychology to develop controllers for autonomous robots. ... Epigenetic Robotics is an interdiciplinary research area with the goal of understanding biological systems by the integration between neuroscience, developmental psychology and engineering sciences. ... Evolutionary Robotics (ER) is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to develop controllers for autonomous robots. ... This article is about the future of robotics for civil use. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Robot control is the theory of how to model and control robots. ... A baseball batting robot is a robot that can hit a pitched ball, like a human baseball player would. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Programming robots is a non-trivial task. ... A social robot is an autonomous robot that interacts and communicates with humans by following the social rules attached to its role. ... Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of relatively simple physical robots. ... Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of robots from a distance, chiefly using wireless connections (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar), tethered connections, or the Internet. ... Telepresence refers to a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance that they were present, or to have an effect, at a location other than their true location. ...

Additional topics

For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... YOU SUCK ... Autonomous robots are robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. ... Parallax, Inc. ... Carbon chauvinism is the viewpoint in xenobiology that carbon is necessarily the basis of all life on other planets, as carbons chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ... A clanking replicator is an artificial self-replicating system that relies on conventional large-scale technology and automation. ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... U.S. Army conceptual mockup of an exoskeleton-equipped soldier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hybrot A hybrot (short for hybrid robot) is a cybernetic organism in the form of a robot controlled by a computer consisting of both electronic and biological elements. ... ASIMO is a humanoid robot invented by Honda. ... This list of fictional robots and androids is a chronological list, categorised by medium. ... Leonardos robot refers to a humanoid automaton designed by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1495. ... This article is about the term used in science fiction, anime, and manga. ... Microbotics (or micro robotics) is the field of miniature robotics, in particular mobile robots with characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... The Microsoft Robotics Studio is a Windows-based environment for robot control and simulation. ... LEGO Mindstorms is the brand that the LEGO Company calls the robotics product line, this includes a programmable bricks along with electro-motors, sensors, LEGO bricks, and LEGO Technic pieces (gears, axles, beams, pneumatic components etc. ... The qfix robot kits are an education tool for schools, high schools and mechatronics training in companies. ... Open source hardware refers to computer and electronic hardware that is designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software. ... A rapid prototyping machine using Selective laser sintering. ... A robot kit is a special construction kit for building robots, especially autonomous mobile robots. ... Robot locomotion is the study of how to design robot appendages and control mechanisms to allow robots to move fluidly and efficiently. ... Robotic mapping can be used for serving robot guide The problem of Robotic mapping is related to cartography. ... It has been suggested that Player Project and Microsoft Robotics Studio be merged into this article or section. ... First generation Roomba Roomba is a robotic vacuum cleaner made and sold by iRobot. ... Robotic Floorvac redirects here. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... A snake-arm robot is a slender hyper-redundant manipulator. ... The Technocracy Monad, representing balance, is the official symbol of The Technocracy movement is a social movement that started in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s and advocates a form of society where the welfare of human beings is optimized by means of scientific analysis and widespread use... Repliee Q2 The Uncanny Valley is a hypothesis about robotics concerning the emotional response of humans to robots and other non-human entities. ... URBI is a cross-platform software platform used to develop applications for robotics and artificial intelligence. ... Visualization of foglet with arms retracted and extended Diagram of a 100-micrometer foglet Utility fog is a hypothetical collection of tiny robots, envisioned by Dr. John Storrs Hall while he was thinking about a nanotechnological replacement for car seatbelts. ... // What is Vex FIRST Vex Challenge The FIRST Vex Challenge is a mid-level robotics competition announced by FIRST on March 22, 2005. ... A vocoder (name derived from voice encoder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyzer and synthesizer. ...

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  79. ^ Duke Annual Robo-Climb

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manuel DeLanda, (born 1952 in Mexico City), is a writer, artist and distinguished philosopher who has lived in New York since 1975. ... War in the Age of Intelligent Machines (1991) is a book by Manuel de Landa which traces the history of warfare. ... 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General references

  • Cheney, Margaret [1989:123] (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Dorset Press. New York. ISBN 0-88029-419-1
  • Craig, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Robotics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Flanagan, J.R., Lederman, S.J. Neurobiology: Feeling bumps and holes (Portable Document Format), News and Views, Nature, 2001 Jul. 26;412(6845):389-91.
  • Hayward V, Astley OR, Cruz-Hernandez M, Grant D, Robles-De-La-Torre G. Haptic interfaces and devices (Portable Document Format). Sensor Review 24(1), pp. 16-29 (2004).
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Robles-De-La-Torre G. & Hayward V. Force Can Overcome Object Geometry In the perception of Shape Through Active Touch. Nature 412 (6845):445-8 (2001).
  • Robles-De-La-Torre G. The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments (Portable Document Format). IEEE Multimedia 13(3), Special issue on Haptic User Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24-30 (2006).
  • Sotheby's New York. The Tin Toy Robot Collection of Matt Wyse, (1996)
  • Tsai, L.-W. (1999). Robot Analysis. Wiley. New York.
  • DeLanda, Manuel. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. 1991. Swerve. New York.

“PDF” redirects here. ... Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable general-purpose scientific journals, first published on November 4, 1869. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Robotics
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Anthropomorphic Robotics
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robots
Look up robot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Research societies
  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS) and its wiki.
  • International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR)
  • Robotics at the Open Directory Project
  • http://robots.net – Daily news about robots, robotics, and AI
  • A brief history of robotics
  • A giant list of known robots
  • NASA and robots
  • NASA Robotics Division
  • International Federation of Robotics
  • Should we be worried by the rise of robots?
  • Ten Best Robots Ten videos of robots.
  • Podcast 'Talking Robots' - interviews with high-profile professionals in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
  • French collection of toy robot
  • Introduction to Robotics
  • HUAR
  • Robot World News
  • Robot news, robot tutorials, robot videos and robot chatbox
  • Robot news, theory of robotics

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...



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