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Encyclopedia > Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe

Title page from the first edition
Author Daniel Defoe
Country England
Language English
Publisher
Publication date
Followed by The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published in 1719 and sometimes regarded as the first novel in English. The book is a fictional autobiography of the title character, an English castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island, encountering natives, captives, and mutineers before being rescued. This device, presenting an account of supposedly factual events, is known as a "false document" and gives a realistic frame story. Robinson Crusoe can refer to: Robinson Crusoe, book by Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1954 film), by Luis Buñuel Robinson Crusoe The Movie (1997) Robinson Crusoé, operetta by Jacques Offenbach Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile) Robinson Crusoe Island (Fiji) Category: ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The title-page of the less known Part II of Robinson Crusoes further adventures shows this text: THE FARTHER ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE; Being the Second and Last Part OF HIS LIFE, And of the Strange Surprizing Accounts of his Travels Round three Parts of the Globe. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... These works of literature have each been claimed as the first novel in English. ... FicTioNaL is a Gaming Legend. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... The title role is the role (or position) of the character after whom a literary work (e. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... U.S. merchant seamen try to revive a shipwrecked Filipino fisherman rescued in the South China Sea. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... A false document is a form of verisimilitude that attempts to create in the reader (viewer, audience, etc. ... A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc. ...


The story was most likely influenced by the real-life events of Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived more than four years on the Pacific island that was called Más a Tierra (in 1966 its name became Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. Alexander Selkirk, born Alexander Selcraig, (1676–13 December 1721) was a Scottish sailor who spent four years as a castaway on an uninhabited island; it is probable that his travails provided the inspiration for Defoes Robinson Crusoe. ... This article is about the country. ... For the island in Fiji, see Robinson Crusoe Island (Fiji). ... Town San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe, Cumberland Bay A fisherman with 2 Lobsters Robinson Crusoe Island, located in the Juan Fernández archipelago, which is situated in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, 674 kilometres from the South American continent. ...

Contents

Plot summary

Crusoe leaves England setting sail from the Queens Dock in Hull on a sea voyage in September, 1651, against the wishes of his parents. After a tumultuous journey that sees his ship wrecked by a vicious storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea again. This journey too ends in disaster as the ship is taken over by Salé pirates and Crusoe becomes the slave of a Moor. He manages to escape with a boat and a boy named Xury, later Robin is befriended by the Captain of a Portuguese ship off the western coast of Africa. The ship is en route to Brazil. There with the help of the captain, Crusoe becomes owner of a plantation. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Salé (from the Berber word asla, meaning rock) is the twin city to Rabat, capital of Morocco. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see moor. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about crop plantations. ...


He joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa, but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island near the mouth of the Orinoco river on September 30, 1659. His companions all die; he fetches arms, tools and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He then gets battered by huge waves as he struggles to make it to an unknown island. He proceeds to build a fenced-in habitation and cave. He keeps a calendar by making marks in a wooden cross he builds. He hunts, grows corn, learns to make pottery, raises goats, etc. He reads the Bible and suddenly becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but society. Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Orinoco (disambiguation). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


He discovers native cannibals occasionally visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. At first he plans to kill the savages for their abomination, but then he realizes that he has no right to do so as the cannibals have not attacked him and do not knowingly commit a crime. He dreams of capturing one or two servants by freeing some prisoners, and indeed, when a prisoner manages to escape, Crusoe helps him, naming his new companion "Friday" after the day of the week he appeared, and teaches him English and converts him to Christianity. Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... A servant is a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


After another party of natives arrive to partake in a grisly feast, Crusoe and Friday manage to kill most of the natives and save two of the prisoners. One is Friday's father and the other is a Spaniard, who informs Crusoe that there are other Spaniards shipwrecked on the mainland. A plan is devised where the Spaniard would return with Friday's father to the mainland and bring back the others, build a ship, and sail to a Spanish port.


Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears; mutineers have taken control of the ship and intend to maroon their former captain on the island. The captain and Crusoe manage to retake the ship. They leave for England, leaving behind three of the mutineers to fend for themselves and inform the Spaniards what happened. Crusoe leaves the island on December 19, 1686. Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... Marooning is the act of leaving someone behind intentionally in an uninhabited area. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Reception and sequels

Plaque 'commemorating' Robinson Crusoe's departure from Hull - "Had I the sense to return to Hull, I had been Happy..."
Plaque 'commemorating' Robinson Crusoe's departure from Hull - "Had I the sense to return to Hull, I had been Happy..."

The book was first published on April 25, 1719. Its full title was The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner: who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an uninhabited Island on the coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by Pirates. Written by Himself Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused...


The positive reception was immediate and universal. Before the end of the year, this first volume had run through four editions. Within years, it had reached an audience as wide as any book ever written in English. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


By the end of the 19th century, no book in the history of Western literature had spawned more editions, spin-offs, and translations (even into languages such as Inuit, Coptic, and Maltese) than Robinson Crusoe, with more than 700 such alternative versions, including children's versions with mainly pictures and no text.[1] There have been hundreds of adaptations in dozens of languages, from The Swiss Family Robinson to Luis Buñuel's film adaptation. J.M. Coetzee's 1986 novel, Foe, is a reimagining, retelling, and reevaluation of the story. The term "Robinsonade" has even been coined to describe the various spin-offs of Robinson Crusoe. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The Swiss Family Robinson (Der Schweizerische Robinson) is a novel, first published in 1812, about a Swiss family who is shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a feature film. ... J.M. Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced coot-SEE-uh) is a South African author. ... Foe is a novel by J. M. Coetzee published in 1986. ... Robinsonade is a literary genre that takes its name from the 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. ...


Defoe went on to write a lesser-known sequel, The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. It was intended to be the last part of his stories, according to the original title-page of its first edition, but in fact a third part, entitled Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, was written; it is a mostly forgotten series of moral essays with Crusoe's name attached to give interest. The title-page of the less known Part II of Robinson Crusoes further adventures shows this text: THE FARTHER ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE; Being the Second and Last Part OF HIS LIFE, And of the Strange Surprizing Accounts of his Travels Round three Parts of the Globe. ...


Real-life castaways

See also: Castaway#Real Occurrences

There were many stories of real-life castaways in Defoe's time. Defoe's inspiration for Crusoe was probably a Scottish sailor named Alexander Selkirk, who was rescued in 1709 by Woodes Rogers' expedition after four years on the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra in the Juan Fernández Islands off the Chilean coast. Rogers's "Cruising Voyage" was published in 1712, with an account of Alexander Selkirk's ordeal. However, Robinson Crusoe is far from a copy of Woodes Roger's account. Selkirk was abandoned at his own request, while Crusoe was shipwrecked. The islands are different. Selkirk lived alone for the whole time, while Crusoe found companions. Selkirk stayed on his island for four years, not twenty-eight. Furthermore, much of the appeal of Defoe's novel is the detailed and captivating account of Crusoe's thoughts, occupations and activities which goes far beyond that of Rogers' basic descriptions of Selkirk, which account for only a few pages. U.S. merchant seamen try to revive a shipwrecked Filipino fisherman rescued in the South China Sea. ... U.S. merchant seamen try to revive a shipwrecked Filipino fisherman rescued in the South China Sea. ... Alexander Selkirk, born Alexander Selcraig, (1676–13 December 1721) was a Scottish sailor who spent four years as a castaway on an uninhabited island; it is probable that his travails provided the inspiration for Defoes Robinson Crusoe. ... An old engraving of Capt. ... Town San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe, Cumberland Bay A fisherman with 2 Lobsters Robinson Crusoe Island, located in the Juan Fernández archipelago, which is situated in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, 674 kilometres from the South American continent. ... The town of San Juan Bautista in Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island The Juan Fernández Islands is a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism in the South Pacific Ocean, situated about 667 km off the coast of Chile, and is composed of several volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, ( ) (also... For other uses, see Chile (disambiguation). ...


Interpretations

Despite its simple narrative style and the absence of the supposedly indispensable love motive, it was well received in the literary world. The book is considered one of the most widely published books in history (behind some of the sacred texts). It has been a hit since the day it was published, and continues to be highly regarded to this day. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Colonial

Novelist James Joyce eloquently noted that the true symbol of the British conquest is Robinson Crusoe: "He is the true prototype of the British colonist… The whole Anglo-Saxon spirit is in Crusoe: the manly independence, the unconscious cruelty, the persistence, the slow yet efficient intelligence, the sexual apathy, the calculating taciturnity". This article is about the writer and poet. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


In a sense Crusoe attempts to replicate his own society on the island. This is achieved through the application of European technology, agriculture and even a rudimentary political hierarchy. Several times in the novel Crusoe refers to himself as the 'king' of the island, whilst the captain describes him as the 'governor' to the mutineers. At the very end of the novel the island is explicitly referred to as a 'colony'. The idealised master-servant relationship Defoe depicts between Crusoe and Friday can also be seen in terms of cultural imperialism. Crusoe represents the 'enlightened' European whilst Friday is the 'savage' who can only be redeemed from his supposedly barbarous way of life through the assimilation of Crusoe's culture. Nevertheless, within the novel Defoe also takes the opportunity to criticise the historic Spanish conquest of South America. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Religious

According to J.P. Hunter, Robinson is not a hero, but an everyman. He begins as a wanderer, aimless on a sea he does not understand; he ends as a pilgrim, crossing a final mountain to enter the promised land. The book tells the story of how Robinson gets closer to God, not through listening to sermons in a church but through spending time alone amongst nature with only a Bible to read. In literature and drama, the term everyman has come to mean an ordinary individual, with whom the audience or reader is supposed to be able to identify, and who is often placed in extraordinary circumstances. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Map of the Land of Israel as defined in the Bible The Promised Land (Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת, translit. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Robinson Crusoe is filled with religious aspects. Defoe was himself a Puritan moralist, and normally worked in the guide tradition, writing books on how to be a good Puritan Christian, such as The New Family Instructor (1727) and Religious Courtship (1722). While Robinson Crusoe is far more than a guide, it shares many of the same themes and theological and moral points of view. The very name "Crusoe" may have been taken from Timothy Cruso, a classmate of Defoe's who had written guide books himself, including God the Guide of Youth (1695), before dying at an early age — just eight years before Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe. Cruso would still have been remembered by contemporaries and the association with guide books is clear. It has even been suggested that God the Guide of Youth inspired Robinson Crusoe because of a number of passages in that work that are closely tied to the novel; however this is speculative.[2] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...


The Biblical story of Jonah is alluded to in the first part of novel. Like Jonah, Crusoe neglects his 'duty' and is punished at sea. The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ...


A central concern of Defoe's in the novel is the Christian notion of Providence. Crusoe often feels himself guided by a divinely ordained fate, thus explaining his robust optimism in the face of apparent hopelessness. His various fortunate intuitions are taken as evidence of a benign spirit world. Defoe also foregrounds this theme by arranging highly significant events in the novel to occur on Crusoe's birthday. Providence may mean: Divine Providence Providence College in Rhode Island, USA Providence, television series Providence, a 1977 film Providence, a 1991 film starring Keanu Reeves Providence, 1970s-era Providence may also refer to: Providence, Rhode Island (in Providence County) Providence, Alabama Providence, Kentucky Providence, New York It is also the...


Moral

When confronted with the cannibalistic Indians Crusoe wrestles with the problem of cultural relativism. Despite his disgust he feels unjustified in holding individual Indians morally responsible for a practice so deeply ingrained in their culture. Nevertheless he retains his belief in an absolute standard of morality. Not only does he condemn cannibalism as a 'national crime' but he also forbids Friday from practising it. Modern readers may also note that despite Crusoe's apparently superior morality, in common with the culture of his day, he accepts slavery as a basic feature of colonial life. Cultural relativism is the principle that beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ...


Economic

Karl Marx made an analysis of Crusoe in his classic work Capital. In Marxist terms Crusoe's experiences on the island represents the inherent economic value of labour over capital. Crusoe frequently observes that the money he salvaged from the ship is worthless on the island, especially when compared to his tools. For the literary critic Angus Ross, Defoe's point is that money has no intrinsic value and is only valuable insofar as it can be used in trade. There is also a notable correlation between Crusoe's spiritual and financial development as the novel progresses, possibly signifying Defoe's belief in the Protestant work ethic. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... Angus Ross is a retired Scottish professional darts player who competed in the 1980s. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ...


Cultural influences

The book proved so popular that the names of the two main protagonists have entered the language. The term "Robinson Crusoe" is virtually synonymous with the word "castaway" and is often used as a metaphor for being or doing something alone. Robinson Crusoe usually referred to his servant as "my man Friday", from which the term "Man Friday" (or "Girl Friday") originated, referring to a personal assistant, servant, or companion. Man Friday is one of the main characters of Daniel Defoes novel Robinson Crusoe. ...


In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's treatise on education, Emile: Or, On Education, the one book the main character, Emile, is allowed to read before the age of twelve is Robinson Crusoe. Rousseau wants Emile to identify himself as Crusoe so he could rely upon himself for all of his needs. In Rousseau's view, Emile needs to imitate Crusoe's experience, allowing necessity to determine what is to be learned and accomplished. This is one of the main themes of Rousseau's educational model. Rousseau redirects here. ...


Nobel Prize-winning (2003) author J. M. Coetzee in 1986 published a novel entitled Foe, in which he explores an alternative telling of the Crusoe story, an allegorical story about racism, philosophy, and colonialism. The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... John Maxwell Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced kut-SAY-uh) (born 9 February 1940) is a South African/Australian author, having emigrated from South Africa in 2002, and having been granted Australian citizenship on 6 March 2006. ... Foe is a novel by J. M. Coetzee published in 1986. ...


Jacques Offenbach wrote an opéra comique called Robinson Crusoé which was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Salle Favart on 23 November 1867. This was based on the British pantomime version rather than the novel itself. The libretto was by Eugène Cormon and Hector-Jonathan Crémieux. The opera includes a duet by Robinson Crusoe and Friday. Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era with German-Jewish descent and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Opéra comique is a French style of opera that is a partial counterpart to the Italian opera buffa. ... Robinson Crusoé is an operetta or opéra comique by Jacques Offenbach. ... Opéra comique is a French style of opera that is a partial counterpart to the Italian opera buffa. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hector-Jonathan Crémieux (10 November 1828 - 30 September 1892) was a French librettist and playwright. ... Duet may refer to: Duet, musical form Duet, Fox sitcom This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


French novelist Michel Tournier wrote Friday (or in French Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique) published in 1967. His novel explores themes including civilization versus nature, the psychology of solitude,and death and sexuality, in a retelling of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe story. Tournier's Robinson chooses to remain on the island, rejecting civilization when offered the chance to escape 28 years after being shipwrecked. Michel Tournier (born 1924) is a French writer who was born in Paris. ...


The theme song of Gilligan's Island, a television series about castaways, has a line that refers to this novel ("Like Robinson Crusoe, it's as primitive as can be"). The same line is used in "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "Amish Paradise". For the NES (Nintendo Entertainment System) video game, see The Adventures of Gilligans Island. ... This article is about the musician himself. ... Amish Paradise is Weird Al Yankovics parody of the hip hop song Gangstas Paradise by Coolio. ...


See also

U.S. merchant seamen try to revive a shipwrecked Filipino fisherman rescued in the South China Sea. ... Robinsonade is a literary genre that takes its name from the 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. ... Lt. ... The Swiss Family Robinson (Der Schweizerische Robinson) is a novel, first published in 1812, about a Swiss family who is shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia. ... Robinson Crusoe on Mars is a 1964 science fiction film retelling of the classic novel by Daniel Defoe. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ian Watt. "Robinson Crusoe as a Myth", from Essays in Criticism (April 1951). Reprinted in the Norton Critical Edition (second edition, 1994) of Robinson Crusoe.
  2. ^ Hunter, J. Paul (1966) The Reluctant Pilgrim. As found in Norton Critical Edition (see References).

Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ...

References

  • Shinagel, Michael, ed. (1994). Robinson Crusoe. Norton Critical Edition. ISBN 0-393-96452-3. Includes textual annotations, contemporary and modern criticisms, bibliography.
  • Ross, Angus, ed. (1965) Robinson Crusoe. Penguin.

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Robinson Crusoe
  • Robinson Crusoe, available at Project Gutenberg.
  • Robinson Crusoe (London: W. Taylor, 1719)., commented text of the first edition, free at Editions Marteau.
  • Free eBook of Robinson Crusoe RSS version.
  • Free eBook of Robinson Crusoe with illustrations by N. C. Wyeth
  • Free audiobook of Robinson Crusoe from Librivox
  • Robinson Crusoe, told in words of one syllable, by Lucy Aikin (aka "Mary Godolphin") (1723-1764).
  • http://www.digbib.org/Daniel_Defoe_1661/The_Further_Adventures_Of_Robinson_Crusoe The text of volume II.
  • Chasing Crusoe, multimedia documentary explores the novel and real life history of Selkirk.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robinson Crusoe

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robinson Crusoe Island,Island in Chile,Robinson Crusoe Island in Chile,Tour To Robinson Crusoe Island,Tours To ... (289 words)
Robinson Crusoe Island,Island in Chile,Robinson Crusoe Island in Chile,Tour To Robinson Crusoe Island,Tours To Robinson Crusoe Island in Chile
It is this Robinson Crusoe Island that the sailor Alejandro Selkirk was stranded for five long years.
Robinson Crusoe Island is the sole populated island in the archipelago.
Robinson Crusoe : A Podcast Reading of the Novel from Candlelight Stories (1860 words)
Crusoe learns more of what it means to be a seaman.
Crusoe also begins struggle with religious thoughts and wonders whether some sort of divine providence is behind his being the sole survivor of the shipwreck.
Crusoe continues to be amazed at the strength of Friday's character and his incredible loyalty.
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