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Encyclopedia > Robert Zoellick
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Robert B. Zoellick
Robert B. Zoellick

Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA: [zʌlɪk]) (born July 25, 1953) is an American politician and (effective July 1, 2007) the eleventh president of the World Bank.[1] He was previously a United States Deputy Secretary of State (resigning on July 7, 2006) and U.S. Trade Representative, from February 7, 2001 until February 22, 2005. He announced his resignation as Deputy Secretary on June 19, 2006 to join the investment bank Goldman Sachs as a managing director and chairman of the company's International Advisors department.[2] Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... United States Trade Representative Robert Zoellick [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... July 25 is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Most of this article is about heads of state. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State who is responsible for foreign affairs. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Office of the United States Trade Representative, or USTR, is an arm of the executive branch of the United States government that falls within the Executive Office of the President. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Investment banks help companies and governments and their agencies to raise money by issuing and selling securities in the primary market. ... Goldman Sachs offices at the Fraumünsterplatz in Zürich (the light-colored building on the left) The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ...


President George W. Bush nominated Zoellick on May 30, 2007 to replace Paul Wolfowitz as President of the World Bank.[3] On June 25, 2007 Zoellick was approved by the World Bank's executive board.[4] The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American former academic and government official. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Contents

Background

Zoellick was born in Naperville, Illinois, where he was raised, and has German ancestry[5][6][7]. The Zoellick family is originally from the German city of Rostock. He graduated in 1971 from Naperville Central High School. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 from Swarthmore College and received his J.D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School and a Master of Public Policy degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1981.[8][9] In 2002, Zoellick was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. On May 30, 2007 President George W. Bush nominated Zoellick to become president of the World Bank, with Paul Wolfowitz formally stepping down on June 30. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Motto: Within your walls be concordance and public welfare Rostock (pronounced // from Polabian Roz toc, literally to flow apart) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Naperville Central High School (Naperville Central) is a public four-year comprehensive school covering grades nine through twelve in Naperville, a suburb southwest of Chicago, Illinois in the United States. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Key The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an academic honor society with the mission of fostering and recognizing excellence in the undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Swarthmore College is a private, independent, liberal arts college in the United States with an enrollment of about 1,450 students. ... Doctor of Law, Doctor of Jurisprudence, or Juris Doctor (abbreviated J.D. or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a professional degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries. ... Harvard Law School, often referred to in shorthand as Harvard Law or HLS, is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... The Master of Public Policy (M.P.P.) is a professional Masters degree that traditionally provided training in policy analysis and program evaluation at public policy schools. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... John F. Kennedy School of Government The John F. Kennedy School of Government is a public policy school and one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ... Saint Josephs College (SJC; colloquially, St. ... Rensselaer is a city located in Jasper County, Indiana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American former academic and government official. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Career

Judicial clerkship (1982–1983)

Upon graduation from Harvard Law School Zoellick served as a law clerk for Judge Patricia Wald on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Harvard Law School, often referred to in shorthand as Harvard Law or HLS, is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... In the United States and Canada, a law clerk is a person who provides assistance to a judge in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions. ... Patricia Wald Patricia McGowan Wald (born 1928) is an American judge. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. ...


Government service (1985–1992)

Zoellick served in various positions at the Department of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988. He held positions including Counselor to Secretary James Baker, Executive Secretary of the Department, and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy. The U.S. Treasury building today. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H...


During George H. W. Bush's presidency, Zoellick served with Baker, by then Secretary of State, as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs, as well as Counselor to the Department (Under Secretary rank). In August 1992, Zoellick was appointed White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President.[10] Zoellick was also appointed Bush's personal representative for the G7 Economic Summits in 1991 and 1992. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Deputy White House Chief of Staff is the top aide to the White House Chief of Staff, who is the senior aide to the President of the United States. ... G7 or G-7 or Group of Seven may be: Group of Seven (G7), a group of seven industrialized nations of the world, formed in 1976 when Canada joined the Group of Six (United States of America, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom); now known as G8 (with Russia) Group... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Business and academia (1993–2001)

After leaving government service, Zoellick was appointed an Executive Vice President at the Federal National Mortgage Association (19931997).[1][2] Zoellick served as the John M. Olin Professor of National Security at the U.S. Naval Academy (19971998), Research Scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and Senior International Advisor to Goldman Sachs.[11][12] The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) (NYSE: FNM), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a government sponsored enterprise (GSE) sponsored by the United States government. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Merrill Olin (November 10, 1892 - September 8, 1982) was an American businessman and conservationist. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... John F. Kennedy School of Government The John F. Kennedy School of Government is a public policy school and one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Goldman Sachs offices at the Fraumünsterplatz in Zürich (the light-colored building on the left) The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ...


Zoellick signed the January 26, 1998 letter [13] to President Bill Clinton from PNAC that advocated war against Iraq. January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Project for the New American Century, or PNAC, is a Washington, DC based think tank. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


During 1999 Zoellick was, for a short period, the head of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) [14] Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ...


In the 2000 U.S. presidential election campaign, Zoellick served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of a group, led by Condoleezza Rice, that called itself The Vulcans. 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential election results map: Red denotes states won by Bush/Cheney; Blue denotes those won by Gore/Lieberman. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The Vulcan statue in Birmingham. ...


U.S. Trade Representative (2001–2005)

Zoellick was named U.S. Trade Representative at the beginning of the younger Bush's first term; he was a member of the Executive Office, with the rank of Ambassador. According to the U.S. Trade Representative website, Zoellick completed negotiations to bring China and Taiwan into the World Trade Organization (WTO); developed a strategy to launch new global trade negotiations at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar; shepherded Congressional action on the Jordan Free Trade Agreement and the Vietnam Trade Agreement; and worked with Congress to pass the Trade Act of 2002, which included new Trade Promotion Authority.[15] He also heavily promoted the Central American Free Trade Agreement over the objections of labor, environmental, and human rights groups.[16] The Executive Office of the President (EOP or sometimes EXOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Doha (Arabic: , transliteration: or ), population 400,051 (2005 census), is the capital of Qatar and is at , on the Persian Gulf. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... The Trade Act of 2002 (HR 3009; also called the ) grants the President of the United States the authority to negotiate trade deals with other countries and only gives Congress the approval to vote up or down on the agreement, but not to amend it. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a free trade agreement between the United States and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, and Canada, and Mexico. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Zoellick played a key role in the U.S.-W.T.O. dispute against the European Union over genetically modified foods. The move sought to force genetically modified crops and food on the E.U., which would not otherwise accept them, or be slow to do so. [17]. Genetically Modified (GM) foods are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) which have had their genome altered through genetic engineering techniques. ...


Deputy Secretary of State (2005–2006)

Zoellick (right) with Jan Pronk, the United Nations' special representative to Sudan.
Zoellick (right) with Jan Pronk, the United Nations' special representative to Sudan.

On January 7, 2005, Bush nominated Zoellick to be Deputy Secretary of State.[18] Zoellick assumed the office on February 22, 2005. The New York Times reported on May 25, 2006 that Zoellick could soon announce his departure. Zoellick agreed to serve as Deputy Secretary of State for not less than one year. He was seen as a major architect of the Bush administration's policies regarding China, and also the approach to a Darfur peace plan.[19] Image File history File links Pronk_zoellick. ... Image File history File links Pronk_zoellick. ... Jan Pronk (left) with Robert Zoellick Johannes Pieter Pronk (born 16 March 1940 in The Hague), better known as Jan Pronk, is a Dutch politician. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The United Nations Mission In Sudan or UNMIS is the mission of the United Nation designed to provide humanitarian support the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement on January 9, 2005. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State who is responsible for foreign affairs. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... Combatants factions of the SLA Justice & Equality Movement Janjaweed  Sudan Minnawi-faction of the SLA Commanders SLA: SalaBob and Sulaiman Gamos JEM: Ibrahim Khalil Janjaweed: ? Sudan: Omar al-Bashir SLA: Minni Minnawi Casualties 300,000 civilians killed (est. ...


During a trip to a Darfur refugee camp in 2005, Zoellick wore a bracelet with the motto, "Not on our watch." Zoellick was seen by many as the administration's strongest voice on Darfur. His resignation catalyzed groups, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, to praise his record on human rights issues.[20] Darfur (Arabic: , lit. ... Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a temporary camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Genocide Intervention Network (or GI-Net) is a non-profit organization that envisions a world in which the global community is willing and able to protect civilians from genocidal violence. ...


Other Activities

Zoellick also serves or has served as a board member for a number of private and public organizations: Alliance Capital, Said Holdings, and the Precursor Group; and as a member of the advisory boards of Enron [21] and Viventures, a venture fund; and a director of the Aspen Institute's Strategy Group. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation, formerly Enron Corporation, is a defunct U.S. energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... The Aspen Institute is a U.S. nonprofit cultural organization founded in 1950 dedicated to fostering enlightened leadership and open-minded dialogue. ...


He has also served on the board of the German Marshall Fund and on the World Wildlife Fund Advisory Council, and was a member of Secretary William Cohen's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee.[citation needed] The German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF) is a non-partisan American public policy and grantmaking institution dedicated to promoting greater cooperation and understanding between the United States and Europe. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... William Sebastian Cohen (1940- ) is an author and American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee (DPBAC or DPB) is a federal advisory committee to the United States Department of Defense. ...


He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission.[citation needed] He also attended the annual invitation-only conferences of the Bilderberg Group in 1991, 2003, 2006 and 2007 [22]. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; he was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ... List of Bilderberg participants from 1978 1 This is a list of prominent persons who have attended one or more conferences organized by the Bilderberg Group. ... The front cover of the privately circulated report of the 1980 Bilderberg conference in Bad Aachen, Germany. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Views

Robert Zoellick with Shinzo Abe
Robert Zoellick with Shinzo Abe

Tom Barry, the policy director of the International Relations Center, has written that Zoellick "regards free trade philosophy and free trade agreements as instruments of U.S. national interests. When the principles of free trade affect U.S. short-term interests or even the interests of political constituencies, Zoellick is more a mercantilist and unilateralist than free trader or multilateralist."[23] Image File history File links Robert_Zoellick_meets_Shinzo_Abe_2006-01-23. ... Image File history File links Robert_Zoellick_meets_Shinzo_Abe_2006-01-23. ... Shinzo Abe , pronounced (ah-beh)  , born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ... The International Relations Center (IRC) is a policy studies institute based in Silver City, New Mexico, United States. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The national interest, often referred to by the French term raison détat, is a countrys goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ...


Gavan McCormack has written that Zoellick used his perch as U.S. trade representative to advocate for Wall Street's policy goals abroad, as during a 2004 intervention in a key privatization issue in Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's re-election campaign. McCormack has written , "The office of the U.S. Trade Representative has played an active part in drafting the Japan Post privatization law. An October 2004 letter from Robert Zoellick to Japan’s Finance Minister Takenaka Heizo, tabled in the Diet on August 2, 2005, included a handwritten note from Zoellick commending Takenaka. Challenged to explain this apparent U.S. government intervention in a domestic matter, Koizumi merely expressed his satisfaction that Takenaka had been befriended by such an important figure… It is hard to overestimate the scale of the opportunity offered to U.S. and global finance capital by the privatization of the Postal Savings System."[24] Gavan McCormack is a British-trained East Asian specialist who is currently visiting professor of Social Science at the International Christain University, Tokyo. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Japan Post ) is a public corporation in Japan offering postal and package delivery services, banking services, and life insurance. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Postal savings systems were offered by many nations post offices to provide depositors who did not have access to banks a safe, convenient method to save money and to promote saving among the poor. ...


In a January 2000 Foreign Affairs essay entitled "Campaign 2000: A Republican Foreign Policy," he was one of the first of those now associated with Bush's foreign policy to invoke the notion of "evil," writing: "[T]here is still evil in the world — people who hate America and the ideas for which it stands. Today, we face enemies who are hard at work to develop nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, along with the missiles to deliver them. The United States must remain vigilant and have the strength to defeat its enemies. People driven by enmity or by a need to dominate will not respond to reason or goodwill. They will manipulate civilized rules for uncivilized ends." The same essay praises the "idealism" of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Two years earlier, Zoellick was one of the signatories (who also included Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle, Elliott Abrams, Zalmay Khalilzad, John R. Bolton, Richard Armitage, and Bill Kristol) of a January 26, 1998 letter to President Bill Clinton drafted by the Project for the New American Century calling for "removing Saddam [Hussein]'s regime from power."[25] This article is about a journal. ... In religion and ethics, evil refers to morally or ethically objectionable thought, speech, or action; behavior or thought which is hateful, cruel, violent, or devoid of conscience. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American former academic and government official. ... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... Elliot Abrams Elliott Abrams (born January 24, 1948) is an American lawyer who has served in foreign policy positions for a number of U.S. Presidents, most recently George W. Bush. ... Dr. Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashtu/Persian: ‎ ) (born 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. ... John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), an attorney and an American diplomat in several Republican administrations, served as the interim[1] U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations with the title of ambassador, from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... William Bill Kristol (born December 23, 1952 in New York City) is an American neoconservative commentator. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an influential neo-conservative, U.S. think tank based in Washington, D.C.[1] Co-founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan, the group was established in early 1997. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an influential neo-conservative, U.S. think tank based in Washington, D.C.[1] Co-founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan, the group was established in early 1997. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


While in the position of Deputy Secretary of State, Zoellick visited Sudan four times. He supported expanding a United Nations force in the Darfur region to replace African Union soldiers. He was involved in negotiating a peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army, signed in Abuja, Nigeria in May 2006. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Administrative center Largest city Cairo, Egypt Leaders  -  Chairperson John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Membership 53 African states Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st2)  sq mi  Population  -  2005... The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army or Haraka Tahrir Sudan (abbreviated as either SLM or SLA) is a loose association of Sudanese rebel groups who fought against the Janjaweed Arab militiamen and Sudanese government forces in the Darfur conflict. ... Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 1. ...


Zoellick is considered an influential advocate of US-German relations, and has very good knowledge of Germany.


References

  1. ^ World Bank press release. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21385723~menuPK:34463~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
  2. ^ Reuters (2006). Goldman says Zoellick to be vice chairman, intl. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6701865.stm
  4. ^ "Press Release Regarding the Selection of Mr. Robert B. Zoellick as President of the World Bank", World Bank Group, June 25, 2007, accessed June 26, 2007.
  5. ^ Becker, Elizabeth, Edmund L. Andrews. "INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS; Performing a Free Trade Juggling Act, Offstage", The New York Times, 2003-02-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
  6. ^ http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,485569,00.html
  7. ^ http://www.ftd.de/koepfe/:Zoellick%20Pr%E4sident%20Weltbank/206038.html
  8. ^ http://www.results.gov/leadership/bio_474.html
  9. ^ http://www.ustr.gov/about-ustr/ambassador/zoellick.html
  10. ^ http://www.results.gov/leadership/bio_474.html
  11. ^ http://www.ustr.gov/about-ustr/ambassador/zoellick.html
  12. ^ http://www.ustdrc.gov/members/zoellick.html
  13. ^ http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraqclintonletter.htm
  14. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB925949376503339161.html?mod=googlewsj
  15. ^ http://www.ustr.gov/Who_We_Are/Bios/Biography_of_Ambassador_Robert_B._Zoellick.html
  16. ^ http://canadiandimension.com/articles/2006/11/07/719/
  17. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EUY/is_9_9/ai_98655475
  18. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/01/20050107-6.html
  19. ^ Times Online (2006). Zoellick quits State Department for Goldman. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
  20. ^ http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/06/19/deputy-secretary-of-state-leader-on-darfur-resigns-post/
  21. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1758345.stm
  22. ^ http://www.bilderberg.org/2007.htm#participant
  23. ^ http://www.counterpunch.org/barry01142005.html
  24. ^ http://www.newleftreview.org/NLR26901.shtml
  25. ^ http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraqclintonletter.htm

World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • State Department biography
  • World Bank biography
  • Zoellick in Zmag
  • "China and America: Power and Responsibility" - An address by Zoellick to the Asia Society Annual Dinner in New York, on February 25, 2004
  • Robert Zoellick's list of federal campaign contributions
  • Zoellick reports, clippings and sources
Preceded by
Charlene Barshefsky
United States Trade Representative
2001–2005
Succeeded by
Rob Portman
Preceded by
Richard Armitage
Deputy Secretary of State
2005–2006
Succeeded by
John Negroponte
Preceded by
Paul Wolfowitz
President of the World Bank
2007-
Succeeded by
incumbent as of July 1, 2007

  Results from FactBites:
 
United States Trade Representative, Ambassador Robert B. Zoellick (422 words)
Zoellick was the lead State Department official in the negotiations on the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Uruguay Round, and the launch of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation group.
Zoellick was appointed White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President.
Zoellick served at the Department of the Treasury in various positions, including Counselor to Secretary James A. Baker, III, Executive Secretary of the Department, and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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