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Encyclopedia > Robert Walpole
The Right Honourable
 The Earl of Orford 
KG, KB, PC
Robert Walpole

In office
4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742
Monarch George I
George II
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by The Earl of Wilmington

In office
April 3, 1721 – February 12, 1742
Monarch George I
George II
Preceded by John Pratt
Succeeded by Samuel Sandys
In office
October 12, 1715 – April 15, 1717
Monarch George I
Preceded by Richard Onslow
Succeeded by James Stanhope

Born 26 August 1676(1676-08-26)
Houghton, Norfolk, England
Died 18 March 1745 (aged 68)
London, England, Great Britain
Political party Whig
Alma mater King's College, Cambridge

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 167618 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. This position had no official recognition in law, but Walpole is nevertheless acknowledged as having held the de facto office due to the extent of his influence in the Cabinet. However, the term "Prime Minister" was never used officially at this time. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Download high resolution version (434x601, 26 KB)Robert Walpole This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... The Rt. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sir John Pratt (1657 - 1725) was a British judge and politician. ... Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys (1695-1770) was a British politician in the 18th century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Sir Richard Onslow, (June 23, 1654 – December 5, 1717), was a British Whig member of parliament. ... James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (c. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Walpole, a Whig, served during the reigns of George I and George II. His tenure is normally dated from 1721, when he obtained the post of First Lord of the Treasury; others date it from 1730, when, with the retirement of Lord Townshend, he became the sole and undisputed leader of the Cabinet. The "longer" version of the tenure is generally upheld by the contemporary press, most notably that of the opposition, who focused far more attention upon Walpole than his counterpart. Walpole continued to govern until his resignation in 1742, promopted by the Battle of Cartagena disaster, making his administration the longest in British history. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Italic text Charles Townshend Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (April 18, 1674–June 21, 1738), was an English statesman. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Belligerents Britain Spain Commanders Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon Major General Thomas Wentworth Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava Admiral Blas de Lezo † Strength 31,400 men:[1][2] 15,400 Royal Navy sailors 2,000 regulars 6,000 marines 3,000 American colonial marines[3] 5,000 merchant seamen 186 ships...

Contents

Early life and family

Robert Walpole was born in Houghton Hall, Norfolk in 1676. His father, also named Robert Walpole, was a Whig politician who represented the borough of Castle Rising in the House of Commons. His mother was Mary Walpole (née Burwell); he was the third of seventeen children, eight of whom died during infancy. Robert Walpole would later prove to hold the record amongst Prime Ministers for the greatest number of siblings. The facade of Houghton Hall from Colen Campbells Vitruvius Britannicus. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Castle Rising is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Walpole was a scholar at Eton College from 1690 to 1695 and matriculated at King's College, Cambridge in 1696. In 1698, he left the University of Cambridge after the death of his only remaining elder brother, Edward, so that he could help his father administer the family estate. Walpole had planned to become a clergyman, but abandoned the idea when, as the eldest surviving son in the family, he became the heir to his father's estate. The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ...


On 30 July 1700, Walpole married Catherine Shorter (died 20 August 1737), with whom he later had two daughters and four sons: is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Catherine, Lady Walpole, (née Shorter) (1682 – 20 August 1737) was the first wife of British politician and Prime Minister Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford from 30 July 1700 until her death in Chelsea in 1737. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ...

After Lady Walpole died, Walpole married his mistress, Maria Skerritt, before 3 March 1738. They had been openly together in Richmond, Houghton Hall and London society since about 1724, and she had born him an illegitimate daughter, whom he eventually had ennobled as Lady Maria Walpole-who married Colonel Charles Churchill of Chalfont {1720-1812}-a great nephew of the 1st Duke of Marlborough- with whom she had two daughters-of whom one daugther Sophia Churchill married Horatio Walpole-a great grandson of Robert Walpole and Mary Burwell and also descended from William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. The second Lady Walpole died of a miscarriage 3 months after the couple's marriage. As a couple they were commemorated as Polly and Macheath in John Gay's The Beggar's Opera which he wrote in 1728. Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford, 1st Baron Walpole (1701–31 March 1751), known as the Lord Walpole from 1723 to 1745, was a British peer. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Barony of Clinton is a barony by writ in the Peerage of England, dating to 1298. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... George Cholmondeley, 3rd Earl of Cholmondeley (1703-1770) was a British politician. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Walpole (1736–22 August 1807), the Countess Waldegrave and Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ... HRH Prince William Henry, Earl of Connaught, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (November 14, 1743 - August 25, 1805) was a British prince and military officer, younger brother of King George III. He was born to Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha at Leicester House in... George III redirects here. ... Diana Spencer redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Maria, Lady Walpole (née Skerritt, Skerrett, or Skerret) (1702 – 4 June 1738) was the second wife of British politician and Prime Minister Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford from before 3 March 1738 until her death in childbirth (miscarriage) a few months later. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... The town of Richmond as seen from the top of the keep of Richmond Castle Richmond is a market town on the River Swale in North Yorkshire, UK and is the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire. ... The facade of Houghton Hall from Colen Campbells Vitruvius Britannicus. ... Charles Churchill (February, 1731 - November 4, 1764), was an English poet and satirist. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ...


Early political career

Walpole's political career began in January 1701, when he won the general election in Castle Rising (the constituency once represented by his father, who had died just three months earlier). He left Castle Rising in 1702 so that he could contest the neighbouring but more important borough of King's Lynn, a constituency that would re-elect him at every subsequent general election for the next forty years. Castle Rising was a parliamentary borough in Norfolk, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1558 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Kings Lynn was a constituency which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 18885, and one member thereafter. ...


Like his father, Robert Walpole was a zealous member of the Whig Party, which was then more powerful than the opposing Tory Party. In 1705, Walpole was appointed a member of the Council of the Lord High Admiral (then Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Queen Anne), a body which oversaw naval affairs. His administrative skills having been noticed, Walpole was promoted by Lord Godolphin (the Lord High Treasurer and leader of the Cabinet) to the position of Secretary at War in 1708; for a short period of time in 1710, he also simultaneously held the post of Treasurer of the Navy. Walpole's service in these offices made him a close advisor of the Duke of Marlborough, the commander of British forces in the War of the Spanish Succession and a dominant force in British politics. Robert Walpole himself quickly became one of the most important members of the Cabinet. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Prince George of Denmark Prince George of Denmark (April 2, 1653 - October 28, 1708) was the Prince consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (c. ... The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ... The Secretary at War was a position with some responsibility over the administration of the British military. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... A notable office in British government between the 16th and early 19th centuries, the Treasurer of the Navy was responsible for the financial maintenance of the Royal Navy. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny...


Despite his personal clout, however, Walpole could not stop Lord Godolphin and the Whigs from pressing for the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell, a minister who preached anti-Whig sermons. The trial was extremely unpopular with much of the country, and was followed by the downfall of the Duke of Marlborough and the Whig Party in the general election of 1710. The new ministry, under the leadership of the Tory Robert Harley, removed Walpole from his office of Secretary at War, but allowed him to remain Treasurer of the Navy until 2 January 1711. Harley attempted to entice him to join the Tories, but Walpole rejected the offers, instead becoming one of the most outspoken members of the Whig Opposition. He effectively defended Lord Godolphin against Tory attacks in parliamentary debate, as well as in the press. Henry Sacheverell (1674 - June 15, 1724) was an English churchman and politician. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Angered by his political attacks, the Tories sought to ruin and discredit him along with the Duke of Marlborough. In 1712, they alleged that he had been guilty of corruption as Secretary at War; these charges, however, stemmed from political hatred rather than fact. Walpole was impeached by the House of Commons and found guilty by the overwhelmingly Tory House of Lords; he was then imprisoned in the Tower of London for six months and expelled from Parliament. The move, however, backfired against the Tories, as Walpole was perceived by the public as the victim of an unjust trial. His own constituency even re-elected him in 1713, despite his earlier expulsion from the House of Commons. Walpole developed an intense hatred for Robert Harley (by then Earl of Oxford and Mortimer) and Lord Bolingbroke, the Tories who had engineered his impeachment. // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Earl of Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Baron Saint John Of Lydiard Tregoze and Battersea, (September 16, 1678 – December 12, 1751), was an English statesman and philosopher. ...


Stanhope/Sunderland Ministry

Queen Anne died in 1714, to be succeeded by a distant German cousin, George I, under the Act of Settlement 1701. George I distrusted the Tories, who he believed opposed his right to succeed to the Throne. (The Act of Settlement had excluded several senior relatives of Anne on the grounds of their adherence to Roman Catholicism.) Thus, 1714, the year of George's accession, marked the ascendancy of the Whigs, who would remain in power for the next fifty years. Robert Walpole became a Privy Councillor and rose to the position of Paymaster of the Forces in a Cabinet nominally led by Lord Halifax, but actually dominated by Lord Townshend (Walpole's brother-in-law) and James Stanhope. Walpole was also appointed chairman of a secret committee formed to investigate the actions of the previous Tory ministry. The individuals who had brought about Walpole's impeachment in 1712 were now themselves attacked for purely political reasons: Lord Oxford was impeached, and Lord Bolingbroke suffered from an act of attainder. Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (April 16, 1661 - May 19, 1715) was Chancellor of the Exchequer, poet, statesman, and Earl of Halifax. ... James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (c. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ...


Lord Halifax, the titular head of the administration, died in 1715. Walpole, recognised as an assiduous politician, was immediately promoted to the important posts of First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer; in this position, he introduced the sinking fund, a device to reduce the national debt. The Cabinet of which he was a member was often divided over most important issues; normally, Walpole and Lord Townshend were on one side, with Stanhope and Lord Sunderland on the other. Foreign policy was the primary issue of contention, for Walpole and Townshend believed that George I was conducting foreign affairs with the interests of his German territories—rather than those of Great Britain—at heart. The Stanhope-Sunderland faction, however, had the King's support. In 1716, Townshend was removed from the important post of Northern Secretary and put in the lesser office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Even this change did not appease Stanhope and Sunderland, who secured the dismissal of Townshend from the Lord-Lieutenancy in April 1717. On the next day, Walpole resigned from the Cabinet to join Townshend in the Opposition. In the new Cabinet, Sunderland and Stanhope (who was created an Earl) were the effective heads. Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Historical Context A Sinking Fund was a device used in the 18th century to reduce national debt. ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (c. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ...


Soon after Walpole's resignation, a bitter family quarrel between the King and the Prince of Wales split the Royal Family. Walpole and others who opposed the Government often congregated at Leicester House, the home of the Prince of Wales, to form political plans. Walpole also became a close friend of the Prince of Wales's wife, Caroline. In 1720, he improved his position by bringing about a reconciliation between the Prince of Wales and the King. George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... For details on the adjacent London Underground station, see Leicester Square tube station Leicester Square in 1750, looking north. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


Walpole continued to be an influential figure in the House of Commons; he was especially active in opposing one of the Government's more significant proposals, the Peerage Bill, which would have limited the power of the monarch to create new peerages. Walpole brought about a temporary abandonment of the bill in 1719, and the outright rejection of the bill by the House of Commons in the next year. This defeat led Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland to reconcile with their opponents; Walpole returned to the Cabinet as Paymaster of the Forces, and Townshend was appointed Lord President of the Council. By returning to the Cabinet, however, he lost the favour of the Prince of Wales (the future King George II), who still harboured disdain for his father's Government. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ...


Rise to power

Soon after Walpole returned to the Cabinet, England was swept by a wave of over-enthusiastic speculation which led to the South Sea Bubble. The Government had established a plan whereby the South Sea Company would assume the national debt of Great Britain in exchange for lucrative bonds. It was widely believed that the Company would eventually reap an enormous profit through international trade in cloth, agricultural goods, and slaves. Many in the country, including Walpole himself, frenziedly invested in the company. By the latter part of 1720, however, the company had begun to collapse as the price of its shares plunged. Walpole was saved from financial ruin by his banker, who had earlier advised him to sell his shares; other investors, however, were not as fortunate. Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1721, a committee investigated the scandal, finding that there was corruption on the part of many in the Cabinet. Among those implicated were John Aislabie (the Chancellor of the Exchequer), James Craggs the Elder (the Postmaster General), James Craggs the Younger (the Southern Secretary), and even Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland (the heads of the Ministry). Craggs the Elder and Craggs the Younger both died in disgrace; the remainder were impeached for their corruption. Aislabie was found guilty and imprisoned, but the personal influence of Walpole saved both Stanhope and Sunderland. For his role in preventing these individuals, and others, from being punished, Walpole gained the nickname of "Screenmaster-General". Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Aislabie (December 4, 1670- June 18, 1742) was a British politician, notable for his involvement in the South Sea Bubble and for creating the water garden at Studley Royal. ... James Craggs the Elder (10 June 1657 - 16 March 1721), English politician, father of James Craggs the Younger, was a son of Anthony Craggs of Holbeck, Durham, and was baptized on the 10th of June 1657. ... In the United Kingdom, the Postmaster General is a now defunct ministerial position. ... James Cragg the Younger (9 April 1686 - 16 February 1721), son of James Cragg the Elder, was born at Westminster. ... The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of United Kingdom up to 1782. ...


The resignation of Sunderland and the death of Stanhope in 1721 left Walpole as the most important figure in the administration. In April 1721, he was appointed First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Walpole's de facto tenure as "Prime Minister" is often dated to his appointment as First Lord in 1721. In reality, however, Walpole shared power with his brother-in-law, Lord Townshend, who served as Secretary of State for the Northern Department and controlled the nation's foreign affairs. The two also had to contend with the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Lord Carteret. Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Right Honourable John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, PC (22 April 1690–22 January 1763), English statesman, commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was the son of George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret (1667 - 1695), by his marriage with Grace Granville (September 3, 1654 - October 18, 1744), daughter...


Premiership under George I

Under the guidance of Walpole, Parliament attempted to deal with the financial crisis. The estates of the directors of the company were confiscated and used to relieve the suffering of the victims, and the stock of the South Sea Company was divided between the Bank of England and East India Company. The crisis had significantly damaged the credibility of the King and of the Whig Party, but Walpole defended both with skilful oratory in the House of Commons. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


Walpole's first year as Prime Minister was also marked by the discovery of a Jacobite plot formed by Francis Atterbury, the Bishop of Rochester. The exposure of the scheme crushed the hopes of the Jacobites, whose previous attempts at rebellion (most notably the risings of 1715 and 1719) had also failed. The Tory Party was equally unfortunate, even though Lord Bolingbroke, a Tory leader who fled to France to avoid punishment for his Jacobite sympathies, was permitted to return to England in 1723. Francis Atterbury (March 6, 1663 - February 22, 1732), was an English man of letters, politician and bishop. ... The Bishop of Rochester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ...


During the remainder of George I's reign, Walpole's ascendancy continued; the political power of the monarch was gradually diminishing, and that of his ministers gradually increasing. In 1724, the primary political rival of Walpole and Townshend in the Cabinet, Lord Carteret, was dismissed from the post of Southern Secretary and once again appointed to the lesser office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In Ireland, Lord Carteret used his power to secretly aid in the controversy over Wood's Halfpence and support Drapier's Letters behind the scenes and cause harm to Walpole's power.[1][2] Walpole was able to recover from these events by removing the patent, however, Irish sentiment was situated against the English control.[3] Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... William Wood was a hardware manufacturer who was given a contract as a mintmaster to strike an issue of Irish coinage from 1722 to 1724. ...


Now, Walpole and Townshend were clearly the supreme forces in the ministry. They helped keep Great Britain at peace, especially by negotiating a treaty with France and Prussia in 1725. Great Britain, free from Jacobite threats, from war, and from financial crises, grew prosperous, and Robert Walpole acquired the favour of George I. In 1725, he was created a Knight of the Bath, and in 1726, a Knight of the Garter (earning him the nickname "Sir Blustering"). Moreover, his eldest son was granted a barony. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...


Premiership under George II

Sir Robert Walpole's position was threatened in 1727, when George I died and was succeeded by George II. For a few days, it seemed that Walpole would be dismissed, but the King agreed to keep him in office upon the advice of Queen Caroline. Although the King disliked Townshend, he retained him as well. Over the next years, Walpole continued to share power with Townshend, but gradually became the clearly dominant partner in government. The two clashed over British foreign affairs, especially over policy regarding Prussia, but Walpole was ultimately victorious, with his colleague retiring on 15 May 1730. This date is often given as the beginning of Walpole's unofficial tenure as Prime Minister. Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ...


During the following years, Walpole was more dominant than during any other part of his administration. Having secured the support of Queen Caroline, and, by extension, of King George II, he made liberal use of the royal patronage, granting honours and making appointments for political gains. He selected the members of his Cabinet, and was capable of forcing them to act in unison when necessary; as no previous head of the administration could wield so much influence, Walpole is properly regarded as the first "Prime Minister".


Walpole, a polarising figure, had many opponents, the most important of whom were Lord Bolingbroke (who had been his political enemy since the days of Queen Anne) and William Pulteney (a capable Whig statesman who felt snubbed when Walpole failed to include him in the Cabinet). Bolingbroke and Pulteney ran a periodical called The Craftsman, in which they incessantly denounced the Prime Minister's policies. Walpole was also satirised and parodied extensively; he was often compared to the criminal Jonathan Wild, as, for example, John Gay did in his farcical Beggar's Opera. Walpole's other enemies included Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Henry Fielding, and Dr Samuel Johnson. William Pulteney (1684 - July 7, 1764) was an English politician, created Earl of Bath in 1742 by King George II. The son of William Pulteney by his first wife, Mary Floyd, he was born in April 1684 into an old Leicestershire family. ... Jonathan Wild in the condemned cell at Newgate Prison Jonathan Wild (baptised 6 May 1683–24 May 1725) was perhaps the most famous criminal of London — and possibly Great Britain — during the 18th century, both because of his own actions and the uses novelists, playwrights, and political satirists made of... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Despite such opposition, Walpole secured the support of the people and of the House of Commons with a policy of avoiding war, which, in turn, allowed him to impose low taxes. He used his influence to prevent George II from entering a European conflict in 1733, when the War of the Polish Succession broke out. In the same year, however, his influence was seriously threatened by a taxation scheme he introduced. The revenue of the country had been severely diminished by smugglers, so Walpole proposed that the tariff on wine and tobacco be replaced by an excise tax. To countervail the threat of smuggling, the tax was to be collected not at ports, but at warehouses. This new proposal, however, was extremely unpopular, and aroused the opposition of the nation's merchants. Walpole agreed to withdraw the bill before Parliament voted on it, but he dismissed the politicians who had dared to oppose it in the first place. Thus, Walpole lost a considerable element of his Whig Party to the Opposition. Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of...


After the general elections of 1734, Walpole's supporters still formed a majority in the House of Commons, though they were less numerous than before. Though he maintained his parliamentary supremacy, however, his popularity began to wane. In 1736, an increase in the tax on gin inspired riots in London. The even more serious Porteous Riots broke out in Edinburgh, after the King pardoned a captain of the guard (John Porteous) who had commanded his troops to shoot a group of protesters. Though these events diminished Walpole's popularity, they failed to shake his majority in Parliament. Walpole's domination over the House of Commons was highlighted by the ease with which he secured the rejection of Sir John Barnard's plan to reduce the interest on the national debt. Walpole was also able to persuade Parliament to pass the Licensing Act of 1737, under which London theatres were regulated. The Act revealed a disdain for Swift, Pope, Fielding, and other literary figures who had attacked his government in their works. Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Captain John Porteous and the Edinburgh Riots (d 1736) As Captain of the City Guard of Edinburgh, Captain John Porteous was charged with keeping the peace and when, in April 1736, two convicted smugglers were due to be publicly hanged, the public outcry was such that the hangman had to... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... The Licensing Act or Theatrical Licensing Act of 1737 was a landmark act of censorship of the British stage. ...


Decline

The year 1737 was also marked by the death of Walpole's close friend, Queen Caroline. Though her death did not end his personal influence with George II, who had grown loyal to the Prime Minister during the preceding years, Walpole's domination of government continued to decline. His opponents acquired a vocal leader in the Prince of Wales, who was estranged from his father, the King. Several young politicians, including William Pitt the Elder and George Grenville, formed a faction known as the "Patriot Boys" and joined the Prince of Wales in opposition. Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great... George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who served in government for the relatively short period of seven years, reaching the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. ...


Walpole's failure to maintain a policy of avoiding military conflict eventually led to his fall from power. Under the Treaty of Seville (1729), Great Britain agreed not to trade with the Spanish colonies in North America; Spain claimed the right to board and search British vessels to ensure compliance. Disputes, however, broke out over trade with the West Indies. Walpole attempted to prevent war, but was opposed by the King, the House of Commons, and by a faction in his own Cabinet. In 1739, Walpole abandoned all efforts to stop the conflict, and commenced the War of Jenkins' Ear (so called because Robert Jenkins, an English mariner, claimed that a Spaniard inspecting his vessel had severed his ear). The Treaty of Seville was between England, France and Spain, and signed in 1729. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Combatants British Empire Spain Commanders Edward Vernon James E. Oglethorpe George Anson Charles Knowles Blas de Lezo Manuel de Montiano Andrés Reggio The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. ... Robert Jenkins (fl. ...


Walpole's influence continued to dramatically decline even after the war began. In the 1741 general election his supporters secured an increase in votes in constituencies that were decided by mass electorates, but failed to win in many pocket boroughs (constituencies subject to the informal but strong influence of patrons). In general the government made gains in England and Wales but this was not enough to overturn the reverses of the 1734 election and further losses in Cornwall where many constituencies were obedient to the will of the Prince of Wales (who was also Duke of Cornwall); these constituencies returned Members of Parliament hostile to the Prime Minister. Similarly, the influence of the Duke of Argyll secured the election of members opposed to Walpole in some parts of Scotland. Walpole's new majority was difficult to determine because of the uncertain loyalties of many new members, but contemporaries and historians estimated it as low as fourteen to eighteen. The British general election, 1741 returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 9th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The British general election, 1734 returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 8th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll and 1st Duke of Greenwich (October 10, 1678 - October 4, 1743) was a Scottish soldier and nobleman. ... This article is about the country. ...


In the new Parliament, many Whigs thought the aging Prime Minister incapable of leading the military campaign. Moreover, his majority was not as strong as it used to be; his detractors approximately as numerous as his supporters. In 1742, when the House of Commons was prepared to determine the validity of an allegedly rigged by-election in Chippenham, Walpole and others agreed to treat the issue as a Motion of No Confidence. As Walpole was defeated on the vote, he agreed to resign from the Government. The news of the naval disaster against Spain in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias also prompted the end of his political career. As part of his resignation the King agreed to elevate him to the House of Lords as the Earl of Orford and this occurred on February 6, 1742. Five days later he formally relinquished the seals of office. // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Statistics Population: 30,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: ST919733 Administration District: North Wiltshire Shire county: Wiltshire Region: South West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Wiltshire Services Police force: Wiltshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: Wiltshire Fire and Rescue Service Ambulance: Great Western Post office... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Belligerents Britain Spain Commanders Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon Major General Thomas Wentworth Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava Admiral Blas de Lezo † Strength 31,400 men:[1][2] 15,400 Royal Navy sailors 2,000 regulars 6,000 marines 3,000 American colonial marines[3] 5,000 merchant seamen 186 ships... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The title of Earl of Orford was created several times in British history - in the Peerage of England in 1697, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1742 for former prime minister Robert Walpole, and in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1806 for Lord Walpole, Walpoles distant... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Later years

Orford was succeeded as Prime Minister by Lord Wilmington, in an administration whose true head was Lord Carteret. A committee was created to inquire into his ministry, but no substantial evidence of wrongdoing or corruption was discovered. Though no longer a member of the Cabinet, Lord Orford continued to maintain personal influence with George II and was often dubbed the "Minister behind the Curtain" for this advice and influence. In 1744, he managed to secure the dismissal of Carteret and the appointment of Henry Pelham. The Rt. ... The Right Honourable John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, PC (22 April 1690–22 January 1763), English statesman, commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was the son of George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret (1667 - 1695), by his marriage with Grace Granville (September 3, 1654 - October 18, 1744), daughter... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... The Right Honourable Henry Pelham (25 September 1694–6 March 1754) was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 to his death about ten years later. ...


Orford died in London in 1745, aged nearly sixty-nine years; he was buried in his home town of Houghton. His earldom passed to his eldest son Robert, who was in turn succeeded by his only son George. Upon the death of the third Earl, the Earldom was inherited by the first Earl's younger son, Horace Walpole (a famous writer and friend of poet Thomas Gray), who died without heirs in 1797. // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Thomas Gray (disambiguation). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Legacy

Walpole's influence on the politics of his day was tremendous. The Tories became a minor, insignificant faction, and the Whigs became a dominant and largely unopposed party. His influence on the development of the uncodified constitution of Great Britain was less momentous, even though he is regarded as Great Britain's first Prime Minister. He relied primarily on the favour of the King, rather than on the support of the House of Commons. His power stemmed from his personal influence instead of the influence of his office. Most of his immediate successors were, comparatively speaking, extremely weak; it would take several decades more for the premiership to develop into the most powerful and most important office in the country.


Walpole's strategy of keeping Great Britain at peace contributed greatly to the country's prosperity. Walpole also managed to secure the position of the Hanoverian Dynasty, and effectively countervailed Jacobitism. The Jacobite threat was effectively ended, soon after Walpole's term ended, by the defeat of the rebellion of 1745. The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ...


Another part of Walpole's legacy is 10 Downing Street. George II offered this home to Walpole as a personal gift in 1732, but Walpole accepted it only as the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, taking up his residence there on 22 September 1735. His immediate successors did not always reside in Number 10 (preferring their larger private residences), but the home has nevertheless become established as the official residence of the Prime Minister (in his or her capacity as First Lord of the Treasury). Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ...


Walpole also left behind a famous collection of art which he had assembled during his career. This collection was sold by his grandson, the 3rd Earl of Orford, to the Russian Empress Catherine II in 1779. This collection—which was regarded as one of the finest in Europe—now lies in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Catherine the Great redirects here. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The nursery rhyme, "Who Killed Cock Robin?" is said to be an allusion to the fall of Walpole (Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes ISBN 0-19-860088-7). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cock Robin. ...


The town of Walpole, Massachusetts, USA was founded in 1724 and named after Sir Robert Walpole. This article is about the town of Walpole, Massachusetts. ...


Styles from birth to death

  • Mr. Robert Walpole (1676-1701)
  • Mr. Robert Walpole, MP (1701-1714)
  • The Rt. Hon. Robert Walpole, MP (1714-1725)
  • The Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, KB, MP (1725-1726)
  • The Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, KG, MP (1726-1742)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Orford, KG, PC (1742-1745)

Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected...

See also

Robert Walpoles Cabinet For several months in 1721, Lord Carteret concurrently held the positions of Northern Secretary and Lord President of the Council. ... The Ministry Categories: British ministries ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor state the Kingdom of Great Britain, from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Robert Walpole, took office in 1721, until the present day. ...

References

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Robert Walpole
  1. ^ Jonathan Swift and Ireland by Oliver W. Ferguson
  2. ^ Jonathan Swift: Volume III by Irvin Ehrenpreis
  3. ^ Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford by William Coxe, 1978
  • Black, Jeremy. (2001). Walpole in Power. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
  • Dickinson, Harry T. (1973). Walpole and the Whig Supremacy. London: English Universities Press.
  • Hill, Brian W. (1989). Sir Robert Walpole: "Sole and Prime Minister." London: Hamish Hamilton.
  • Morley, John. (1889). Walpole. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • Plumb, John Harold. (1956–1960). Sir Robert Walpole. (2 volumes). London: Cresset Press.
  • Plumb, John Harold. (1967). The Growth of Political Stability in England 1675–1725. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • More about Sir Robert Walpole on the Downing Street website.
  • http://www.efamilytree.net
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry St John
Secretary at War
1708 – 1710
Succeeded by
George Granville
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Littleton
Treasurer of the Navy
1710 – 1711
Succeeded by
Charles Caesar
Preceded by
John Howe
Paymaster of the Forces
1714 – 1715
Succeeded by
The Earl of Lincoln
Preceded by
The Earl of Carlisle
First Lord of the Treasury
1715 – 1717
Succeeded by
James Stanhope
Preceded by
Sir Richard Onslow
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1715 – 1717
Preceded by
The Earl of Lincoln
Paymaster of the Forces
1720 – 1721
Succeeded by
The Lord Cornwallis
First
None recognised before
Prime Minister of Great Britain
4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742
Succeeded by
The Earl of Wilmington
Preceded by
The Earl of Sunderland
First Lord of the Treasury
1721 – 1742
Preceded by
Sir John Pratt
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1721 – 1742
Succeeded by
Samuel Sandys
Preceded by
Unknown
Leader of the House of Commons
1721 – 1742
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Robert Walpole
Thomas Howard
Member of Parliament for Castle Rising
with Thomas Howard 1701
Robert Cecil 1701
The Earl of Ranelagh 1701–1702
Marquess of Hartington 1702

1701 – 1702
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Littleton
Horatio Walpole
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Sir John Turner
Sir Charles Turner
Member of Parliament for King's Lynn
with Sir Charles Turner

1702 – 1712
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Turner
Sir John Turner
Preceded by
Sir Charles Turner
Sir John Turner
Member of Parliament for King's Lynn
with Sir Charles Turner 1713–1739
Sir John Turner 1739–1742

1713 – 1742
Succeeded by
Sir John Turner
Edward Bacon
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Earl of Orford
1742 – 1745
Succeeded by
Robert Walpole
Persondata
NAME Walpole, Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES 1st Earl of Orford
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime Minister of Great Britain
DATE OF BIRTH 26 August 1676
PLACE OF BIRTH Houghton, Norfolk, England
DATE OF DEATH 18 March 1745
PLACE OF DEATH London, England, Great Britain
Image File history File links Her_Majesty's_Government_Coat_of_Arms. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Arms of Bishop Giffard, used by Worcester Cathedral Godfrey Giffard (c. ... Hervey de Stanton (12??-13??) was a Chancellor of the Exechequer to King Edward II. He also was a founder of Michaelhouse College at the University of Cambridge, one of the predecessors to Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Sir William Catesby (1450-1485) was a prominent member of the group that supported Richard III of England during his brief reign. ... John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners (1467 - 1553) was a translator, born at Sherfield, Herts and educated at Oxford, held various offices of state, including that of Chancellor of the Exchequer to Henry VIII., and Lieutenant of Calais, where he died He translated, at the Kings desire, Froissarts Chronicles... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Walpole Orford - LoveToKnow 1911 (1919 words)
ROBERT WALPOLE ORFORD, 1sT Earl Of (1676-1745), generally known as SIR Robert Walpole, prime minister of England from 1721 to 1742, was the third but eldest surviving son of Robert Walpole, M.P., of Houghton in Norfolk, by Mary, only daughter and heiress of Sir Jeffery Burwell, of Rougham, in Suffolk.
Walpole obtained the lucrative if unimportant post of paymastergeneral of the forces in the administration which was formed under the nominal rule of Lord Halifax, but of which Stanhope and Townshend were the guiding spirits.
Horace Walpole died unmarried on the 2nd of March 1797, when the earldom became extinct, but the barony of Walpole of Walpole passed to his cousin, Horatio (1723-1809), who had already succeeded his father, Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton in that barony.
Robert Walpole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3687 words)
Robert Walpole was born in Houghton Hall, Norfolk in 1676.
Walpole was impeached by the House of Commons and found guilty by the overwhelmingly Tory House of Lords; he was then imprisoned in the Tower of London for six months and expelled from Parliament.
Walpole continued to be an influential figure in the House of Commons; he was especially active in opposing one of the Government's more significant proposals, the Peerage Bill, which would have limited the power of the monarch to create new peerages.
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