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Encyclopedia > Robert Taft
Robert A. Taft


In office
January 3, 1939 - July 31, 1953
Preceded by Robert J. Bulkley
Succeeded by Thomas A. Burke

In office
January 3, 1953 – July 31, 1953
Preceded by Ernest McFarland
Succeeded by William F. Knowland

Born September 8, 1889(1889-09-08)
Died July 31, 1953 (aged 63)
New York City
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Martha Wheaton Bowers

Robert Alphonso Taft (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a Republican United States Senator and as a prominent conservative spokesman was the leading opponent of the New Deal in the Senate from 1939 to 1953. He led the successful effort by the Conservative coalition to curb the power of labor unions. He failed in his quest to win the Presidential nomination of the candidate of the Republican Party in 1940, 1948 and 1952. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x745, 360 KB)Robert A. Taft by Rudolf Anton Bernatschke (1913 - Present) Oil on canvas, 1953 Sight measurement Height: 29. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Johns Bulkley (October 8, 1880 - July 21, 1965) was a United States Democratic Party politician from Ohio. ... Thomas A. Burke (October 30, 1898 - December 5, 1971) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest William McFarland (1894 - 1984), an American politician and the Father of the G.I. Bill, is the only American to serve in the highest office in all three branches of government--two at the state level, one at the federal level. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Robert Alphonso Bob Taft II (born January 8, 1942) served as a Republican governor of the U.S. state of Ohio from 1999-2007. ... Robert Taft (generally known as Robert Taft Jr. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taft family hails from Cincinnati, Ohio; its members have served Ohio and the United States in various positions, such as Governor of Ohio, U.S. Senator (two), U.S. Representative, Attorney General, Secretary of War (two), President, and Chief Justice. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...

Contents

Family

He was the grandson of Attorney General and Secretary of War Alphonso Taft, and son of President and Chief Justice William H. Taft and Helen Herron Taft. As a boy he spent four years in the Philippines, where his father was governor. Known throughout his life for his brilliant grasp of complexity, he was first in his class at The Taft School (run by his uncle), at Yale College (1910) and at Harvard Law School (1913), where he edited the Harvard Law Review. After finishing first in his class at Yale and Harvard Law School, he practiced for four years with the firm of Maxwell and Ramsey (now Graydon Head & Ritchey LLP) in Cincinnati, Ohio, his family's ancestral city. After a two-year stint in Washington, working for the federal Food Administration, he returned to Cincinnati, opened his own law office, and ran and was elected to the state legislature. In 1924, he and his brother Charlie helped form the law partnership Taft, Stettinius, and Hollister, with whom he continued to be associated until his death and which continues to carry his name today. Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Alphonso Taft (November 5, 1810 – May 21, 1891) was the Attorney General and Secretary of War under President Ulysses S. Grant and the founder of an American political dynasty. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... Helen Herron Taft Helen Louise Herron Taft (June 2, 1861 – May 22, 1943), usually known as Nellie Taft or Helen Taft, was the wife of William Howard Taft, was First Lady of the United States from 1909 to 1913. ... Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the chief political executive during two pre-independence phases in the history of the Philippines, under Spanish and U.S. rule. ... The Taft School is a private coeducational prep school located in Watertown, Connecticut, USA. The School was founded by Horace Dutton Taft in 1890. ... For other uses, see Yale (disambiguation). ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... The Harvard Law Review is a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... Taft, Stettinius & Hollister LLP is a corporate law firm, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. ...


On October 17, 1914, he married Martha Wheaton Bowers, the heiress daughter of Lloyd Wheaton Bowers, who had served as his father's solicitor general. Taft himself appeared taciturn and coldly intellectual, characteristics that were offset by his gregarious wife, who served the same role his mother had for his father, as a confident and powerful asset to her husband's political career. They had four sons including Robert Taft Jr. (1917-1993), who was elected to the Senate; Horace Dwight Taft, who became a professor of physics and dean at Yale; and William Howard Taft III (1915-1991), who became ambassador to Ireland. Taft's grandson Robert Alphonso Taft II was the Governor of Ohio from 1999-2007. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lloyd Wheaton Bowers was born March 9, 1859, in Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of Samuel Dwight and Martha Wheaton (Dowd) Bowers. ... Robert Taft (generally known as Robert Taft Jr. ... William Howard Taft III (born 1915; died 1991) was the grandson of William Howard Taft and served as U.S. ambassador to Ireland from 1953 to 1957. ... Robert Alphonso Bob Taft II (born January 8, 1942) served as a Republican governor of the U.S. state of Ohio from 1999-2007. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ...


Early public career

Robert A. Taft

Rejected by the army for poor eyesight, in 1917 he joined the legal staff of the Food and Drug Administration where he met Herbert Hoover who became his idol. In 1918-1919 he was in Paris as legal adviser for the American Relief Administration, Hoover's agency which distributed food to war-torn Europe. He learned to distrust governmental bureaucracy as inefficient and detrimental to the rights of the individual, principles he promoted throughout his career. He distrusted the League of Nations, and European politicians generally. He strongly endorsed the idea of a powerful World Court that would enforce international law, but no such idealized court ever existed during his lifetime. He returned to Ohio in late 1919, promoted Hoover for president, and opened a law firm with his brother Charles Phelps Taft II. In 1920 he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives, where he served as Speaker of the House in 1926. In 1930 he was elected to the state senate, but was defeated for reelection in 1932. As an efficiency-oriented progressive, he worked to modernize the state's antiquated tax laws. He was an outspoken opponent of the Ku Klux Klan; he did not support prohibition. Image File history File links Official portrait of Senator Robert Taft http://bioguide. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... American Relief Administration was an American relief mission to Europe and later Soviet Russia after World War I. Herbert Hoover, future president of the United States, was the program director. ... Charles Phelps Taft (September 20, 1897-1983), U.S. Republican Party politician and member of the Taft family, From 1955 to 1957, he served as Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Ohio has a bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, consisting a House of Representatives and Senate (the Ohio State Senate), based on its constitution of 1851. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ...


Throughout the 1920s and 1930s Taft was a powerful figure in local and state political and legal circles, and was known as a loyal Republican who never threatened to bolt the party. He confessed in 1922 that "while I have no difficulty talking, I don't know how to do any of the eloquence business which makes for enthusiasm or applause" [Taft Papers 1:271].) A lackluster speaker who did not mix well or glad-hand supporters, nevertheless Taft was a tireless worker with a broad range of policy and political interests. His total grasp of the complex details of every issue impressed reporters and politicians. (Democrats joked that "Taft has the best mind in Washington, until he makes it up.")


U.S. Senator

Taft was elected to the first of his three terms as U.S. Senator in the election of 1938. Cooperating with conservative southern Democrats, he led the Conservative Coalition that opposed the "New Deal." The expansion of the New Deal had been stopped and Taft saw his mission to roll it back, bringing efficiency to government and letting business restore the economy. The New Deal was "socialistic" he proclaimed, as he attacked deficit spending, high farm subsidies, governmental bureaucracy, and the National Labor Relations Board. He did support social security and public housing, while attacking federal health insurance. Taft set forward a conservative program oriented toward economic growth, individual economic opportunity, adequate social welfare, strong national defense, and non-involvement in European wars. Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1938 was an election for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of Franklin Delano Roosevelts second term. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ...


Taft was re-elected again in 1944 and in 1950, after high-profile contests fighting organized labor. He became chairman of the Senate Republican Conference in 1944. Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1944 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the reelection of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to his fourth term as President. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1950 was an election for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of Harry Trumans second term as President. ... The Senate Republican Conference is the formal organization of the (currently) 51 Republican Senators in the United States Senate. ...


Taft was a contender for the GOP presidential nomination in 1940, losing to charismatic Wendell Willkie. As a U.S. senator, he was given the nickname "Mr. Republican"; he was the chief ideologue and spokesperson for the paleoconservatism of the Republican Party of that era.[citation needed] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As a leader of the Old Right non-interventionist wing of the GOP he strove to keep the United States neutral during 1939-1941, and opposed the draft. He supported the general principles of the America First Committee but did not join it. However, he strongly supported the war effort after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. The Old Right refers to separate political groups in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...


Condemnation of the Nuremberg Trials

Taft condemned the Nuremberg Trials as victors' justice in which the people who won the war were the prosecutors, the judges and the alleged victims, all at the same time. The Nuremberg trials invented charges for the occasion. Taft condemned the trials as a violation of the most basic principles of American justice and internationally accepted standards of justice.[citation needed] For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


1947 Taft-Hartley Labor Act

When the Republicans gained control of Congress in 1946, he focused on labor-management relations as chair of the Senate Labor Committee. Decrying the effect of the Wagner Act in tilting the balance toward labor, he wrote and passed over Truman's veto the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act, which remains the basic labor law as of 2006. It bans "unfair" union practices, outlaws closed shops, and authorizes the President to seek federal court injunctions to impose an eighty-day cooling-off period if a strike threatened the national interest. National Labor Relations Act - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... A closed shop is a business or industrial establishment whose employees are required to be union members as a precondition to employment. ...


Taft was reluctant in his support of farm subsidies, a position that hurt the GOP in the farm belt. Moving a bit to the left, he supported federal aid to education (which did not pass) and cosponsored the Taft-Wagner-Ellender Housing Act to subsidize public housing in inner cities. In terms of foreign policy he was non-interventionist and did not see Stalin's Soviet Union as a major threat. Nor did he pay much attention to internal Communism. The true danger he said was big government and runaway spending. He supported the Truman Doctrine, reluctantly approved the Marshall Plan, and opposed NATO as unnecessary and provocative. He took the lead condemning President Harry S. Truman's handling of the Korean War. The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


Presidential ambitions

Taft sought the GOP nomination in 1948 but it went to his arch-rival, Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York. Taft relied on a national core of loyalists, but had trouble breaking through to independents, and hated to raise money. Taft tried again in 1952, using a strong party base. He promised his supporters that he would name Douglas MacArthur as candidate for Vice President, but was defeated by Dwight Eisenhower. After the convention Taft issued a brief statement conveying his congratulations and support to Eisenhower. Thereafter, however, he brooded in silence at his summer home in Quebec. As the weeks passed, Eisenhower's aides worried that the Taft forces would sit on their hands during the campaign. In September they finally arranged a meeting between the two leaders, at Morningside Heights in New York City. There, in order to gain Taft's support in the campaign, Eisenhower promised he would take no reprisals against Taft partisans, would cut federal spending, and would fight "creeping socialism in every domestic field." All along Eisenhower agreed with Taft on most domestic issues; their dramatic difference was in foreign policy. Eisenhower firmly believed in NATO and committed the U.S. to an active anti-Communist foreign policy. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Morningside Heights is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City and is bound by the Upper West Side, Morningside Park, Harlem, and Riverside Park (some now consider it part of the Upper West Side). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Taft served as Senate Majority Leader in 1953, and he strongly supported Eisenhower's domestic proposals. He worked hard to assist the inexperienced new officials of the administration. He even tried–with little success–to curb the excesses of McCarthyism. By April the President and Taft were friends and golfing companions, and Taft was praising his former adversary. Defeat in 1952, it seemed, had softened Taft. No longer burdened by presidential ambitions, he had become less partisan, less abrasive, and more conciliatory. A Senate Majority Leader is a politician within a Senate who leads the majority party, or majority coalition, of sitting senators. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...


Death and legacy

After contracting cancer in April 1953, Taft continued to work hard, but an exploratory operation in July revealed that the cancer was widespread. After a brain hemorrhage Taft died in a New York hospital on July 31, depriving the new administration of its ablest supporter on Capitol Hill. He is buried at Indian Hill Episcopal Church Cemetery in Cincinnati. “Cincinnati” redirects here. ...


In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of their greatest Senate predecessors whose oval portraits would adorn the President's Room off the Senate floor. Kennedy would profile him in his book Profiles in Courage. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Profiles in Courage book cover Profiles in Courage is a book written by John F. Kennedy, describing acts of bravery and integrity by eight United States Senators from throughout the Senates history. ...


Memorial

The Robert A. Taft Memorial, featuring a 10-foot statue and a bell tower, is located north of the Capitol on Constitution Avenue. The inscription on the tower reads: Robert A. Taft Memorial seen from the Northeast The Robert A. Taft Memorial is a memorial with a bell tower dedicated to Robert A. Taft, son of President William Howard Taft. ...

This Memorial to Robert A. Taft, presented by the people to the Congress of the United States, stands as a tribute to the honesty, indomitable courage, and high principles of free government symbolized by his life.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Robert A Taft Club

Founded in 2006, the Robert A Taft Club describes itself as offering "lively debate on issues that the typical beltway conservative movement and The Conservative movement often avoids." [2] The Robert A Taft Club is a conservative organization associated with Pat Buchanans The American Cause. ...


References

Secondary sources

  • Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972), standard scholarly biography
  • Ronald Radosh. Prophets on the right: Profiles of conservative critics of American globalism (1978)
  • White; William S. The Taft Story (1954). Pulitzer prize
  • Wunderlin, Clarence E. Robert A Taft: Ideas, Tradition, And Party In U.S. Foreign Policy (2005).
  • "Robert Alphonso Taft". Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 5: 1951-1955. American Council of Learned Societies, 1977.

Primary sources

  • Kirk, Russell and James McClellan, eds. The Political Principles of Robert A. Taft (1967).
  • Wunderlin, Clarence E. Jr., et al. eds. The Papers of Robert A. Taft vol 1, 1889-1939 (1998); vol 2; 1940-1944 (2001); vol 3 1945-1948 (2003); vol 4, 1949-1953 (2006).
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Robert Taft
Preceded by
Robert J. Bulkley
United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
1939–1953
Served alongside: A. Victor Donahey, Harold H. Burton, James W. Huffman, Kingsley A. Taft, John W. Bricker
Succeeded by
Thomas A. Burke
Preceded by
Ernest McFarland
United States Senate Majority Leader
1953
Succeeded by
William F. Knowland
Preceded by
John J. Pershing
Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States Capitol rotunda
August 23 August 1953
Succeeded by
Unknown Soldiers of World War II and the Korean War

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon (308 words)
The Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon is located north of the Capitol, on Constitution Avenue between New Jersey Avenue and First Street, N.W. Designed by architect Douglas W. Orr, the memorial consists of a Tennessee marble tower and a 10-foot bronze statue of Senator Taft sculpted by Wheeler Williams.
Robert A. Taft was born on September 8, 1889, in Cincinnati, Ohio; his father, William Howard Taft, was the only person to serve as both President of the United States and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Robert Taft was elected to the Senate in 1938 and served until his death in New York on July 31, 1953.
Robert A. Taft: A Who2 Profile (156 words)
Taft is most famous for his steady opposition to Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal policies, and for sponsoring the Taft-Hartley Labor Relations Act of 1947.
Taft was the son of Helen Herron Taft and William Howard Taft, U.S. president from 1909-1913.
Robert Taft stood for the GOP presidential nomination three different times, but never received the nomination; in 1952 he was considered a frontrunner but was defeated by war hero Dwight Eisenhower.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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