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Encyclopedia > Robert Sobukwe

Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. In 2004 he was voted 42nd in the SABC3's Great South Africans. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...

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Early years

Sobukwe was born in Graaff-Reinet in the Cape Province on the 5 December 1924. He came from a poor household and was educated locally. He attended a Methodist college at Healdtown and later Fort Hare University where he joined the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in 1948. Graaff Reinet, a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, 185 miles by rail NW by N of Port Elizabeth. ... Under the Union of South Africa and after that under the Republic of South Africa, the old Cape Colony became the Cape of Good Hope Province (though it was commonly known as the Cape Province). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party supported by a tripartite alliance between itself, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... The African National Congress Youth League is the youth wing of the African National Congress. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

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Mainstream politics

In 1952 Sobukwe achieved notoriety backing the Defiance Campaign. He identified with the Africanists within the ANC and in 1957 left the ANC to become Editor of The Africanist newspaper in Johannesburg. He was a strong believer in an Africanist future for South Africa and rejected any model suggesting working with anyone other than blacks in RSA. He later left the ANC and formed the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), where he was elected its first President in 1959. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Defiance Campaign was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951. ... ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... , City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Robert Sobukwe became known as the Professor to his close compatriots and followers. This was witness to his educational achievements and powers of speech. He spoke of the need for black South Africans to "liberate themselves" without the help of non-blacks. His strong conviction and active resistance inspired generations of South Africans, and also inspired many organizations involved in the anti-apartheid movement, notably the Black Consciousness Movement. The Black Consciousness Movement was a movement which called for non-violent black resistance to the Apartheid government in South Africa. ...

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Internment

On 21 March 1960, Sobukwe led a march to the local police station at Orlando, South Africa in order to openly defy the Pass Law. He was joined on route by a few followers and, after presenting his pass to a police officer, he purposely made himself guilty under the terms of the Pass Law for being present in a region/area other than that allowed in his papers. As a result, Sobukwe and most of those present were arrested. He was sentenced to three years and after serving his sentence was immediately captured and re-imprisoned, this time on Robben Island. Sobukwe was held without trial under the terms of the General Law Amendment Act for a further six years. His charge was incitement, and this procedure became known as the "Sobukwe clause". March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and were one of the dominant features of the countrys apartheid system. ... Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and were one of the dominant features of the countrys apartheid system. ... Prison buildings on Robben Island. ...

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Robben Island imprisonment

Sobukwe was kept in solitary confinement but permitted certain privileges including books, newspapers, civilian clothes, bread etc. He lived in a separate area on the Island where he had no contact with other prisoners. The only contacts were his secret hand signals whilst outside for exercise. Despite this he succeeded in giving his approval to the external PAC to adopt a Maoist political program. He studied during this time and received among others a degree in economics from the University of London. The University of London is a federation of colleges and institutes which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ...


It is speculated that the South African administration had profiled Robert Sobukwe as a more radical and difficult opponent than the regular ANC prisoners.

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Kimberley: internal exile

Sobukwe was released in 1969. He was allowed to live in Kimberley with his family but remained under house arrest. Kimberley was suggested as an area where he could not easily foster subversive activities and also a place where he could live and work, whilst being easily monitored by the state. He was also restricted due to a banning order, which disallowed political activities. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Kimberley is a town in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. ...


Various restrictions barred Sobukwe from travelling overseas, thus curtailing his attempts at furthering his education. For this same reason he had to turn down several positions as a teacher at various locations in the United States.


Robert Sobukwe finished his Law degree with the help of a local lawyer, in Galeshewe. On completion he then started his own practice in 1975 in Kimberley. Galeshewe is a township located in the Sol Plaatje Municipality, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...

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Illness and death

Due to lung cancer, he was hospitalised in 1977. His doctors requested that the authorities allow him freedom of movement on humanitarian grounds. This request was refused. He died on 27 February 1978, and buried in Graaf-Reinet on 11 March 1978. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Graaff Reinet, a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, 185 miles by rail NW by N of Port Elizabeth. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

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External links

  • Robert Sobukwe - Leader of the Africanist

  Results from FactBites:
 
Article about "Robert Sobukwe" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (581 words)
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe was born in Graaff-Reinet in the Cape Province in 1924.
Sobukwe was kept in solitary confinement but permitted certain privileges including books, newspapers civilian clothes, bread etc. He lived in a separate area on the Island where he had no contact to other prisoners.
Robert Sobukwe refused to be totally tied down so to say, and finished his Law degree with the help of a local lawyer, in Galeshewe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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