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Encyclopedia > Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann,[1] sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann,[2] (June 8, 1810July 29, 1856) was a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is one of the most famous Romantic composers of the 19th century. There have been several people named Robert Schumann: Robert Schumann (1810–1856), a German composer of the 19th century. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... Robert Schumann This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Robert Schumann This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική meaning a perceiver or sensitive) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... A music critic is someone who reviews music (including printed music, performances and recorded music) and publishes writing on them in books or journals (or on the internet). ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ...


He had hoped to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist, having been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe after only a few years of study with him. However, a hand injury prevented those hopes from being realized, and he decided to focus his musical energies on composition. His published compositions were, until 1840, all for the piano; he later composed works for piano and orchestra, many lieder (songs for voice and piano), four symphonies, an opera, and other orchestral, choral and chamber works. His writings about music appeared mostly in Die neue Zeitschrift für Musik ("The New Journal for Music"), a Leipzig-based publication that he jointly founded. For other uses, see Virtuoso (disambiguation). ... (Johann Gottlob) Friedrich Wieck (August 18, 1785 - October 6, 1873) was a noted German piano and voice teacher, and the father of Clara Wieck Schumann. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ...


In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with her father, he married pianist Clara Wieck, a considerable figure of the Romantic period in her own right. For the last two years of his life, after an attempted suicide, Schumann was confined to a mental institution. Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Schumann was born in Zwickau, Saxony the fifth and last child of the family.[3] His father was a bookseller, and his boyhood was spent in the cultivation of literature quite as much as it was spent in music. Schumann himself said that he had begun to compose before the age of seven. Zwickau is a city of Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony (Sachsen), situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge, on the left bank of the Zwickauer Mulde, 130 km (82 miles) southwest of Dresden, south of Leipzig and south west of Chemnitz. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ...

House where Schumann was born
House where Schumann was born

At the age of 14, he wrote an essay on the aesthetics of music and also contributed to a volume, edited by his father, titled "Portraits of Famous Men". While still at school in Zwickau he read the works of the German poet-philosophers Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as well as Byron and the Greek tragedians. His most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, and Selene. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2152x1632, 2194 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2152x1632, 2194 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Byron redirects here. ... Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a famous German humorist. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ...


Schumann's interest in music was piqued as a child by the sounds of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Carlsbad, and even more by the works of Franz Schubert and Felix Mendelssohn later. His father, however, who had encouraged the boy's musical aspirations, died in 1826, and neither his mother nor his guardian would encourage a career for him in music. In 1828 he left school, and after a tour, during which he met Heinrich Heine in Munich, he went to Leipzig to study law. In 1829 his law studies continued in Heidelberg. Ignaz Moscheles, from a portrait by his son Felix. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


1830–1834

During Easter, 1830 he heard Niccolò Paganini play in Frankfurt. In July he wrote to his mother, "My whole life has been a struggle between Poetry and Prose, or call it Music and Law." By Christmas he was back in Leipzig, taking piano lessons from his old master, Friedrich Wieck who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist. Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... (Johann Gottlob) Friedrich Wieck (August 18, 1785 - October 6, 1873) was a noted German piano and voice teacher, and the father of Clara Wieck Schumann. ...


During his studies with Wieck, Schumann permanently injured his right hand. Another authority states that his right-hand disability was caused by syphilis medication. Those who claim the former state that he attempted a radical surgical procedure to separate the tendons of the fourth finger from those of the third (the ring finger musculature is linked to that of the third finger, thus making it the "weakest" finger). Another, less dramatic view is that he damaged his finger by the use of a mechanism of his own invention, which was to hold back one finger while he practiced exercises with the others. As a result of the injury, Schumann devoted himself to composition and began a course of theory under Heinrich Dorn, the conductor of the Leipzig opera. About this time he contemplated composing an opera on the subject of Hamlet. For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...


Papillons

The fusion of the literary idea with its musical illustration, which may be said to have first taken shape in Papillons (op. 2), is foreshadowed to some extent in the first criticism by Schumann, an essay on Frédéric Chopin's variations on a theme from Mozart's Don Giovanni, which appeared in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in 1831. Here the work is discussed by the imaginary characters Florestan (the embodiment of Schumann's passionate, voluble side) and Eusebius (his dreamy, introspective side) – the counterparts of Vult and Walt in Jean Paul's novel Flegeljahre. A third, Meister Raro, is called upon for his opinion. Raro may represent either the composer himself, Wieck's daughter Clara, or the combination of the two (Clara + Robert). Papillons, Op. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a famous German humorist. ...

However, by the time Schumann had written Papillons in 1831 he went a step further. The scenes and characters of his favorite novel had now passed definitely and consciously into the written music, and in a letter from Leipzig (April 1832) he bids his brothers "read the last scene in Jean Paul's Flegeljahre as soon as possible, because the Papillons are intended as a musical representation of that masquerade." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1608x2430, 1924 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1608x2430, 1924 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...


In the winter of 1832 Schumann visited his relations at Zwickau and Schneeberg, where he performed the first movement of his Symphony in G minor. In Zwickau, the music was played at a concert given by Wieck's daughter Clara, who was only thirteen then. The death of his brother Julius as well as that of his sister-in-law Rosalie in 1833 seems to have affected Schumann with a profound melancholy, leading to his first apparent attempt at suicide. Zwickau is a city of Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony (Sachsen), situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge, on the left bank of the Zwickauer Mulde, 130 km (82 miles) southwest of Dresden, south of Leipzig and south west of Chemnitz. ... Schneeberg is a town in the Aue-Schwarzenberg district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ...


Die neue Zeitschrift für Musik

By the spring of 1834, Schumann had sufficiently recovered to inaugurate Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik ("New Journal in Music"), first published on 3 April 1834. Schumann published most of his critical writings in the Journal, and often lambasted the popular taste for flashy technical displays from figures Schumann perceived as inferior composers. Schumann campaigned to revive interest in major composers of the past, including Mozart, Beethoven and Weber, while he also promoted the work of some contemporary composers, including Chopin and Berlioz, whom he praised for creating music of substance. On the other hand, Schumann disparaged the school of Liszt and Wagner. Amongst his associates were the composers Ludwig Schunke, the dedicatee of Schumann's Toccata in C, and Norbert Burgmüller. Front page banner of NZM, issue of 30April 1850 Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (English - New Journal of Music) was a music magazine published in Leipzig, founded by Robert Schumann. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Liszt redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Norbert Burgmüller (Düsseldorf, February 8, 1810 – Aachen, May 7, 1836) was a German composer. ...


Schumann's editorial duties, which kept him occupied during the summer of 1834, were interrupted[citation needed] by his relations with Ernestine von Fricken, a girl of 16, to whom he became engaged. She was the adopted daughter of a rich Bohemian, from whose variations on a theme Schumann constructed his own Symphonic Etudes. The engagement was broken off by Schumann, due to the burgeoning of his love for the 15-year-old Clara Wieck. Flirtatious exchanges in the spring of 1835 led to their first kiss on the steps outside Wieck’s house in November and mutual declarations of love the next month in Zwickau, where Clara appeared in concert. Having learned in August that Ernestine von Fricken’s was of illegitimate birth, which meant that she would have no dowry, and fearful that her limited means would force him to earn his living like a ‘day-labourer’, Schumann engineered a complete break towards the end of the year. But his idyll with Clara was soon brought to an unceremonious end. When her father became aware of their nocturnal trysts during the Christmas holidays, he summarily forbade them further meetings. The Symphonic Etudes, Op. ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896), wife of composer Robert Schumann, was one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era as well as a composer. ...


Carnaval

Robert Schumann in 1839.
Robert Schumann in 1839.

Carnaval (op. 9, 1834) is one of Schumann's most genial and most characteristic piano works. Schumann begins nearly every section of Carnaval with the musical notes signified in German by the letters that spell Asch (A, E-flat, C, and B, or alternatively A-flat, C, and B), the town (then in Bohemia, now in the Czech Republic) in which Ernestine was born, and the notes are also the musical letters in Schumann's own name. Schumann named sections for both Ernestine von Fricken ("Estrella") and Clara Wieck ("Chiarina"). Eusebius and Florestan, the imaginary figures appearing so often in his critical writings, also appear, alongside brilliant imitations of Chopin and Paganini. The work comes to a close with a march of the Davidsbündler — the league of the men of David against the Philistines in which may be heard the clear accents of truth in contest with the dull clamour of falsehood embodied in a quotation from the seventeenth century Grandfather's Dance. In Carnaval, Schumann went further than in Papillons, for in it he himself conceived the story for which it was the musical illustration. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1159, 146 KB) Summary Robert Schumann, Wien 1839 Lithographie by Joseph Kriehuber Schumann 1849: Von meinen Bildern taugt keines viel, etwa das von Kriehuber ausgenommen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1159, 146 KB) Summary Robert Schumann, Wien 1839 Lithographie by Joseph Kriehuber Schumann 1849: Von meinen Bildern taugt keines viel, etwa das von Kriehuber ausgenommen. ... Robert Schumanns Carnaval, op. ... AÅ¡ (IPA: , German: ) is a city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Frédéric François Chopin as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix in 1838. ... Niccolò Paganini Niccolò Paganini, (Genoa, October 27, 1782 - Nice, May 27, 1840) was a violinist and composer. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


1835–39

On October 3, 1835, Schumann met Mendelssohn at Wieck's house in Leipzig, and his appreciation of his great contemporary was shown with the same generous freedom that distinguished him in all his relations to other musicians, and which later enabled him to recognize the genius of Johannes Brahms, whom he first met in 1853 before he had established a reputation. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


In 1836 Schumann's acquaintance with Clara Wieck, already famous as a pianist, ripened into love. A year later he asked her father's consent to their marriage, but was refused.


In the series Fantasiestücke for the piano (op. 12) he once more gives a sublime illustration of the fusion of literary and musical ideas as embodied conceptions in such pieces as Warum and In der Nacht. After he had written the latter of these two he detected in the music the fanciful suggestion of a series of episodes from the story of Hero and Leander. The collection begins (in Des Abends) with a notable example of Schumann's predeliction for rhythmic ambiguity, as unrelieved syncopation plays heavily against the time signature just as in the first movement of Fasschingschwank aus Wien. After a nicely told fable, and the appropriately titled "Whirring Dreams," the whole collection ends on an introspective note in the manner of Eusebius. Robert Schumanns Fantasiestücke, Op. ... The Last Watch of Hero by Frederic Leighton, depicting Hero anxiously waiting for Leander during the storm. ...

Clara Schumann, "One of the most soulful and famous pianists of the day", said Edvard Grieg

The Kinderszenen, completed in 1838, a favourite of Schumann's piano works, is playful and childlike, and in a wonderfully fresh way captures the innocence of childhood. The Träumerei is one of the most famous piano pieces ever written, and exists in myriad forms and transcriptions, and has been the favourite encore of several artists, including Vladimir Horowitz. Although deceptively simple, Alban Berg, in reply to charges that modern music was overly complex, pointed out that this piece is in no way as simple as it appears in its harmonic structure. The whole collection is deceptive in its simplicity, yet genuinely touching and refreshing. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1511x2063, 1605 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1511x2063, 1605 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Robert Schumanns Kinderszenen (Scenes From Childhood), op. ... Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American[1][2] pianist. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ...


The Kreisleriana, which is considered one of his greatest works, was also written in 1838, and in this the composer's fantasy and emotional range is again carried a step further. Johannes Kreisler, the romantic poet brought into contact with the real world, was a character drawn from life: the poet E. T. A. Hoffmann (q.v.), and Schumann utilized him as an imaginary mouthpiece for the sonic expression of emotional states, in music that is "fantastic and mad". Kreisleriana, an early work of Robert Schumann, is an 8 movement piece for solo piano, entitled Phantasien für das Pianoforte. ... Johannes Kreisler is the name of a character in three novels by E.T.A. Hoffmann: Kreisleriana (1813), Johannes Kreisler, des Kapellmeisters Musikalische Leiden (1815), Lebensansichten des Katers Murr nebst Fragmentarischer Biographie des Kapellmeisters Johannes Kreisler in Zufälligen Makulaturblättern (1822). ... This article is about the author and critic known as E. T. A. Hoffmann. ...


The Fantasia in C (Op. 17), written in the summer of 1836, is a work of passion and deep pathos, imbued with the spirit of late Beethoven. This is no doubt deliberate, since the proceeds from sales of the work were initially intended to be contributed towards the construction of a monument to Beethoven. According to Liszt, (Strelezki: Personal Recollections of Chats with Liszt) who played the work to the composer, and to whom the work was dedicated, the Fantasy was apt to be played too heavily, and should have a dreamier (träumerisch) character than vigorous German pianists tended to labour. He also said, "It is a noble work, worthy of Beethoven, whose career, by the way, it is supposed to represent."[4]


After a visit to Vienna during which he discovered Schubert's previously unknown Symphony No. 9 in C, in 1839 Schumann wrote the Faschingsschwank aus Wien, i.e. the Carnival Prank from Vienna. Most of the joke is in the central section of the first movement, into which a thinly veiled reference to the “Marseillaise”—then banned in Vienna—is squeezed. The festive mood does not preclude moments of melancholic introspection in the Intermezzo. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Schubert redirects here. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural programme of the Arc de Triomphe. ...


In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with her father, Schuman married Clara Wieck on September 12, 1840, at Schönefeld. Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1840–49

Before 1840, Schumann had written almost exclusively for the piano, but in this one year he wrote 168 songs. Schumann's biographers have attributed the sweetness, the doubt and the despair of these songs to the varying emotions aroused by his love for Clara.[citation needed] This mawkish view is treated with skepticism by modern scholars,[citation needed] especially since Dichterliebe, with its themes of rejection and acceptance, was written when his marriage was no longer in doubt. Robert and Clara were to have seven children.

His chief song-cycles of this period were his settings of the Liederkreis of J. von Eichendorff (op. 39), the Frauenliebe und -leben of Chamisso (op. 42), the Dichterliebe of Heine (op. 48) and Myrthen, a collection of songs, including poems by Goethe, Rückert, Heine, Byron, Burns and Moore. The songs Belsatzar (op. 57) and Die beiden Grenadiere (op. 49), each to Heine's words, show Schumann at his best as a ballad writer, though the dramatic ballad is less congenial to him than the introspective lyric. The opus 35 (to words of Justinus Kerner) and opus 40 sets, although less well known, also contain songs of lyric and dramatic quality. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1199x1194, 729 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1199x1194, 729 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Liederkreis is a song cycle with music by Robert Schumann and words by Joseph von Eichendorff. ... Freiherr Joseph von Eichendorff (March 10, 1788 - November 26, 1857), German lyricist and narrator. ... Frauenliebe und -leben (A Womans Life and Love) is a song cycle with music by Robert Schumann and words by Adelbert von Chamisso. ... Wikibooks has more on the topic of Dichterliebe Composed in 1840, Dichterliebe Op. ... Justinus Kerner in old age Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner (September 18, 1786 - February 21, 1862), was a German poet and medical writer. ...

As Grillparzer said, "He has made himself a new ideal world in which he moves almost as he wills". Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer (January 15, 1791 - January 21, 1872), Austrian dramatic poet, was born in Vienna. ...

Despite his achievements, Schumann received few tokens of honour; he was awarded a doctoral degree by the University of Jena in 1840, and in 1843 a professorship in the Conservatorium of Leipzig, which had been founded that year by Felix Mendelssohn. On one occasion, accompanying his wife on a concert tour in Russia, Schumann was asked whether 'he too was a musician'. This and other insults left a mark on Schumann's delicate psyche.[citation needed]


In 1841 he wrote two of his four symphonies. The year 1842 he devoted to the composition of chamber music, which included the piano quintet (op. 44), now one of his best known and most admired works. In 1843 he wrote Paradise and the Peri, his first essay at concerted vocal music. After this, his compositions were not confined during any particular period to any one form. The Piano Quintet by Robert Schumann was written in 1842. ... Paradise and the Peri (German title Das Paradies und die Peri) is an oratorio for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Robert Schumann. ...


The stage in his life when he was deeply engaged in his music to Goethe's Faust (1844–53) was a critical one for his health. The first half of the year 1844 had been spent with his wife in Russia. On returning to Germany he had abandoned his editorial work, and left Leipzig for Dresden, where he suffered from what was referred to as persistent “nervous prostration”. As soon as he began to work he was seized with fits of shivering and an apprehension of death, which was exhibited in an abhorrence for high places, for all metal instruments (even keys), and for drugs. Schumann's diaries also state that he suffered perpetually from imagining that he had the note A sounding in his ears. In 1846 he had recovered and in the winter revisited Vienna, traveling to Prague and Berlin in the spring of 1847 and in the summer to Zwickau, where he was received with enthusiasm--gratifying because Dresden and Leipzig were the only large cities in which his fame was at this time appreciated. For other uses, see Faust (disambiguation). ... Brühls Terrace and the Frauenkirche Dresden [ˈdreːsdn̩] (Sorbian/Lusatian Drježdźany), the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


To 1848 belongs his only opera, Genoveva (op. 81), a work containing much beautiful music, but lacking dramatic force. It is interesting for its attempt to abolish the recitative, which Schumann regarded as an interruption to the musical flow. The subject of Genoveva, based on Johann Ludwig Tieck and Hebbel, was in itself not a particularly happy choice; but it is worth remembering that as early as 1842 the possibilities of German opera had been keenly realized by Schumann, who wrote, "Do you know my prayer as an artist, night and morning? It is called 'German Opera'. Here is a real field for enterprise [...] something simple, profound, German". And in his notebook of suggestions for the text of operas are found amongst others: Nibelungen, Lohengrin and Til Eulenspiegel. Schumann's consistently flowing melody in this work can be seen as a forerunner to Wagner's Melos. Genoveva is an opera in four acts by Robert Schumann in the genre of German Romanticism with a libretto by the composer. ... Johann Ludwig Tieck (May 31, 1773 - April 28, 1853) was a German poet, translator, editor, novelist and critic, who was part of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ...


The music to Byron's Manfred is preeminent in a year (1849) in which he wrote more than in any other. The insurrection of Dresden caused Schumann to move to Kreischa, a little village a few miles outside the city. In August of this year, on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of Goethe's birth, such scenes of Schumann's Faust as were already completed were performed in Dresden, Leipzig and Weimar, Liszt, as always giving unwearied assistance and encouragement. The rest of the work was written in the latter part of the year, and the overture in 1853. This overture Schumann described as "one of the sturdiest of my creations". Scene from Manfred by Thomas Cole Manfred is a dramatic poem written in 1816-1817 by Lord Byron; it contains supernatural elements, in keeping with the popularity of the ghost story in England at the time. ... Kreischa is a place in the Weißeritzkreis district, Saxony, Germany. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


After 1850

From 1850 to 1854, the nature of Schumann's works is extremely varied. The popular belief that the quality of his music quickly decayed has been questioned: the changes in style may be explained by lucid experimentation.[5]


In 1850 Schumann succeeded Ferdinand Hiller as musical director at Düsseldorf; Schumann was a poor conductor and quickly aroused the opposition of the musicians, leading eventually to the termination of his contract. From 1851 to 1853 he visited Switzerland and Belgium as well as Leipzig. In 1851 he completed his Rhenish Symphony, and he revised what would be published as his fourth symphony. On September 30, 1853, the 20-year-old Brahms knocked unannounced on the door of the Schumanns carrying a letter of introduction from the violinist Joseph Joachim; he amazed both Clara and Robert with his music, stayed with them for several weeks and became a close family friend. During this time Schumann, Brahms and Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich collaborated on the composition of the 'F-A-E' Sonata for the violinist Joseph Joachim; Schumann also published an article, “Neue Bahnen” (New Paths) hailing the unknown young composer from Hamburg, who had published nothing, as “the Chosen One” who would “give ideal expression to the Age.” It was an extraordinary way for Brahms to be presented to the musical world, setting up enormous expectations of him which he did not fulfill for many years. In January 1854, Schumann went to Hanover, where he heard a performance of his Paradise and the Peri organized by Joachim and Brahms. Ferdinand Hiller (October 24, 1811 - May 12, 1885), was a German composer of the romantic era. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Robert Schumanns Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... Joseph Joachim Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) (pronounced YO-a-chim) was a violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. ... Albert Hermann Dietrich (born 28 August 1829 at Golk, near Meissen; died 20 November 1908 in Berlin) was a German composer and conductor, remembered less for his own achievements than for his friendship with Johannes Brahms. ... The ‘F-A-E Sonata, a four-movement work for violin and piano, is an interesting example of a collaborative effort by three composers. ... Joseph Joachim Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) (pronounced YO-a-chim) was a violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


Soon after his return to Düsseldorf, where he was engaged in editing his complete works and making an anthology on the subject of music, a renewal of the symptoms that had threatened him earlier showed itself. Besides the single note, he now imagined that voices sounded in his ear and he heard angelic music. One night he suddenly left his bed, telling Clara that Schubert and Mendelssohn had sent him a theme — in truth, he was merely recalling his own violin concerto — which he must write down, and on this theme he wrote five variations for the piano, his last work. Brahms published the theme in a supplementary volume to the complete edition of Schumann's piano music, and in 1861 himself wrote a substantial set of variations upon it for piano duet, his op.23. Robert Schumann’s Violin Concerto in D minor, was his only violin concerto and one of his last significant compositions, and one that remained unknown to all but a very small circle for more than 80 years after it was written. ...


In late February Schumann's symptoms increased, the angelic visions sometimes being replaced by demonic visions. He warned Clara that he feared he might do her harm. On February 27, 1854, he attempted suicide by throwing himself from a bridge into the Rhine. Rescued by boatmen and taken home, he asked to be taken to an asylum for the insane. He entered Dr. Franz Richarz's sanitarium in Endenich, a quarter of Bonn, and remained there for more than two years, until his death. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ...


Given his reported symptoms, one modern view is that his death was a result of syphilis, which he may have contracted during his student days, and which would have remained latent during most of his marriage.[6] According to studies by the musicologist and literary scholar Eric Sams, Schumann's symptoms during his terminal illness and death appear consistent with those of mercury poisoning, mercury being a common treatment for syphilis and other conditions. Schumann died on July 29, 1856, and was buried at the Zentral Friedhof, Bonn. In 1880, a statue by Adolf von Donndorf was erected on his tomb. Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Eric Sams (1926—Sept. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


From the time of her husband's death, Clara devoted herself principally to the interpretation of her husband's works. In 1856, she first visited England, but the critics received Schumann's music coolly, with some critics such as Henry Fothergill Chorley particularly harsh in their disapproval. She returned to London in 1865 and made regular appearances there in subsequent years. She became the authoritative editor of her husband's works for Breitkopf und Härtel. It was rumored that she and Brahms destroyed many of Schumann's later works that they thought to be tainted by his madness. However, only the Five Pieces for Cello and Piano are known to have been destroyed.[citation needed] Most of Schumann's late works, particularly the violin concerto, the Fantasy for Violin and Orchestra and the third violin sonata, all from 1853, have entered the repertoire. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Henry Fothergill Chorley Henry Fothergill Chorley (1808 – February 16, 1872), English music critic, member of an old Lancashire family, began in a merchants office, but soon took to musical journalism. ... Breitkopf & Härtel is the worlds oldest music publishing house. ... Robert Schumann’s Violin Concerto in D minor, was his only violin concerto and one of his last significant compositions, and one that remained unknown to all but a very small circle for more than 80 years after it was written. ...


Legacy

Schumann exerted considerable influence in the nineteenth century and beyond, despite his adoption of more conservative modes of composition after his marriage. He left an array of acclaimed music in virtually all the forms then known. Partly through his protégé Brahms, Schumann's ideals and musical vocabulary became widely disseminated.[citation needed] Elgar called Schumann "my ideal".[citation needed] Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, Bt OM GCVO (June 2, 1857 – February 23, 1934) was a British composer, born in the small Worcestershire village of Broadheath to William Elgar, a piano tuner and music dealer, and his wife Ann. ...


Compositions

The following is a partial list of compositions by Robert Schumann. ...

Media

  • Fantasie C major op. 17 - Sempre Fantasticamente ed Appassionatamente
    Fantasie C major op. 17 - Moderato, Sempre energico
    Fantasie C major op. 17 - Lento sostenuto Sempre piano
    Schumann - Nänie
    (2.4 Mb)
    • Kinderszenen (Scenes From Childhood)
    1. Of Foreign Lands and Peoples (Von fremden Ländern und Menschen)
    Performed by Leonard Vertighel
    1. Of Foreign Lands and Peoples (Von fremden Ländern und Menschen)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    2. A Curious Story (Kuriose Geschichte)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    3. Blind Man's Buff (Hasche-Mann)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    4. Pleading Child (Bittendes Kind)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    5. Happiness (Glückes genug)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    6. An Important Event (Wichtige Begebenheit)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    7. Dreaming (Träumerei)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    8. At The Fireside (Am Kamin)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    9. knight of the hobbyhorse (Ritter vom Steckenpferd)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    10. Almost Too Serious (Fast zu ernst)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    11. Frightening (Fürchtenmachen)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    12. child falling asleep (Kind im Einschlummern)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    13. the poet speaks (Der Dichter spricht)
    Performed by Donald Betz. Courtesy of Musopen
    Andante and Variations - Introduction, Theme and Variations 1-5
    Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)
    Andante and Variations - Variations 6-10
    Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)
    Andante and Variations - Variations 11-15
    Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Robert_Schumann_-_Fantasie_-_Sempre_Fantasticamente_ed_Appassionatamente. ... Image File history File links Robert_Schumann_-_Fantasie_-_Moderato,_Sempre_energico. ... Image File history File links Robert_Schumann_-_Fantasie_-_Lento_sostenuto_Sempre_piano. ... Image File history File links Schumann_Naenie_sung_by_the_dwsChorale. ...

References

  • Daverio, J, "Robert Schumann", Grove music online, L Macy (ed), accessed June 24, 2007 (subscription access)
  • Ostwald, Peter, Schumann — The inner voices of a musical genius, Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1985 ISBN 1555530141.
  • Scholes, Percy A, The Oxford Companion to Music, Tenth Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1970 ISBN 0-19-311306-61.

Notes

  1. ^ Daverio, Grove online. According to Daverio, there is no evidence of a middle name "Alexander" which is given in some sources.
  2. ^ Scholes, page 932.
  3. ^ Ostwald, page 11
  4. ^ Anton Strelezki: Personal Recollections of Chats with Liszt. London, 1893.
  5. ^ Daverio, Grove online, 19
  6. ^ Reich, Nancy B., "Clara Schumann: The Artist and the Woman," Cornell University Press, 1985, p. 151.

External links

WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ...

Sheet music

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mutopia project is a volunteer-run effort to create a library of public domain sheet music, in a way similar to Project Gutenbergs library of public domain books. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ...

Recordings and MIDI

The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ...

Books

  • Ostwald, Peter (1985). Schumann, The Inner Voices of a Musical Genius. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-014-1. 
  • Perrey, Beate (ed.) (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Schumann. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521789508. 
  • Worthen, John (2007). Robert Schumann: Life and Death of a Musician. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300111606. 
Persondata
NAME Schumann, Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Composer, pianist
DATE OF BIRTH June 8, 1810
PLACE OF BIRTH Zwickau, Germany
DATE OF DEATH July 29, 1856
PLACE OF DEATH Endenich, Germany
Romantics redirects here. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Franz Berwald ca 1840 - painter unknown Franz Adolf Berwald (born in Stockholm on July 23, 1796 and died there on April 3, 1868) was a Swedish Romantic composer who was generally ignored during his lifetime and had to make his living as an orthopedic surgeon and, later, as the manager... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... John Field John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890), a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France, was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Liszt redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under the leadership of Mily Balakirev with the aim of producing... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Romanticism largely began as a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Byron redirects here. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Goethe redirects here. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Keats redirects here. ... Categories: 1812 births | 1859 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers | Stub ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 - January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ... Juliusz Słowacki Juliusz Słowacki (4 September 1809–3 April 1849) was one of the most famous Polish romantic poets. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Karl Pavlovich Briullov (Карл Павлович Брюллов), called by his friends the Great Karl (December 12, 1799, St Petersburg - June 11, 1852, Rome), was the first Russian painter of international standing. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... For a project of the French Space Agency, see COROT. Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Goya redirects here. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 – July 18, 1868) was a German-born American painter. ... -1... Self-portrait of the young Samuel Palmer, circa 1826. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Zwickau is a city of Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony (Sachsen), situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge, on the left bank of the Zwickauer Mulde, 130 km (82 miles) southwest of Dresden, south of Leipzig and south west of Chemnitz. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Endenich is a quarter of Bonn since 1904 in Germany. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Schumann (1810-1856) (2524 words)
Robert Schumann was born in Zwickau, Germany on June 8, 1810 as the son of a bookseller, Friedrich August Schumann.
Schumann's father made attempts to retain Carl Maria von Weber as a composition teacher for his talented son, but these efforts were fruitless, owing to the death of both August Schumann and Weber in 1826.
Schumann encapsulates this style in the graceful and curvaceous roulades that he employs amid the rippling momentum of continuous 16th notes, and typical of the composer's style, the piece abounds in fragmentary repetitions.
Robert Schumann - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3044 words)
Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist.
Robert Schumann was born on June 8, 1810 in Zwickau in Saxony.
Schumann's biographers represent him as caught in a tempest of song, the sweetness, the doubt and the despair of which are all to be attributed to varying emotions aroused by his love for Clara.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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