FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert Runcie
Robert Runcie

Archbishop of Canterbury

Birth name Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie
Enthroned 1980
Ended 1991
Predecessor Donald Coggan
Successor George Carey
Born October 2, 1921
Great Crosby
Died July 11, 2000
Buried St Albans Cathedral

Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, Baron Runcie of Cuddesdon PC MC (October 2, 1921July 11, 2000) was the 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury from 1980 to 1991. Frederick Donald Coggan, Baron Coggan (December 23, 1909 - May 17, 2000) was the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980, during which time he visited Rome and met the Pontiff, in company with Bishop Cormac Murphy-OConnor, future Cardinal of England and Wales. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Great Crosby, commonly known as just Crosby is a town in Sefton, Merseyside, North West England. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... St Albans Cathedral from the west. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Early life

He was born and spent his early life in Great Crosby, near Liverpool, to middle class and rather irreligious parents. He initially attended St Luke's Church, Crosby (where he was confirmed in 1936), before switching to the Anglo-Catholic St Faith's Church about a mile down the road. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby before going up to Brasenose College, Oxford. Great Crosby, commonly known as just Crosby is a town in Sefton, Merseyside, North West England. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... ... See also Merchant Taylors School, Northwood. ... and of the Brasenose College College name The Kings Hall and College of Brasenose Latin name aula regia et collegium aenei nasi Named after Bronze door knocker Established 1509 Sister college Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Principal Prof. ...


He earned a commission in the Scots Guards during World War II, serving as a tank commander and earning the Military Cross for two feats of bravery in March 1945: he rescued one of his men from a crippled tank under heavy enemy fire, and the next day he took his own tank into an exceptionally exposed position in order to knock out three anti-tank guns - he is, therefore, unique among modern Archbishops of Canterbury in having personally killed fellow human beings. In May 1945 he was among the first British troops to enter Bergen-Belsen. The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Bergen-Belsen concentration camp burning down after the British set it on fire to prevent disease and lice from spreading after the camps liberation in April 1945. ...


After the surrender of Nazi Germany, he served with the occupying forces in Cologne and then with the boundary commission dealing with the future status of the Free Territory of Trieste. For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ...


On his return to Oxford, he surprised many by taking first class honours in Greats.He was a member of both Tory and Socialist societies at Oxford, and through that he had his first dealings with the young Margaret Roberts, a relationship which was to prove pivotal during his archiepiscopate. The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading scheme used to distinguish between the achievements of undergraduate degree holders (such as those gaining bachelors degrees or undergraduate masters degrees) in the United Kingdom. ... Literae Humaniores is the name given to the study of Classics at Oxford and some other universities. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ...


Career

Runcie studied for ordination at Westcott House, Cambridge where he took a Diploma, rather than a second bachelor's degree in theology. He was ordained in the Diocese of Newcastle in 1950 to serve as a curate in the parish of All Saints in the wealthy Newcastle upon Tyne suburb of Gosforth, then a rapidly growing suburban area. Rather than the conventional minimum three year curacy, after only two years Runcie was invited to return to Westcott House as chaplain and, later, vice principal. In 1956 he was elected fellow and dean of Trinity Hall in Cambridge, where he would meet his wife, Rosalind, the daughter of the college bursar. Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Westcott House Cambridge. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Diocese of Newcastle is a Church of England diocese based in Newcastle upon Tyne, covering the historic county of Northumberland (and therefore including the northern part of Tyne and Wear). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of souls of a parish. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Gosforth is an area of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England to the north of the city centre. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a religious service in an unknown location during World War II. US Navy Chaplain Kenneth Medve conducts Catholic Mass onboard the Ronald Reagan (2006) A chaplain is typically a priest, ordained deacon or other member of the clergy serving a group of... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Full name College of Scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich Motto - Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names - Established 1350 Sister College University College All Souls College Master Prof. ...


In 1960 he returned to the world of the theological college, becoming principal of Ripon College Cuddesdon, near Oxford, where he spent 10 years and transformed what had been a rather monastic and traditionally Anglo-Catholic institution into a stronghold of the liberal catholic wing of the Church of England. In this period his name became more and more strongly spoken of as a future bishop, and speculation was confirmed when he was consecrated Bishop of St Albans in 1970. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ripon College Cuddesdon is an Anglican theological college (seminary) located in Cuddesdon, a small village a short distance from Oxford. ... ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... A list of the Anglican bishops of the Diocese of St Albans 1877 - Thomas Leigh Chaughton 1890 - John Wogan Festing 1903 - Edgar Jacob 1920 - Michael Bolton Furse 1944 - Philip Henry Loyd 1950 - Edward Michael Gresford Jones 1970 - Robert Runcie 1980 - John Bernard Taylor 1995 - Christopher William Herbert Categories: Religion stubs... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Like Gosforth in the 1950s, the Diocese of St Albans was a booming suburban area, popular with families moving out of a depopulating London. As well as diocesan work, he worked with broadcasters as chairman of the Central Religious Advisory Committee, and was appointed chairman of the joint Anglican-Orthodox commission. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Diocese of St Albans forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England and is part of the wider Church of England, in turn part of the world-wide Anglican Communion. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Archbishop of Canterbury

Runcie was selected as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1979. Ironically, in view of his future relations with the Conservative government, there is evidence that Runcie was actually the second choice of the Crown Appointments Commission, the first choice, Hugh Montefiore having proven politically unacceptable to the then newly elected Conservative government. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The appointment of Church of England diocesan bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process, reflecting the churchs traditional tendency towards compromise and ad hoc solutions, traditional ambiguity between hierarchy and democracy, and traditional role as a semi-autonomous state church. ... Hugh William Montefiore (born May 12, 1920, died May 13, 2005) was Bishop of Birmingham from 1977 to 1987. ...


During his time as Archbishop of Canterbury, he witnessed a breaking down of traditionally convivial relations between the Conservative Party and the Church of England, which was habitually if rather inaccurately described as "the Tory party at prayer". This was due mainly to the Church's pronouncements on political matters and Margaret Thatcher's support for the ethos of individualism and wealth creation, and her claim that "there is no such thing as society"[1], which many in the Anglican church thought was uncaring and anti-Christian. However, this seven word phrase, extracted from a 1987 interview with Woman's Own magazine[2], has a subtly different impact when taken within the context of the interview as a whole. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Womans Own is a British lifestyle magazine aimed at women. ...


In 1981, Runcie officiated at the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales to Lady Diana Spencer, despite suspecting privately that they were ill-suited and that their marriage would not last. The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[2] née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. ...


With a dramatic gesture of goodwill, he knelt in prayer with Pope John Paul II in the Cathedral of Canterbury during John Paul's visit to Great Britain in 1982. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...


In 1985, there was friction between the Church of England and members of the Conservative Government, in particular Norman Tebbit, over the Church's report "Faith in the City", which criticised the government's handling of social problems in British inner-city areas. As a result of this, Tebbit became a strong supporter of the disestablishment of the Church of England, claiming that institutions affiliated to the British state should not express what he saw as overtly partisan political views. Norman Beresford Tebbit, Baron Tebbit, CH, PC (born 29 March 1931) is a British Conservative politician and former Member of Parliament (MP) for Chingford, who was born in Southgate in Enfield. ... Faith in the City was a report published in the UK in Autumn 1985, authored by the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Commission on Urban Priority Areas. ... See also civil religion. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


Much of the middle period of Runcie's archiepiscopate was taken up with the tribulations of two men who had been close to him - the suicide of Gareth Bennett, and the kidnapping of Terry Waite. Gareth Bennett (also known as Garry Bennett - 1929 – December 7, 1987) was an Anglican clergyman and academic who committed suicide after frenzied media reaction to an anonymous preface he wrote for Crockford’s Clerical Directory. ... Terry Waite at April 1993 Allentown College speech Terry Waite CBE (born May 31, 1939 in Styal, Cheshire, England) is a British humanitarian and author. ...


When Runcie visited the Pope in 1989, he set out to reconcile the Church of England with the Church of Rome. Runcie advocated the Papacy as having a 'primacy of honour' rather than 'primacy of jurisdiction' over the Anglican church, a proposal consistent with the report of the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission. The Pope did not go along with this, however, claiming that the Papacy already has primacy of jurisdiction over all other churches regardless of whether or not this is officially recognised and also that the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church would not change to accommodate Runcie's proposals. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...


In terms of internal Anglican matters, much of Runcie’s archiepiscopate was taken up with the debate over whether to proceed with the ordination of women in the Church of England as well as the fallout from the ordination of women priests and consecration of women bishops in other parts of the Anglican Communion. Runcie's position on the matter had been described as "nailing his colours firmly to the fence" – his liberal catholic theology conflicting with his instinctive conservatism. As a result, he often seemed like a rabbit in the headlights, mistrusted by both sides of the debate. The traditionalist wing of Anglo-Catholicism, in particular, felt that he had betrayed them by not becoming a forthright opponent of women priests and resented him as a result. In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...

Grave of Lord Runcie at St Albans Cathedral
Grave of Lord Runcie at St Albans Cathedral

The church's attitude to homosexuality was also a divisive issue during this period, although it did not assume the crisis proportions it would in the late 1990s and 2000s. Although in public Runcie stuck to official Church of England policy as set out in the publication Issues in Human Sexuality, that homosexual practice was not ideal for lay people and unacceptable for clergy, in private he held a more sympathetic view and consciously ordained a number of openly gay men as priests. Download high resolution version (380x700, 55 KB)Grave of Robert Runcie, former Archbishop of Canterbury at St Albans Cathedral. ... Download high resolution version (380x700, 55 KB)Grave of Robert Runcie, former Archbishop of Canterbury at St Albans Cathedral. ... St Albans Cathedral from the west. ... The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ...


Retirement

When he retired as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was created a life peer, as Baron Runcie, of Cuddesdon in the County of Oxfordshire, enabling him to remain in the House of Lords where he had previously sat as a Lord Spiritual. He died of cancer in 2000. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... Cuddesdon is a pre-Domesday village located in the hundred of Bullingdon, within the county of Oxfordshire in England. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Family

Lord Runcie's wife, Rosalind, whom he married on 5 September 1957, was well-known as a pianist. He had two children - James Runcie, an acclaimed novelist, and Rebecca Runcie, as well as four grandchildren: Rosie, Charlotte, Matthew and Edward. Lady Rosalind (Lindy) Runcie (née Rosalind Turner) was a pianist and wife of Lord Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Quotation

In the postscript of Humphrey Carpenter's biography: Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ...

I have done my best to die before this book is published. It now seems possible that I may not succeed.

References

Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ...

See also

The Right Reverend and Right Honourable Richard Chartres (born July 11, 1946) is the 132nd Bishop of London, being installed on September 26, 1996. ...

External links

Religious titles
Preceded by
Edward Michael Gresford Jones
Bishop of St Albans
1970–1980
Succeeded by
John Bernard Taylor
Preceded by
Donald Coggan
Primate of All England
1980–1991
Succeeded by
George Carey
Preceded by
Donald Coggan
Archbishop of Canterbury
1980–1991
Succeeded by
George Carey

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Runcie (3257 words)
Robert Runcie, who has died aged 78, might prove to have been the last of the patrician archbishops of Canterbury.
Runcie defended his work, but grew increasingly uneasy about it, both for the sake of Waite's personal safety, and because the Lambeth Conference, which Waite should have been organising, was fast approaching.
When the book was almost complete, Runcie was horrified that, far from being the seriously researched history of his episcopate he had expected, much of it, he felt, was simply transcribed conversations and gossip, including a number of old indiscretions Runcie had given off the record about the royal family.
Robert Runcie (521 words)
Runcie advocated the Papacy as having a 'primacy of honour' rather than 'primacy of jurisdiction' over the Anglican church, a proposal consistent with the report of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission.
When he retired as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was created a life peer, as Baron Runcie, of Cuddesdon in the County of Oxfordshire, enabling him to remain in the House of Lords where he had previously sat as a Lord Spiritual.
Lord Runcie's wife, Rosalind, whom he married on 5 September 1957, was well-known as a pianist.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m