FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert Rogers (soldier)
There is no known authentic portrait of Robert Rogers; this is an artist's interpretation.

Robert Rogers, or Rodgers (7 November 173118 May 1795), was an American colonial frontiersman. His service to the people of New England in their struggles against the indigenous population and the French colonialists is far better known than his later service as a Loyalist during the American Revolutionary War. American history has been kinder to him than to Benedict Arnold, since Rogers never betrayed his trust. Nevertheless, he died alone in poverty in the city of London, far from his family and from the woods and mountains of his native New England. Image File history File links Robertrogers. ... Image File history File links Robertrogers. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Rogers and the Rangers

Abenakis in peace, 18th century water color now in Montreal.
Abenakis in peace, 18th century water color now in Montreal.

Rogers raised and commanded Rogers' Rangers during the French and Indian War. He did not invent the concept, as daring attack on a select target far behind enemy lines by a small band of highly disciplined special forces is known from antiquity. Also, in his life time few American colonials knew of his deeds. As the American Indians themselves discovered, the ranger strategy and tactics alone are insufficient to win a war, which must be done by regular forces. Nevertheless, the method is effective as far as it goes. Image File history File links Abenaki couple File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Abenaki couple File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rogers Rangers — commanded by Major Robert Rogers — was an Independent Company of Rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years...


Rogers evidenced an unusual talent for ranging. He took the initiative in raising, equipping and commanding ranger units. He added theory to the art, writing the first field manual of the topic. An artists interpretation of Rogers. ...


The Queen's York Rangers of the Canadian Army, the U.S. Army Rangers and the 1st Battalion 119th Field Artillery all claim him as their founder, and "Rogers' Rules of Ranging" are still quoted. The 1st American Regiment was originally raised during the Seven Years War by Robert Rogers and were better known as Rogers Rangers. ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... The 1-119th Field Artillery is part of the Michigan Army National Guard. ... There are two versions of the Rangers Standing Orders of Major Robert Rogers. ...


Rogers operated in the area that is now New England and South Eastern Canada and developed the basis of modern special forces tactics. During the French and Indian War, Rogers' Rangers specialized in reconnaissance and deep penetrating raids into enemy territory. Mental and physical toughness, discipline and courage were highly valued and regularly displayed by all rangers. Major Rogers went deeply into debt, as he was personally responsible for paying his soldiers, and took loans to ensure his soldiers were paid properly. He was never compensated by the British Army or government, though he had reason to believe he should have had his expenses reimbursed. This started his financial troubles. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Early life

There is no known authentic portrait of Robert Rogers; this is an artist's interpretation.
There is no known authentic portrait of Robert Rogers; this is an artist's interpretation.

The events of Robert Rogers' life have long interested local and amateur historians. Many have written about him, but the details vary considerably. Part of the problem is the strong partisan sentiments he seems to evoke, and another is the circumstance that many have written from hearsay. Only detailed research by professional historians can settle many of the questions. The account given in this article is a very general one based on some prevalent current views. Image File history File links Old_robertrogers. ... Image File history File links Old_robertrogers. ...


Robert was born to James and Mary McFatridge Rogers on November 7, 1731, in Methuen, a small town in northeastern Massachusetts. At that time the town served as a staging point for colonization to the north. In 1739, when Robert was eight years old, the family went pioneering to the north, where James, an Irish immigrant, founded a settlement on 2190 acres of upland, which he called Munterloney after a hilly place in Derry and Tyrone, where he had once resided. Robert refers to this place as Mountalona. It was later renamed Dunbarton, New Hampshire. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Methuen is a city[1] in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Londonderry redirects here. ... The name Tyrone can refer to: A county in Northern Ireland; see County Tyrone An Earl of Tyrone A small steam train which runs between Bushmills and the Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland. ... Dunbarton is a town located in Merrimack County, New Hampshire. ...


Robert was not allowed much of a childhood that we would consider normal. The English colonies were engaged in a series of conflicts with other European powers and their colonies, who shared the aboriginal desire to remove the English from New England. King George's War (1740-1748), known on the continent as the War of the Austrian Succession, broke out when Robert was nine and ended when he was 17. King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria...


At that time, Robert was a veteran, a skilled frontiersman, and a French speaker. He does not tell us much about these years, but it seems likely that he served in the New Hampshire militia. He might have scouted for Pepperrell's force, raised in 1745 for the purpose of taking Louisbourg from the French, but this is only speculation. The age of 14 allows time for his rough education and is about right for membership in the colonial militia in time of war. Sir William Pepperrell, 1746, by John Smybert Sir William Pepperrell, 1st Baronet (June 27, 1696 – July 6, 1759) was a merchant and soldier in Colonial Massachusetts. ... Costumed interpreters perform a dance in the street at Fortress Louisbourg. ...


By 1748, Robert had found his talents, but he was now adult, free of obligation and faced with the necessity of earning an independent living. Like many another warrior without war, he turned to (or rather continued) the free and predatory way of life, but in those frontier times, fine legal distinctions were not always made. For example, most of the colonials with the means practiced smuggling. In 1754 (age 23), the year before the beginning of his greatest success, he was indicted for being the head of a gang of counterfeiters recruited by himself.


French and Indian wars

In 1753, French forces took a fort being constructed by the British in the vicinity of Pittsburgh and renamed it Fort Duquesne. The region already had been settled and was being used by English traders. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia therefore sent a force under George Washington, in 1754, to retake the fort. He was attacked by the French and defeated at the Battle of Great Meadows on July 3, 1754. The French received his surrender and graciously allowed him to return to Virginia, hoping that this gesture would rid them of the English. Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... An artist’s rendering of Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant governor of Virginia Michael Dinwiddie (1693 – July 27, 1770) was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, and then, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy... This article contains a trivia section. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity...


The hope proved vain. In 1755, Major General Edward Braddock marched on Fort Duquesne with a force of about 2000 men, including colonials under Washington. On July 9, they were ambushed near the fort by 700 native Americans led by 250 French colonials. Braddock received a mortal wound and Washington assumed command. He beat a hasty retreat. General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695? – July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed...


In that year, war became general over all the colonies, spreading also to Europe. Britain and France declared war on each other. The English in America suffered a string of defeats similar to that of Braddock. Encouraged, native Americans living on the entire periphery of English settlement launched a savage attack, once again with the intent of driving the colonists into the sea.


Ranger recruiter

Cartoon of the French and Indian War, later resurrected for the Revolutionary War.

These events transpired in the middle of Robert Rogers' criminal case. We do not know what happened to the counterfeiting ring, except that much of it probably went into the rangers with Rogers. Charges against him were dropped. In 1755, he appears as a recruiter for John Winslow. Perhaps the colonial government decided it needed experienced militiamen more than it needed to prosecute Rogers, or perhaps Rogers made a deal. Historians do not know. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...


Rogers arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1756. There, he began to recruit rangers. It was probably at this time that the rangers recruited by him began to be called "Rogers'". He was well supported by the frightened and angry colonials. The masons of St. John's Lodge in Portsmouth received him with two degrees. In Portsmouth, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Browne, youngest daughter of Reverend Arthur Browne (Anglican). They were to marry in 1761. By the end of 1756, Rogers had raised three more companies of rangers, making four. He commanded one. Location in Rockingham County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Rockingham County Incorporated 1653 Mayor Steve Marchand City manager John P. Bohenko Area    - City 43. ... Freemason and Freemasons redirect here. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


Robert's brothers James, Richard and possibly John all served in Rogers' Rangers. Richard died of small pox in 1757. James went on to take over Robert's post in the King's Rangers at the end of the Revolution. It is not known what became of John, but it is suspected he remained in the south after Robert's 1762 visit to Charleston, South Carolina. Rogers Rangers — commanded by Major Robert Rogers — was an Independent Company of Rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Northern campaign

Rogers' Rangers Toward Ticonderoga 1759, as depicted by artist John Buxton.

From 1755 to 1758, the rangers served under a series of unsuccessful British commanders operating over the northern accesses to the English colonies: Major General William Johnson, William Shirley, Colonel William Haviland, Major General James Abercromby. The British could do no more than fight holding actions around Lake Champlain, Crown Point, Ticonderoga and the upper Hudson. They were victorious in Nova Scotia (Acadia), from which they transported the French to Louisiana. Image File history File links Rogersrangers. ... Image File history File links Rogersrangers. ... Sir William Johnson Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet (1715 – 11 July 1774), founder of Johnstown, New York, was an Irish pioneer and army officer in colonial New York, and the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755 to 1774. ... William Shirley (1694-1771) William Shirley (1694-1771) was the British governor of Massachusetts from 1741 to 1759. ... James Abercrombie or Abercromby (1706 – April 23, 1781) was a British General and commander of forces in America during the French and Indian War who met with disaster in the Battle of Carillon (1758). ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... A south view of Crown Point 1760 by Thomas Davies. ... Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA.The fort controlled both commonly used... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W...


In these campaigns, the rangers were indispensable. They grew gradually to twelve companies and a few companies of natives who had thrown in their lot with the British . Rangers were kept organizationally distinct from regulars. They reconnoitered and skirmished. They were the commander's eyes, ears and first line of defence. Rogers was their acting commander, as well as the direct commander of his own company. He gave advice, which was for the most part ignored. In 1758, Abercromby recognized his status by promoting him to major, with John Stark as second in command. He then held two ranks appropriate to his double role: captain and major. General John Stark John Stark (August 28, 1728 - May 8, 1822) was a general who served in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ...


In 1759, the tide of battle turned and the British advanced on Quebec. Until now, the rangers had done nothing to distinguish themselves from other irregular troops. Now, Major General Jeffrey Amherst had a brilliant and definitive idea. He sent major Rogers on an expedition far behind enemy lines to the west against a vital point there: St. Francis, a staging base for native raids into New England. The natives had given up their aboriginal way of life and were living in a town next to a French mission. Rogers burned the town, killed about 1/4 of its population, and barely escaped before pursuers down the Connecticut River under great duress. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ...


The blow struck by Rogers was a major psychological victory. The colonists no longer felt that they were helpless. The unfortunate residents of St. Francis (a combined group of Abenakis and others) understood that they were no longer beyond reach. Raiding from there did not cease, but it diminished.

Vermont view of Lake Champlain (Winter) Image File history File links Lake_Champlain_Vermont_USa. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...

Fort Ticonderoga
(French Carillon) Image File history File linksMetadata Ticonderoga1. ... Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA.The fort controlled both commonly used...

Connecticut River in Massachusetts Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts © 2004 Matthew Trump File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ...

Plains of Abraham, Quebec Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1701x1106, 2336 KB) fr:Plaine dAbraham et vue du fleuve Saint-Laurent et du château Frontenac - Québec, Canada en:Plains of Abraham and a view on the Saint Lawrence River and the Frontenac Castle- Quebec City, Quebec, Canada... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595...

Western campaign

Quebec fell in 1759 to be followed by Montreal in 1760. Native activity against colonials in the east ceased. Rogers' service there was over. General Amherst transferred him to Brigadier General Robert Monckton, commanding at Fort Pitt (formerly Fort Duquesne). Following Amherst's lead, Monckton sent the rangers to take Detroit, far to the north, which they did. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Robert Monckton (24 June 1726 – 21 May 1782) was an officer of the British army and a colonial administrator in British North America. ... A Plan of the New Fort at Pitts-Burgh, drawn by cartographer John Rocque and published in 1765. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...


The French had lost their zest for war and were mainly waiting for the English to come and end it, but the Indians remained hostile. Meanwhile operations on both sides declined. In 1760, Rogers received the submission of the French posts on the Great Lakes. It was the final act of his command. The rangers were disbanded. Monckton offered Rogers command of a company of regulars in South Carolina, but after visiting the place Rogers decided to swap it for a company in New York. That also was disbanded shortly, and Rogers went into retirement at half-pay. The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... NY redirects here. ...


At last, he had some personal time on his hands. He returned to New England to marry Elizabeth in June, 1761, and set up housekeeping with her in Concord, New Hampshire. Like many New Englanders, they owned slaves, including a native lad taken at St. Francis. Location in Merrimack County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Merrimack County Incorporated 1733  - City Manager Thomas J. Aspell, Jr. ...


The state of his finances at this time is not compatible with what he and others professed it to be later. Rogers received large grants of land in southern New Hampshire in compensation for his services. He sold much of it at a profit and was able to purchase and maintain slaves. He did deed much of his land to his wife's family, which served to support her later. These facts are not compatible with the image of the debt-ridden soldier struggling to pay the salaries he had advanced his men at his own expense.


In peace, Robert was a restless spirit. The colonists were in the process of quelling native operations piecemeal. Late in 1761, he accepted command of a company of what today would be mercenaries for the purpose of pacifying the Cherokees in North Carolina, after which he returned home. For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


In 1763, Pontiac's Rebellion broke out in Michigan. Rogers volunteered again, going along as staff with Captain James Dalzell to the relief of Detroit. Evidently Amherst had decided that a company would be sufficient. The rebellion collapsed and Pontiac faded away into obscurity and death. The war came to an end that same year with the Treaty of Paris, and Rogers found himself once more a soldier of fortune, still on half-pay. Later his worst enemy, General Thomas Gage, remarked that if the army had put him on whole pay, they could have prevented his later unfit employment (Gage's terms). Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...


Post-war success and failure

Rogers had brought total dedication to his position as commander of the rangers. As was often the custom in the British and American armies, he had spent his own money to equip the rangers when needed and consequently had gone into debt. In 1764, he was faced with the problem of repaying his creditors.


Robert engaged briefly in a business venture with the fur trader, John Askin, near Detroit. After it failed, he hoped to win the money by gambling, with the result that he was totally ruined. His creditors put him in prison for debt in New York, but he escaped. John Askin (1739 – 1815) was a fur trader, merchant and official in Upper Canada. ...


Author in Britain

In 1765, Rogers voyaged to England to obtain pay for his service and capitalize on his fame. His journals and A Concise Account of North America were published. Immediately thereafter, he wrote a stage play, Ponteach [Pontiac]: or the Savages of America (1766), significant as an early American drama and for its sympathetic portrayal of Native Americans. He enjoyed some moderate success with his publications (though Ponteach was condemned by the critics) and attracted royal attention. Following an audience with King George III, to whom he proposed to undertake an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Robert Rogers was bestowed an appointment as governor of Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Michigan) with a charter to look for the passage, and returned to North America. George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Popular Northwest Passage routes through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago This article describes the route through the Canadian Arctic. ... Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Governor in Michigan

The prospects of the young governor must have seemed bright as he and his wife moved to Michigan and he took up his post acclaimed by all. He had some powerful friends: General Amherst and George III, but they were now far away. General Amherst had been replaced as commander of British forces in America in 1763 by Sir Thomas Gage, an aristocrat who had purchased his way up in the British army. This practice gave subordinate officers a certain independence, which was not stopped until the Duke of Wellington took a firm stand against preference based on birth. Gage had opposed Amherst in nearly everything. As a friend of Amherst and a common colonial to boot, Robert Rogers was opposed by Gage, who later did more than any other to drive the colonies to revolution. Gage set out to ruin Rogers, and succeeded. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Engraving of Thomas Gage Sir Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ... The Dukedom of Wellington is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ...


Rogers' position as governor was subject to the same paradoxical weakness that prevailed in the rest of the British Empire of the times. The restoration of Charles II had failed to define the king's legal position exactly. In theory, British monarchs possessed the same powers they had had before the English Civil War; however, if they dared to exercise these powers, they might be removed (or worse) by Parliament. The monarch became only one of contending powers and could never be sure if his orders would be obeyed. The same question about who was actually in charge manifested itself at every level of British government. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ...


Rogers had been appointed governor by the king with a mandate. At the same time, Rogers was still a half-pay captain in the British army and was therefore, to some degree, under Gage's jurisdiction. Gage would not have dared to attack Amherst or another noble openly and he did not dare to attack the king's appointee, unless he could find good reason. If he could find reason, the king would countermand any legal process in order to save his subordinates. Many royal supporters had fallen in just this way, while the king stood by, helpless to save them. Gage actively set about finding reason to attack Rogers.


Meanwhile, Rogers went about performing his duties with considerable talent, perhaps not even suspecting the grief that Gage was planning for him. His actions show some ignorance of governmental tensions in British society. He did send expeditions to search for the fabled Northwest Passage under Jonathan Carver and James Tute, but they were unsuccessful. (The path to the Pacific remained undiscovered until the Lewis and Clark expedition.) Perceiving a need for unity and stronger government, Rogers negotiated with the Indians, parlayed with the French and developed a plan for a province in Michigan to be administered by a governor and privy council reporting to the king. This plan was supported by George III, but had little chance of being adopted, since Parliament had no intention of strengthening the king's hand. Popular Northwest Passage routes through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago This article describes the route through the Canadian Arctic. ... Jonathan Carver Jonathan Carver (1710-1780) was an explorer of the North American continent. ... The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ...


Arrest for treason

Gage used every opportunity to defame Rogers, portraying him as an opportunist who had gotten rich on the war only to gamble his money away as a profligate. How many of these allegations were true and how much Gage really believed them to be true are difficult to say. Gage apparently saw Rogers as of questionable loyalty--certainly he was not loyal to Gage--and therefore needed watching. Rogers' dealings with the natives troubled Gage, as he and many other British officers in America had come to regard the natives as treacherous vermin.


Gage set spies on Rogers, intercepted his mail and suborned his subordinates. At that time, Rogers offended his private secretary, Nathaniel Potter, and Potter gave Gage the excuse he needed. Potter swore in an affidavit that Rogers said he would offer his province to the French if the British government failed to approve his plan of governance.


This story is questionable. The French were not in any position to receive Rogers, with a British governor sitting in Montreal. Nevertheless, on the strength of Potter's affidavit, Rogers was arrested in 1767, charged with treason and taken to Montreal in chains for trial. This trial was postponed until 1768. Elizabeth, carrying their first and only child, went home to Portsmouth. This son became a lawyer in Portsmouth and had a family that has descended to modern times. Location in Rockingham County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Rockingham County Incorporated 1653 Mayor Steve Marchand City manager John P. Bohenko Area    - City 43. ...


Vindication

Gage had done the worst he could do. He had to send Rogers to Montreal, but once there Rogers was among the friends of Amherst. He was acquitted of all charges and the verdict was sent to the king for approval. George approved, but could not call Gage a liar openly. Instead, he made a note that there was reason to think Rogers might have been treasonous.


A return to Michigan and the power of Gage was unthinkable, and besides, Elizabeth was not there now. Rogers went to Britain in 1769 to petition again for debt relief. The king had done all he would for Rogers, being distracted by the issue of the proper rule of the dissatisfied colonies. Rogers went again to debtor's prison and tried suing Gage for false imprisonment. Gage settled out of court by offering Rogers the half-pay of a major in return for dropping the suit.


Alcoholic or spy?

Because of his legal troubles in Britain, Robert Rogers missed the major events in the disaffected colonies. When he heard that revolution was likely to break out, he returned to America in 1775. The Americans were as out of touch with Rogers as he was with them. Looking upon him as the noted ranger leader, and expecting him to behave as one, they were at a total loss to explain his behavior. However, Rogers even at that time was probably suffering from the alcoholism that blighted his later life and led to the loss of his family, land, money and friends.


Exactly what happened between the revolutionaries and him, and why is not clear. Had he been the man he was, he might have become a leading revolutionary commander. Instead, we read that he was arrested by the local Committee of Safety as a possible spy and released on parole that he would not serve against the colonies. He was offered a commission in the revolutionary army by the Continental Congress, but turned it down on grounds that he was a British officer. He wrote to George Washington asking for a command, but instead Washington had him arrested. POOP HS;JHGF;JADHGJHASGHASJHGJSAHGJWJITHADHSGJHDASJLGFNKRA The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


The broken man

In short, Rogers behaved neither as a returned countryman, nor a potential revolutionary. He did not return to New Hampshire to resume life with Elizabeth. Instead, he wandered the countryside talking with all kinds of persons, loyalist and revolutionary, claiming to have a pass from Congress, and stating contradictory views. Perhaps his behavior was not that of a spy, as Washington concluded, but of a broken man, a shadow of his former self. When talking to people, he always seemed to be in or coming from a tavern, where he drank heavily.


After escaping from Washington's custody and finding revolutionary ranks firm against him, he offered his services to the British Army. They also were hoping he would live up to his reputation. In August 1776, he formed another ranger type unit, which still exists today as the Queen's York Rangers, a reconnaissance regiment in the Canadian Army. This command called for a lieutenant colonel. He did not command long and saw action once. The 1st American Regiment was originally raised during the Seven Years War by Robert Rogers and were better known as Rogers Rangers. ... Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...


In September 1776, Rogers assisted in the capture of Nathan Hale, a spy for the Continental Army. A contemporary account of Hale's capture written by Consider Tiffany, a Connecticut shopkeeper and Loyalist, is in the Library of Congress. In Tiffany's account, Rogers did not believe Hale's cover story (that he was a teacher) and lured him into his own betrayal by pretending to be a patriot spy himself. [1] [2] [3] Nathan Hale, by Frederick MacMonnies, 1893, City Hall Park, New York Nathan Hale (June 6, 1755 – September 22, 1776) was a captain in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ...


In 1777, Rogers was forcibly retired on grounds of "poor health," which means that his alcoholism must have been so severe that he could no longer perform his duties. A return home now was impossible; Hale's execution and Rogers raising troops against the colonials seemed to confirm Washington's suspicions. At Washington's prompting, the New Hampshire legislature passed two decrees regarding Rogers: one a proscription and the other a divorce from his wife on grounds of abandonment and infidelity. She could not afford any friendship or mercy toward Robert now if she expected to remain in New Hampshire. Later, Elizabeth married an American naval officer John Roche. She died in 1811. For 1880s Chicago mayor, see John A. Roche. ...


After a brief sojourn in Britain, Rogers returned in 1779 to raise rangers for General Sir Henry Clinton. He was unable to keep the position due to his alcoholism, but his place was taken by his brother, James. Now, he was of no further use to the British army. Accidentally snared by an American privateer, he spent some time in a prison in New York, escaping in 1782. In 1783, he was evacuated with other British troops to Britain. There, he was unable to earn a living or defeat his disease. He died in obscurity and debt, what little money he had going to pay an arrears in rent. General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... NY redirects here. ...


The memory of Rogers

On May 30, 2005, (Memorial Day in the U.S.), a statue of Major Rogers was unveiled during a ceremony on Rogers Island in the Hudson River, 40 miles north of Albany, New York. This is near to the site where Rogers penned his "Rules of Discipline." [4] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... Rogers Island is an island on the Hudson River, in Washington County, New York, that once formed part of the third largest city in colonial North America, and is considered the spiritual home of the United States Special Forces, particularly the United States Rangers[1]. // Rogers Island is located in... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ... There are two versions of the Rangers Standing Orders of Major Robert Rogers. ...


Rogers participation in the French and Indian War and his later life are depicted in the novel Northwest Passage by Kenneth Roberts. That novel inspired a movie of the same title, starring Spencer Tracy as Rogers. Northwest Passage is a well-researched historical novel by Kenneth Roberts, published in 1937. ... Kenneth Lewis Roberts (December 8, 1885 – July 21, 1957) was an American author of historical novels. ... Northwest Passage is a 1940 movie, starring Spencer Tracy, Robert Young, Walter Brennan, Ruth Hussey, and others. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ...


Notes

External links

  • Rogers Free Library a library Rogers donated to the town of Bristol Rhode Island largely comprised of books from his personal collection

Rogers also wrote a little known play called "Ponteach: Or the Savages of America" and seemed to show his political admiration for Pontiac a great native leader at the time of his military height.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Rogers (soldier) Summary (4658 words)
Robert was born to James and Mary McFatridge Rogers on November 7, 1731, in Methuen, a small town in northeastern Massachusetts (today no longer small and continuous with the city of Lawrence).
Rogers' position as governor was subject to the same paradoxical weakness that prevailed in the rest of the British Empire of the times.
Rogers participation in the French and Indian War and his later life are depicted in the novel Northwest Passage by Kenneth Roberts.
Robert Rogers (soldier) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (612 words)
Robert Rogers (8 November 1731 – 18 May 1795) was born to James and Mary Rogers on November 18, 1731, in Methuen, a small town in northeastern Massachusetts.
In 1760, Rogers received the submission of the French posts on the Great Lakes, and in 1763, he co-commanded the rescue expedition sent to Fort Detroit, one of the many British forts besieged during Pontiac's Rebellion.
Rogers participation in the French and Indian War and his later life are depicted in the novel Northwest Passage by Kenneth Roberts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m