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Encyclopedia > Robert Peel
The Rt Hon Sir Robert Peel, Bt


In office
August 30, 1841 – June 29, 1846
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Viscount Melbourne
Succeeded by The Lord John Russell
In office
December 10, 1834 – April 8, 1835
Monarch William IV
Preceded by The Duke of Wellington
Succeeded by The Viscount Melbourne

In office
December 2, 1834 – April 8, 1835
Monarch William IV
Preceded by The Lord Denman
Succeeded by Thomas Spring Rice

Born 5 February 1788(1788-02-05)
Bury, Lancashire, England
Died 2 July 1850 (aged 62)
Westminster, London, England
Political party Conservative
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 17882 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. He helped create the modern concept of the police force while Home Secretary, oversaw the formation of the Conservative Party out of the shattered Tory Party, and repealed the Corn Laws. There have been several notable people named Robert Peel: Sir Robert Peel, Bt, 19th-century British Prime Minister Robert Peel, a major figure in Christian Science Bobby Peel, a British cricket player This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Download high resolution version (500x623, 95 KB)From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman (23 July 1779 - 26 September 1854), English judge, was born in London, the son of a well-known physician. ... Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle (1790-7 February 1866), English statesman, son of S. E. Rice and Catherine Spring, came of a Limerick family, whose ancestor was Sir Stephen Rice (1637-1715), chief baron of the Irish exchequer and a leading Jacobite. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the town of Bury in North West England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... and of the Christ Church College name Christ Church Latin name Ædes Christi Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister college Trinity College, Cambridge Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR president Laura Ellis Undergraduates 426 GCR president Tim Benjamin Graduates 154 Location of Christ Church within central Oxford... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ...

Contents

Biography

Peel was born in Bury, Lancashire, England to the industrialist and Member of Parliament Sir Robert Peel. His father was one of the richest textile manufacturers of the early Industrial Revolution. Peel was educated first at Hipperholme Grammar School, then at Harrow School and finally Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a double first in classics and mathematics. He is also believed to have briefly attended Bury Grammar School. While living in Tamworth, he is credited with the development of the Tamworth Pig by breeding Irish stock with some local Tamworth pigs. Some of his descendants now live in Victoria, Australia and Sheffield, England. This article is about the town of Bury in North West England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet, (25 April 1750 – 3 May 1805), father of the Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel was a politician and industrialist and one of early textile manufacturers of the industrial revolution. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Hipperholme Grammar School Hipperholme Grammar School is an independent grammar school in West Yorkshire, England. ... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... and of the Christ Church College name Christ Church Latin name Ædes Christi Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister college Trinity College, Cambridge Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR president Laura Ellis Undergraduates 426 GCR president Tim Benjamin Graduates 154 Location of Christ Church within central Oxford... Bury Grammar School is an independent grammar school in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury to the north of Manchester in Greater Manchester, that has existed since c. ... For other places named Tamworth, see Tamworth (disambiguation). ... Adult Tamworth pig, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Tamworth Pig is among the oldest of porcine breeds, but its population is considered rare and critical. ...


Early political career

The young Peel entered politics at the young age of 21 as MP for the Irish rotten borough of Cashel, Tipperary. With a scant 24 voters on the rolls, he was elected unopposed. More importantly, his sponsor for the election (besides his father) was the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, with whom Peel's political career would be entwined for the next 25 years. Peel made his maiden speech at the start of the 1810 session, when he was chosen by the Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, to second the reply to the king's speech. His speech was a sensation, famously described by the Speaker, Charles Abbot, as "the best first speech since that of William Pitt."[1] The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... Cashel was a former United Kingdom Parliament constituency, in Ireland, returning one MP. It was an original constituency represented in Parliament when the Union of Great Britain and Ireland took effect on 1 January 1801. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected representative in such bodies as the House of Commons or the United States House of Representatives. ... Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester (14 October 1757–May 8, 1829) was a British statesman. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


For the next decade he occupied a series of relatively minor positions in the Tory governments: Undersecretary for War, Chief Secretary for Ireland, and chairman of the Bullion Committee (charged with stabilizing British finances after the end of the Napoleonic Wars). He also changed seats twice: first picking up another rotten borough, Chippenham, then becoming MP for Oxford University in 1817. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Bullion committee was set up in order to research the possibility of putting Britain onto the gold standard and how to carry it out. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Oxford University was a university constituency electing two members to the House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950. ...


He later served as MP for Tamworth from 1830 until his death. His home was Drayton Manor. His home Drayton Manor is no longer standing, but it is home to Drayton Manor Theme Park. Tamworth is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Drayton Manor is a British stately home at Drayton Bassett, near Tamworth, Staffordshire, England. ... Drayton Manor Theme Park is a British theme park in the grounds of the former Drayton Manor, near Tamworth in Staffordshire, England. ...


Home Secretary

The Duke of WellingtonPrime Minister 1828-1830
The Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister 1828-1830

Peel was considered one of the rising stars of the Tory party, first entering the cabinet in 1822 as Home Secretary. As Home Secretary, he introduced a number of important reforms of British criminal law: most memorably establishing the Metropolitan Police Force (Metropolitan Police Act 1829). He also changed the Penal code reducing the number of crimes punishable by death. He reformed the gaol system, introducing payment for gaolers and education for the inmates. Image File history File links 1st duke of Wellington unofficial photo of part of a painting on display in the Duke of Wellingtons Regimental Headquarters. ... Image File history File links 1st duke of Wellington unofficial photo of part of a painting on display in the Duke of Wellingtons Regimental Headquarters. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


He resigned as Home Secretary after the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, became incapacitated and was replaced by George Canning. Canning favoured Catholic Emancipation, while Peel had been one of its most outspoken opponents. Canning himself died less than four months later and, after the brief premiership of Lord Goderich, Peel returned to the post of Home Secretary under the premiership of his long-time ally the Duke of Wellington. During this time he was widely perceived as the number-two in the Tory Party, after Wellington himself. The son of George IIIs close adviser Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool and his part-Indian first wife, Amelia Watts, Robert Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford. ... George Canning (11 April 1770 – 8 August 1827) was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... The Right Honourable Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC (November 1, 1782 – January 28, 1859), Frederick John Robinson until 1827, The Viscount Goderich 1827–1833, and The Earl of Ripon 1833 onwards, was a British statesman and Prime Minister (when he was known as Lord Goderich). ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ...

Sir Robert Peel
Sir Robert Peel

However, the pressure on the new ministry from advocates of Catholic Emancipation was too great and an Emancipation Bill was passed the next year. Peel felt compelled to resign his seat as MP representing the graduates of Oxford University (many of whom were Anglican clergymen), as he had stood on a platform of opposition to Catholic Emancipation (in 1815 he had, in fact, challenged to a duel the man most associated with emancipation, Daniel O'Connell). Peel instead moved to a rotten borough, Westbury, retaining his Cabinet position. Peel's protege Gladstone later emulated Peel by serving as MP for Oxford University from 1847 to 1865, before himself being defeated for his willingness to disestablish the Irish Church. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Daniel OConnell Daniel OConnell (6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847) (Irish: Dónal Ó Conaill), known as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was Irelands predominant political leader in the first half of the nineteenth century who championed the cause of the down-trodden Catholic population. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... Westbury is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


Police reform

It was at this point that he established the Metropolitan Police Force for London based at Scotland Yard. The 1,000 constables employed were affectionately nicknamed 'Bobbies' or, somewhat less affectionately, 'Peelers' (both terms are still used today). Although at first unpopular, they proved very successful in cutting crime in London, and by 1835 all cities in the UK were being directed to form their own police forces—see Policing in the United Kingdom. (Actually, the authorities in Stalybridge, Cheshire had set up their own police force some two years earlier and so Peel was aware of this success of "police forces" before he "introduced" them in London. [citation needed] The city of Glasgow, Scotland had also had its own police force since 1800.) Known as the father of modern policing, Robert Peel developed the Peelian Principles which defined the ethical requirements police officers must follow in order to be effective. His most memorable principle was, "the police are the public, and the public are the police." The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) (usually just referred to as the Metropolitan Police, its former official name, or the Met) is the territorial police force in Greater London, England, with the exception of the square mile of the City of London, which has its own police force, the City of... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom (UK) does not have one single police service serving the general public; with the exception of various special police forces and of Northern Ireland (which has one unified force, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)), police forces... Statistics Population: 22,568 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SJ963985 Administration District: Tameside Metropolitan county: Greater Manchester Region: North West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Greater Manchester Historic county: Cheshire / Lancashire Services Police force: Greater Manchester Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: North... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The City of Glasgow Police was one of the first professional police forces in modern history. ... Peelian Reform addresses the philosophy that Robert Peel provided to establish an ethical police force. ...


Researchers [Susan A. Lentz and Robert H. Chaires, "The Invention of Peel's Principles: A Study of Policing 'Textbook' History", Journal of Criminal Justice 35 (2007) 69-79] have since concluded that Peel's list of principles was more likely authored by twentieth century policing scholars than by Peel himself. While Peel discussed the spirit of some of the principles in his speeches and other communications, Lentz and Chaires found no proof that he ever actually compiled a formal list.


Whigs in power (1830-1834)

The Earl Grey
Prime Minister 1830-34

The Middle and Working Classes in England at that time, however, were clamoring for reform, and Catholic Emancipation was only one of the ideas in the air. The Tory ministry refused to bend on other issues and were swept out of office in 1830 in favour of the Whigs. The following few years were extremely turbulent, but eventually enough reforms were passed that King William IV felt confident enough to invite the Tories to form a ministry again in succession to those of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne in 1834. Peel was selected as Prime Minister but was in Italy at the time, so Wellington acted as a caretaker for the three weeks until Peel's return. Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ...


First term as Prime Minister (1834-1835)

Main article: First Peel Ministry

This new Tory Ministry was a minority government, however, and depended on Whig goodwill for its continued existence. As his statement of policy at the general election of January 1835, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto. The issuing of this document is often seen as one of the most crucial points at which the Tories became the Conservative Party. In it he pledged that the Conservatives would endorse modest reform, but the Whigs instead formed a compact with Daniel O'Connell's Irish Radical members to repeatedly defeat the government on various bills. Eventually Peel's ministry resigned out of frustration and the Whigs under Lord Melbourne returned to power. The only real achievements of Peel's first administration was a commission to review the governance of the Church of England. This ecclesiastical commission being the forerunner of the Church Commissioners. A further achievement was a rapid gain in seats in the House of Commons which was around 100 seats in the 100 days Peel's Ministry lasted. Sir Robert Peel, Bt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1834-1835, 1841-1846. ... The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1835 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Daniel OConnell Daniel OConnell (6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847) (Irish: Dónal Ó Conaill), known as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was Irelands predominant political leader in the first half of the nineteenth century who championed the cause of the down-trodden Catholic population. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Church Commissioners are a body managing the historic property assets of the Church of England. ...


Leader of the Opposition (1835-1841)

In May 1839, he was offered another chance to form a government, this time by the new monarch, Queen Victoria. However, this too would have been a minority government and Peel felt he needed a further sign of confidence from his Queen. Lord Melbourne had been Victoria's confidant for several years, and many of the higher posts in Victoria's household were held by the wives and female relatives of Whigs; there was some feeling that Victoria had allowed herself to be too closely associated with the Whig party. Peel therefore asked that some of this coterie be dismissed and replaced with their Conservative counterparts, provoking the so-called Bedchamber Crisis. Victoria refused to change her household, and despite pleadings from the Duke of Wellington, relied on assurances of support from Whig leaders. Peel refused to form a government, and the Whigs returned to power. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... The Bedchamber crisis (May 1839) is the unofficial name for the crisis that took place under Queen Victoria during a change of Her Majestys government. ...


Second term as Prime Minister (1841-1846)

Main article: Second Peel Ministry

Sir Robert Peel, Bt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1834-1835, 1841-1846. ...

Factory Act

Peel finally had a chance to head a majority government following the election of July 1841. His promise of modest reform was held to, and the second most famous bill of this ministry, while "reforming" in 21st century eyes, was in fact aimed at the reformers themselves, with their constituency among the new industrial rich. The Factory Act 1844 acted more against these industrialists than it did against the traditional stronghold of the Conservatives, the landed gentry, by restricting the number of hours that children and women could work in a factory, and setting rudimentary safety standards for machinery. Interestingly, this was a continuation of his own father's work as an MP, as the elder Robert Peel was most noted for reform of working conditions during the first part of the 19th century. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Landed gentry is a term traditionally applied in Britain to members of the upper class with country estates often (but not always) farmed on their behalf by others, and who might be without a peerage or other hereditary title. ...


In 1843 Peel was the target of a failed assassination attempt; a criminally-insane Scottish woodsman named Daniel M'Naghten stalked him for several days before accidentally killing Peel's personal secretary Edward Drummond instead. This article is about the MNaghten case. ... Edward Drummond (1792–25 April 1843) was a civil servant and Personal Secretary to Robert Peel, the British Prime Minister. ...


Corn Laws and after

The Earl Russell
Prime Minister 1846-52, 1865-66

The most notable act of Peel's second ministry, however, was the one that would bring it down. This time Peel moved against the landholders by repealing the Corn Laws, which supported agricultural revenues by restricting grain imports. This radical break with Conservative protectionism was triggered by the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849). At first sceptical of the extent of the problem, Peel reacted slowly to the famine. As realisation dawned, however, he hoped that ending the Corn Laws would free up more food for the Irish. Though he knew repealing the laws would mean the end of his ministry, Peel decided to do so. Yet many historians[weasel words] believe that Peel merely used the Irish Famine as an excuse to repeal the Corn Laws, having been an intellectual convert to free trade since the 1820s. Blake points out that if Peel was convinced that total repeal was necessary to stave off the famine, he should have enacted a bill that brought about immediate temporary repeal, not permanent repeal over a three-year period of gradual tapering-off of duties. His own party failed to support the bill, but it passed with Whig and Radical support on 29 June 1846. A following bill was defeated as a direct consequence, however, and Peel resigned. Lord John Russell This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Lord John Russell This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Benjamin DisraeliPrime Minister 1868, 1874-80
Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister 1868, 1874-80

As an aside in reference to the Repeal of the Corn Laws, Peel did make some moves to subsidise the purchase of food for the Irish, but this attempt was small and had little tangible effect. In the age of laissez-faire, government taxes were small, and subsidies or direct economic interference were almost non-existent. That subsidies were actually given was very much out of character for the political times; Peel's successor, Lord John Russell, has received more criticism than Peel has on Irish policy. The repeal of the Corn Laws was more political than humanitarian. Peel's support for free trade could already be seen in his 1842 and 1845 budgets; in late 1842 Graham wrote to Peel that "the next change in the Corn Laws must be to an open trade", while arguing that the government should not tackle the issue.[2] Speaking to the cabinet in 1844, Peel argued that the choice was maintenance of the 1842 Corn Law or total repeal.[3] Whatever the intentions, in the end the repeal of the Corn Laws had little effect on the situation in Ireland. Image File history File links Benjamin_Disraeli,_1st_Earl_of_Beaconsfield_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Image File history File links Benjamin_Disraeli,_1st_Earl_of_Beaconsfield_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sir James Robert George Graham, 2nd Baronet (1 June 1792 - 25 October 1861) was a British statesman. ... Jan. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The historian Boyd Hilton argues that Peel knew from 1844 that he was going to be deposed as Conservative leader—many of his MPs had taken to voting against him and the rupture within the party between liberals and paternalists which had been so damaging in the 1820s, but masked by the issue of reform in the 1830s was brought to the surface over the Corn Laws. Hilton's hypothesis is that Peel wished to actually be deposed on a liberal issue so that he might later lead a Peelite/Whig/Liberal alliance.


Later career and death

He did retain a hard core of supporters however, known as Peelites, and at one point in 1849 was actively courted by the Whig/Radical coalition. He continued to stand on his conservative principles, however, and refused. Nevertheless, he was influential on several important issues, including the furtherance of British free trade with the repeal of the Navigation Acts. Peel was a member of the committee which controlled the House of Commons Library, and on 16 April 1850 was responsible for passing the motion that controlled its scope and collection policy for the rest of the century. The Peelites (or Liberal Conservatives as they were also occasionally known) are those MPs and Peers who remained loyal to British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel following the break up of the British Conservative Party on the issue of abolishing the Corn Laws in 1846. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ... The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Peel was thrown from his horse while riding up Constitution Hill in London on 29 June 1850, the horse stumbled on top of him and he died three days later on July 2 at the age of 62. His Peelite followers, led by Lord Aberdeen and William Gladstone, went on to fuse with the Whigs as the Liberal Party. Constitution Hill is a road in the City of Westminster, London England. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, PC (January 28, 1784–December 14, 1860) was a Tory/Peelite politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ...


Family

Peel married Julia, youngest daughter of General Sir John Floyd, 1st Baronet, in 1820. They had five sons and two daughters. Four of his sons gained distinction in their own right. His eldest son Sir Robert Peel, 3rd Baronet, served as Chief Secretary for Ireland from 1861 to 1865. His second son Sir Frederick Peel was a politician and railway commissioner. His third son Sir William Peel was a naval commander and recipient of the Victoria Cross. His fifth son Arthur Wellesley Peel was Speaker of the House of Commons and created Viscount Peel in 1895. Julia, Lady Peel, died in 1859. Sir Robert Peel, 3rd Baronet GCB (4 May 1822 – 9 May 1895) was a British politician. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ... Sir Frederick Peel (1823-1906), second son of the Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel, was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, becoming a barrister in 1849. ... Captain Sir William Peel VC KCB (2 November 1824–27 April 1858) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable Arthur Wellesley Peel, 1st Viscount Peel (3 August 1829 - 24 October 1912), Speaker of the British House of Commons 1884-95, was the youngest son of the Conservative Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel, and was named after the Duke of Wellington. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... The title of Earl Peel was created in 1929 for William Wellesley Peel, 2nd Viscount Peel, a Conservative politician. ...


In Memory of Sir Robert Peel

Statue in Parliament Square, London
Statue in Parliament Square, London

Peel Tower Monument, this tower was built on top of Holcombe Hill in Ramsbottom, Bury. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 385 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Peel ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 385 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Peel ... For other uses, see Parliament Square (disambiguation). ... The memorial tower to Sir Robert Peel high above Ramsbottom was planned and erected at the same time as Bury was preparing its statue to the recently deceased statesman. ... Ramsbottom is a small town on the border of Lancashire and Greater Manchester, England. ... This article is about the town of Bury in North West England. ...


There is a statue of Sir Robert Peel outside the Robert Peel public house in Bury town centre, the town where Peel was born.


There is a small statue of Sir Robert Peel on Winckley Square in Preston city centre. Winckley Square is situated in the centre of Preston, Lancashire, between Avenham Park and Fishergate. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ...


A British steamer named SS Sir Robert Peel, based in Canada, was burned by American forces on May 29, 1838, at the height of American-Canadian tensions over the Caroline Affair. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Caroline Affair refers to a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Canada (and thus Britain). ...


A statue of Peel stands in Montrose town centre. Montrose is the name of several places in the world. ...


The Regional Municipality of Peel (originally Peel County) in Ontario, Canada is named for Sir Robert Peel. Motto: Working for you Area: 1,241. ...


Peel Street (rue Peel in French), is a street in Montréal, and from that comes the name of nearby Metro station. {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... The Montreal Metro is the main form of public transportation within the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Peel Peel is a station on the Green Line of the Montreal Metro, located in downtown Montreal in the borough of Ville-Marie. ...


The Sir Robert Peel Hotel ("The Peel") is a Gay Bar on Peel Street in Collingwood, Victoria Melbourne Australia. Collingwood is an inner city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ...


The Sir Robert Peel Hospital in Tamworth. For other places named Tamworth, see Tamworth (disambiguation). ...


A small monument in the center of the town of Dronfield (Derbyshire) Dronfield is a town in northeast Derbyshire, England // Situated between Sheffield and Chesterfield on the River Drone, Dronfield lies on the B6057 (Chesterfield Road and Sheffield Road). ...


Tamworth-raised musician Julian Cope sings "the king and queen have offered me the estate of Robert Peel" on the song 'O King of Chaos', from his 1984 LP Fried. For other places named Tamworth, see Tamworth (disambiguation). ... Julian Cope (born Julian David Cope, on 21 October 1957) is a British rock musician, writer, antiquary, musicologist, and poet who came to prominence as singer of Liverpool post-punk band The Teardrop Explodes in 1978. ... Fried was the second solo album by Julian Cope. ...


Sir Robert Peel's governments

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See also

Daniel MNaghten (Pronounced McNaughten) (1815? – 1865) was a Scottish woodsman who assassinated English civil servant Edward Drummond while suffering from paranoid delusions. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gash, Mr. Secretary Peel, 59-61; 68-69.
  2. ^ Quoted in Gash, Sir Robert Peel, 362.
  3. ^ Gash, Sir Robert Peel, 429.

References

  • Gash, Norman (1961). Mr. Secretary Peel: The Life of Sir Robert Peel to 1830. New York: Longmans. 
  • Gash, Norman (1972). Sir Robert Peel: The Life of Sir Robert Peel after 1830. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0874711320. 
  • Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page
  • Stephen, Sir Leslie and Sir Sidney Lee (editors). The Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900. Volume XV Owens-Pockrich. Oxford University Press.

Norman Gash was the sole biographer of Sir Robert Peel, he published two volumes of his life; the first was entitled Mr Secretary Peel and followed his life up until 1830. ... Norman Gash was the sole biographer of Sir Robert Peel, he published two volumes of his life; the first was entitled Mr Secretary Peel and followed his life up until 1830. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

Offices held

Political offices
Preceded by
William Wellesley-Pole
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1812 – 1818
Succeeded by
Charles Grant
Preceded by
The Viscount Sidmouth
Home Secretary
1822 – 1827
Succeeded by
William Sturges-Bourne
Preceded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Home Secretary
1828 – 1830
Succeeded by
The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by
William Huskisson
Leader of the House of Commons
1828 – 1830
Succeeded by
The Viscount Althorp
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
(caretaker, preceded by)
The Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
10 December 1834 – 8 April 1835
Succeeded by
The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by
The Lord Denman
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1834 – 1835
Succeeded by
Thomas Spring Rice
Preceded by
Lord John Russell
Leader of the House of Commons
1834 – 1835
Succeeded by
Lord John Russell
Preceded by
The Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
30 August 1841 – 29 June 1846
Preceded by
Lord John Russell
Leader of the House of Commons
1841 – 1846
Parliament of the United Kingdom (1801–present)
Preceded by
Quintin Dick
Member of Parliament for Cashel
1809 – 1812
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Saxton
Preceded by
John Maitland
James Dawkins
Member of Parliament for Chippenham
with Charles Brooke

1812 – 1817
Succeeded by
Charles Brooke
John Maitland
Preceded by
William Scott
Charles Abbot
Member of Parliament for Oxford University
with William Scott 1817–1821
Richard Heber 1821–1826
Thomas Grimston Bucknall Estcourt 1826–1829

1817 – 1829
Succeeded by
Thomas Grimston Bucknall Estcourt
Sir Robert Inglis
Preceded by
Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes
Sir George Warrender
Member of Parliament for Westbury
with Sir George Warrender

1829 – 1830
Succeeded by
Sir Alexander Grant
Michael George Prendergast
Preceded by
William Yates Peel
Lord Charles Townshend
Member of Parliament for Tamworth
with Lord Charles Townshend 1830–1835
William Yates Peel 1835–1837, 1847
Edward Henry A'Court 1837–1847
John Townshend 1847–1850

1830 – 1850
Succeeded by
John Townshend
Sir Robert Peel
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1834 – 1846
Succeeded by
The Lord Stanley
First
None recognized before
Conservative Leader in the Commons
1834 – 1846
Succeeded by
The Lord George Bentinck
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Lord Stanley
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1836 – 1838
Succeeded by
Sir James Graham
Baronetage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Peel
Baronet
(of Drayton Manor)
1830 – 1850
Succeeded by
Robert Peel

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) (2101 words)
Robert Peel twice served as Prime Minister: from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835 and from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846.
Peel, the the eldest son and third of eleven children of Robert Peel (the first Baronet) and Ellen Yates, was born on 5 February 1788 at Chamber Hall near Bury in Lancashire.
Peel made his forty-minute long maiden speech on 23 January 1810 in which he seconded the reply to the King's speech at the opening of parliament; for his efforts, he was applauded by those who heard him speak.
Sir Robert Peel (418 words)
During the depression of 1826, it was Peel who organised the response to the widespread unrest that was gripping Lancashire's textile regions and, three years later, after a brief spell out of office, he introduced his Metropolitan Police Act.
Peel expanded on the idea, and his system was quickly copied by other cities and towns before spreading across the world.
Peel was elected to his late father's Tamworth seat in 1830 and in 1834 became Prime Minister in a minority Conservative government, issuing his Tamworth Manifesto promising Tory support for modest electoral reform.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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