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Encyclopedia > Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer

J. Robert Oppenheimer, "the father of the atomic bomb", worked on the first nuclear weapons before becoming a government advisor.
Born April 22, 1904
New York, New York
Died February 18, 1967 (aged 62)
Princeton, New Jersey
Residence USA
Nationality American
Institutions Manhattan Project
University of California, Berkeley
Institute for Advanced Study
Alma mater Harvard University
University of Cambridge
University of Göttingen
Known for Atomic bomb development
Religious stance Jewish (non-practicing)

J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. Known as "the father of the atomic bomb," at the Trinity test, he said, quoting from the Bhagavad Gita, "If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one. Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." Download high resolution version (524x721, 182 KB)J. Robert Oppenheimer, first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


After the war, Oppenheimer was a chief advisor to the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission and used that position to lobby for international control of atomic energy and to avert the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. After invoking the ire of many politicians and scientists with his outspoken political opinions during the Red Scare, he had his security clearance revoked in a much-publicized and politicized hearing in 1954. Though stripped of his direct political influence, Oppenheimer continued to lecture, write, and work in physics. A decade later, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation. Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. ... Atomic energy is an outdated phrase which can mean a number of things related to energy produced by atoms: In the late- 19th century through the early- 20th century, it was often used to describe the particles ejected by radioactive elements (especially radium). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... A typical classified document. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ... The Enrico Fermi Award is a U.S. government Presidential award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy. ... Political rehabilitation is the process by which a member of a political organization or government who has fallen into disgrace is restored to public life. ...


As a scientist, Oppenheimer is remembered most for being the chief founder of the American school of theoretical physics while at the University of California, Berkeley. At the Institute for Advanced Study, he would hold Einstein's old position of senior professor of theoretical physics. Oppenheimer's notable achievements in physics include the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, as well as work on electron-positron theory, the Oppenheimer-Phillips process, quantum tunneling, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, black holes, and cosmic rays. This article is about the profession. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... Einstein redirects here. ... The Born-Oppenheimer approximation, also known as the adiabatic approximation, is a technique used in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics in order to de-couple the motion of nuclei and electrons (i. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... The Oppenheimer-Phillips process or strip reaction is a special type of nuclear reaction. ... Quantum tunneling is the quantum-mechanical effect of transitioning through a classically-forbidden energy state. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...

Contents

Childhood and Education

Robert Oppenheimer was born to Julius S. Oppenheimer, a wealthy textile importer, who had immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1888, and Ella Friedman, a painter. He had one brother, Frank, eight years younger, who also became a physicist. Frank Friedman Oppenheimer (August 14, 1912 – February 3, 1985) was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, was a target of McCarthyism, and was later the founder of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. ...


Oppenheimer studied at the Ethical Culture Society School, founded by Felix Adler to promote a form of ethical training based on the Ethical Culture movement, which had the informal motto "Deeds before creeds." At the school, he studied mathematics and science, as well as subjects ranging from Greek to French literature. Oppenheimer was a versatile scholar, interested in the humanities and in psychotherapy, as well as science. He entered Harvard University one year late due to an attack of colitis. During the interim, he went with a former English teacher to recuperate in New Mexico, where he fell in love with horseback riding and the mountains and plateau of the Southwest. At Harvard, he majored in chemistry, but also studied topics beyond science, including Greek, architecture, classics, art, and literature. He made up for the delay caused by his illness, taking six courses each term and graduating summa cum laude in just three years. The Ethical Culture Fieldston School, known as Fieldston, is a private independent school in New York City and a member of the Ivy Preparatory School League. ... Felix Adler (1851–1933) was a Jewish rationalist intellectual who founded the Society for Ethical Culture in New York, New York. ... The Ethical Culture Movement is a non-sectarian, ethico-religious and educational movement. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


At Harvard, Oppenheimer was admitted to graduate standing in physics in his first year as an undergraduate, on the basis of independent study. As an undergraduate, he never took a class in physics. During a course on thermodynamics taught by Percy Bridgman, Oppenheimer was introduced to experimental physics and found himself drawn to the subject. In 1933 he learned Sanskrit and met the Indologist Arthur W. Ryder at Berkeley, and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life.[2] Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Percy Williams Bridgman (April 21, 1882–August 20, 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


Europe

After graduating from Harvard, Oppenheimer was encouraged to go to Europe for future study, as a world-class education in modern physics was not then available in the United States. He was accepted for postgraduate work at Ernest Rutherford's famed Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, working under the eminent but aging J.J. Thomson. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Sir Joseph John Thomson, OM , FRS (December 18, 1756 – August 30, 1940) often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ...


Oppenheimer's clumsiness in the laboratory made it apparent that his forte was theoretical, not experimental physics, so he left in 1926 for the University of Göttingen to study under Max Born. Göttingen was one of the top centers for theoretical physics in the world, and Oppenheimer made a number of friends who would go on to great success, such as Werner Heisenberg, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller. At Göttingen, Oppenheimer was known for being a quick student.[3] However, he was also known for being too enthusiastic in discussions, sometimes to the point of taking over seminar sessions, a fact that irritated some of Max Born's pupils so much that they signed a petition to make Oppenheimer stay quiet during class (Born left it out on his desk where Oppenheimer could read it, and it was effective without a word needing to be said). In 1927 Oppenheimer obtained his Ph.D. at the young age of 22 at the University of Göttingen, supervised by Born. After the oral exam for his Ph.D., the professor administering it is reported to have said, "Phew, I'm glad that's over. He was on the point of questioning me."[4] At Göttingen, Oppenheimer published more than a dozen articles, including many important contributions to the then newly-developed quantum theory. Most notably he and Born published a famous paper on the so-called "Born-Oppenheimer approximation," which separates nuclear motion from electronic motion in the mathematical treatment of molecules, an action which allows nuclear motion to be neglected in order to simplify calculations. The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The Born-Oppenheimer approximation, also known as the adiabatic approximation, is a technique used in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics in order to de-couple the motion of nuclei and electrons (i. ...


Early professional work

In September 1927, Oppenheimer returned to Harvard as a young maven of mathematical physics and a National Research Council Fellow, and in early 1928 he studied at the California Institute of Technology. A maven (also mavin or mayvin) is regarded by cohorts as a trusted expert in a particular field, and who seeks to pass his or her knowledge on to others. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...


While at Caltech he received numerous invitations for teaching positions, and accepted an assistant professorship in physics at the University of California, Berkeley. In his words, "it was a desert", yet paradoxically a fertile place of opportunity. He maintained a joint appointment with Caltech, where he spent every spring term to avoid isolation from mainstream research. At Caltech, Oppenheimer struck a close friendship with Linus Pauling and they planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond, a field in which Pauling was a pioneer—apparently Oppenheimer would supply the mathematics and Pauling would interpret the results. However, this collaboration, and their friendship, was nipped in the bud when Pauling began to suspect that the theorist was becoming too close to his wife, Ava Helen.[5] Once when Pauling was at work, Oppenheimer had come to their place and blurted out an invitation to Ava Helen to join him on a tryst in Mexico. She flatly refused and reported this incident to Pauling. This, and her apparent nonchalance about the incident, disquieted him, and he immediately cut off his relationship with the Berkeley professor. Oppenheimer later invited Pauling to be the head of the Chemistry Division of the atomic bomb project but Pauling refused, saying that he was a pacifist. Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ...


In the autumn of 1928, Oppenheimer visited Paul Ehrenfest's institute at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, where he impressed those there by giving lectures in Dutch despite having little experience with the language. There he was given the nickname of "Opje," which was later Anglicized by his students as "Oppie". From Leiden he continued on to Zurich, Switzerland to work with Wolfgang Pauli on problems relating to quantum theory and the continuous spectrum before heading back to the United States. Oppenheimer highly respected and liked Pauli, and some of his own style and his critical approach to problems was said to be inspired by Pauli. During his time with Ehrenfest and Pauli, Oppenheimer polished his mathematical skills. Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ...


Before his Berkeley professorship began, Oppenheimer was diagnosed with a mild case of tuberculosis and, with his brother Frank, spent some weeks at a ranch in New Mexico, which he leased and eventually purchased. When he heard the ranch was available for lease, he exclaimed, "Hot dog!"—and later on the name of the ranch became "Perro Caliente," which is the translation of "hot dog" into Spanish.[6] Later, Oppenheimer used to say that "physics and desert country" were his "two great loves", loves that would be combined when he directed the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos in New Mexico.[7] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Frank Friedman Oppenheimer (August 14, 1912 – February 3, 1985) was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, was a target of McCarthyism, and was later the founder of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. ...


He recovered from his tuberculosis and returned to Berkeley where he prospered as an advisor and collaborator to a generation of physicists who admired him for his intellectual virtuosity and broad interests. Nobel Prize winner Hans Bethe later said about him: Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ...

Probably the most important ingredient Oppenheimer brought to his teaching was his exquisite taste. He always knew what were the important problems, as shown by his choice of subjects. He truly lived with those problems, struggling for a solution, and he communicated his concern to the group.[8]

He also worked closely with (and became good friends with) Nobel Prize winning experimental physicist Ernest O. Lawrence and his cyclotron pioneers, helping the experimentalists understand the data their machines were producing at the Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 - August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate best known for his invention of the cyclotron. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), formerly the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and usually shortened to Berkeley Lab or LBL, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. ...


Oppenheimer became known as a founding father of the American school of theoretical physics, and developed a reputation for his erudition in physics, his eclecticism, his quick mind, his interest in languages and Eastern philosophy, and the eloquence and clarity with which he thought. But he was also emotionally troubled throughout his life, and professed to experiencing periods of depression. "I need physics more than friends," he once informed his brother.[9] A tall, thin chain smoker who often neglected to eat during periods of intellectual discomfort and concentration, Oppenheimer was marked by many of his friends as having a self-destructive tendency and, during numerous periods of his life, worried his colleagues and associates with his melancholy and insecurity. When he was studying in Cambridge and had taken a vacation to meet up with his friend Francis Ferguson in Paris, a disturbing event had taken place. During a conversation in which Oppenheimer was narrating his frustration with experimental physics to Ferguson, he had suddenly leapt up and tried to strangle him. Although Ferguson easily fended off the attack, the episode had convinced Ferguson of his friend's deep psychological troubles.[10] Oppenheimer developed numerous affectations, seemingly in an attempt to convince those around him—or possibly himself—of his self-worth. He was said to be mesmerizing, hypnotic in private interaction but often frigid in more public settings. His associates fell into two camps: one that saw him as an aloof and impressive genius and an aesthete; another that saw him as a pretentious and insecure poseur. His students almost always fell into the former category, adopting "Oppie's" affectations, from his way of walking to talking and beyond—even trying to replicate his inclination for reading entire texts in their originally transcribed languages.[11] Chain smoking is the practice of lighting a new cigarette for personal consumption immediately after one that is finished, sometimes using the finished cigarette to light the next one. ...


Scientific work

Oppenheimer's intelligence and charisma attracted students from across the country to Berkeley to study theoretical physics.
Oppenheimer's intelligence and charisma attracted students from across the country to Berkeley to study theoretical physics.

Oppenheimer did important research in theoretical astronomy (especially as it relates to general relativity and nuclear theory), nuclear physics, spectroscopy, and quantum field theory (including its extension into quantum electrodynamics). The formalism of relativistic quantum mechanics also attracted his attention, although because of the then existing well-known problem of the self-energy of the electron, he doubted the validity of quantum electrodynamics at high energies. His best-known contribution, made as a graduate student, is the Born-Oppenheimer approximation mentioned above. He also made important contributions to the theory of cosmic ray showers and did work that eventually led toward descriptions of quantum tunneling. His work on the Oppenheimer-Phillips process, involved in artificial radioactivity under bombardment by deuterons, has served as an important step in nuclear physics. In the late 1930s, he, along with the help of Hartland Snyder, was the first to write papers suggesting the existence of what we today call black holes. In these papers, he demonstrated that there was a size limit (the so called Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit) to stars beyond which they would not remain stable as neutron stars, and would undergo gravitational collapse. After the Born-Oppenheimer approximation paper, these papers remain his most cited ones, and they were key in the rejuvenation of astrophysical research in the United States in the 1950s, mainly by John Wheeler. As early as 1930, he also wrote a paper essentially predicting the existence of the positron (which had been postulated by Paul Dirac), a formulation that he however did not carry to its natural outcome, because of his skepticism about the validity of the Dirac equation. As evidenced above, his work predicts many later finds, which include, further, the neutron, meson, and neutron star. He was known also to have midwifed Robert Marshak's innovative 2-meson hypothesis which led to Cecil Frank Powell's breakthrough—and a Nobel Prize later (mentioned in the new Pulitzer Prize biography book, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin). Even beyond the immense abstruseness of the topics he was expert in, Oppenheimer's papers were considered difficult to understand. Oppenheimer was very fond of using elegant, if extremely complex, mathematical techniques to demonstrate physical principles though he was sometimes criticized for making mathematical mistakes, presumably out of haste. Portrait of Robert Oppenheimer from Los Alamos, ca. ... Portrait of Robert Oppenheimer from Los Alamos, ca. ... Theoretical astrophysics is the discipline that seeks to explain the phenomena observed by astronomers in physical terms with a theoretic approach. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... In theoretical physics, a particles self-energy represents the contribution to the particles energy or effective mass due to interactions between the particle and the system it is apart of. ... The Born-Oppenheimer approximation, also known as the adiabatic approximation, is a technique used in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics in order to de-couple the motion of nuclei and electrons (i. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Quantum tunneling is the quantum-mechanical effect of transitioning through a classically-forbidden energy state. ... The Oppenheimer-Phillips process or strip reaction is a special type of nuclear reaction. ... ... This article is about the astronomical body. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the celestial body. ... John Archibald Wheeler (born 1911) is an American theoretical physicist. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... For the story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cecil Frank Powell (December 5, 1903 - August 9, 1969) was a British physicist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a heavy subatomic particle. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Kai Bird is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning author and columnist, best known for his biographies of political figures. ... Martin J. Sherwin is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian. ...


Many people thought that Oppenheimer's discoveries and research were not commensurate with his inherent abilities and talents. They still considered him an outstanding physicist, but they did not place him at the very top rank of theorists who fundamentally challenged the frontiers of knowledge.[12] One reason for this could have been his diverse interests, which kept him from completely focusing on any individual topic for long enough to bring it to full fruition. His close confidant and colleague, Nobel Prize winner Isidor Rabi, later gave his own interpretation: Isidor Isaac Rabi (July 29, 1898 - January 11, 1988) was an American physicist of Austro-Hungarian origin. ...

Oppenheimer was overeducated in those fields, which lie outside the scientific tradition, such as his interest in religion, in the Hindu religion in particular, which resulted in a feeling of mystery of the universe that surrounded him like a fog. He saw physics clearly, looking toward what had already been done, but at the border he tended to feel there was much more of the mysterious and novel than there actually was...[he turned] away from the hard, crude methods of theoretical physics into a mystical realm of broad intuition.[13]

In spite of this, some people (such as the Nobel Prize winner physicist Luis Alvarez) have suggested that if he had lived long enough to see his predictions substantiated by experiment, Oppenheimer might have won a Nobel Prize for his work on gravitational collapse, concerning neutron stars and black holes.[14] In retrospect, some physicists and historians consider this to be his most important contribution, though it was not taken up by other scientists in his own lifetime.[15] Interestingly, when the physicist and historian Abraham Pais once asked Oppenheimer about what he considered to be his most important scientific contributions, Oppenheimer cited his work on electrons and positrons, but did not mention anything about his work on gravitational contraction.[16] Portrait of Luis Alvarez Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) of San Francisco, California, USA, was a famed physicist of Spanish descent, who worked at the University of California, Berkeley. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ...


Radical politics

During the 1920s, Oppenheimer kept himself aloof of worldly matters, and claimed not to have learned of the Stock Market Crash of 1929 until some time after the fact. Only when he became involved with Jean Tatlock, the daughter of a Berkeley literature professor, in 1936, did he show any interest in politics. Like many young intellectuals in the 1930s he became a supporter of social reforms which were later alleged to be communist ideas. After inheriting over $300,000 (equivalent to about $4.3 million in 2006 dollars) upon his father's death in 1937, he donated to many progressive efforts which were later branded as "left-wing" during the McCarthy era. The majority of his allegedly radical work consisted of hosting fundraisers for the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War and other anti-fascist activity. He never openly joined the Communist Party, though he did pass money to liberal causes by way of acquaintances who were alleged to be Party members.[17] Historian Gregg Herken has recently claimed to have evidence that Oppenheimer did interact with the Communist Party during the 1930s and early 1940s.[18] The 1929 stock market crash devastated economies worldwide The Wall Street Crash refers to the stock market crash that occurred on October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, leading eventually to the Great Depression. ... Jean Tatlock briefly dated Manhattan Project scientific leader J. Robert Oppenheimer while she was a graduate student in psychology at Stanford University in 1936 while he was a professor of physics at University of California, Berkeley. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...


Oppenheimer’s brother Frank, Frank’s wife Jackie,[19] Oppenheimer’s own wife Kitty Oppenheimer (widow of Communist political commissar Joe Dallet, killed in the Spanish Civil War),[20] his mistress, Jean Tatlock, and his landlady were all active members of the Communist Party.[21][22] Jean Tatlock briefly dated Manhattan Project scientific leader J. Robert Oppenheimer while she was a graduate student in psychology at Stanford University in 1936 while he was a professor of physics at University of California, Berkeley. ...


In addition, several of Oppenheimer’s graduate students at Berkeley, including Joe Weinberg, Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, David Bohm and Philip Morrison were Communist Party members.[23] Lomanitz Ross Lomanitz (1921 - 2003) was born in Oklahoma and grew up in of Bryan, Texas. ... David Bohm. ... Philip Morrison, (November 7, 1915 – April 22, 2005), was institute Professor, Emeritus and Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ...


Oppenheimer laughingly agreed with a security agent's quip during an interview that he (Oppenheimer) was “a member of just about every Communist Front organization on the West Coast,” but he did not know he was being taped, and that the words would more significantly be put into his own mouth in records presented at his trial a decade later, without informing him that the transcript was not being strictly followed. [24][25] He was a subscriber to the People’s World,[26] a Communist Party organ, and he testified in 1954, “I was associated with the Communist movement.”[27]


In 1937-42, in the midst of the Great Purge and Hitler-Stalin pact, Oppenheimer was a member at Berkeley of what he called a "discussion group," which was later identified by fellow members Haakon Chevalier[28][29] and Gordon Griffiths[30] as a “closed” (secret) unit of the Communist Party for Berkeley faculty. If Oppenheimer was not a Communist, he was the only member of this group who was not.[31] The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... Haakon Maurice Chevalier (September 10, 1901 — July 4, 1985) was an author, translator, and professor of French literature at the University of California, Berkeley best known for his friendship with physicist Robert Oppenheimer whom he met at Berkeley in 1937. ...


Surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation recorded that J. Robert Oppenheimer attended a meeting in the home of self-proclaimed Communist Haakon Chevalier with the Communist Party’s California state chairman William Schneiderman and Isaac Folkoff, West Coast liaison between the Communist Party and Soviet intelligence,in Fall 1940, during the Hitler-Stalin pact.[32] Shortly thereafter, the FBI added Oppenheimer to its Custodial Detention Index, listed as “Nationalistic Tendency: Communist.”[33] F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Haakon Maurice Chevalier (September 10, 1901 — July 4, 1985) was an author, translator, and professor of French literature at the University of California, Berkeley best known for his friendship with physicist Robert Oppenheimer whom he met at Berkeley in 1937. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... Isaac Folkoff was a senior member of the California Communist Party and West Coast liason between Soviet intelligence and the Communist Party of the United Sttates of American CPUSA. Folkoff worked as a courtier passing information to and from Soviet sources, and as a talent spotter and vetter of potential... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... Custodial Detention Index (CDI) was based on massive list of US residents compiled by FBI during 1939-1941, in the frame of a program called variously Custodial Detention and/or Alien Enemy Control. The Custodial Detention Index was a list of suspects and potential subversives classified as A, B, and...


A 1943 FBI report summarizing recent surveillance reported that Hannah Peters, organizer of the Doctor's Branch of the Professional Section of the Communist Party, told Communist Party National Committee member Steve Nelson, the organizer for Alameda County, "that Dr. OPPIE, believed by the informant to be J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER ... could not be active in the Party at the present time." The report continued, reporting that Alameda County Communist Party Secretary Bernadette Doyle proposed that the Alameda County Communist Party confer with the State Committee of the Communist Party regarding "the two OPPIES, inasmuch as they were regularly registered (as members of the Communist Party) and everyone in the county knew they were Communists. It is believed that the two OPPIES mentioned above had reference to subject J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER and his brother FRANK OPPENHEIMER."[34] Steve Nelson is an alias of Stephen Mesarosh, who was born in Chaglich, Croatia in 1903. ...


In a 1944 letter to Soviet Commissar for Internal Affairs Lavrenty Beria, NKVD chief Boris Merkulov reported: Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...

In 1942 one of the leaders of scientific work on uranium in the USA, Professor Oppenheimer while being an unlisted [neglastny] member of the apparatus of [American Communist Party Secretary] Comrade Browder informed us about the beginning of work. On the request of [NKVD San Francisco station chief] Comrade [Grigoriy] Kheifitz,[35] confirmed by Comrade Browder, he provided cooperation in access to research for several of our tested sources including a relative of Comrade Browder.[36]

Merkulov added: Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891–June 27, 1973) was an American socialist and leader of the Communist Party USA. // Early years Browder was born in Wichita, Kansas. ...

Due to complications of the operational situation in the USA, dissolution of the Comintern and explanations of Comrades Zarubin and Kheifitz on the Mironov affair it is expedient to immediately sever contacts of leaders and activists of the American Communist Party with scientists and specialists engaged in work on uranium.[37]

Many debates over Oppenheimer's Party membership or lack thereof have turned on very fine points; almost all historians agree he had strong socialist sympathies during this time, and interacted with Party members, though there is considerable dispute over whether he was officially a member of the Party or not.[38] Oppenheimer himself at his 1954 security clearance hearings denied being a member of the Communist Party, but identified himself as a fellow traveler, which he defined as someone who agrees with many of the goals of Communism, but without being willing to blindly follow orders from any Communist party apparatus. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin (1894–1972). ... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ...


Marriage and family life

In November 1940, Oppenheimer married Katherine ("Kitty") Puening Harrison, a radical Berkeley student and former Communist Party member. Harrison had been married twice previously, first to Joe Dallet, a Communist Party and union activist who was killed in the Spanish civil war. She divorced her second husband, a southern California doctor, to marry Oppenheimer.


By May 1941 they had their first child, Peter. Oppenheimer joked that the 8 lb. baby, born 7 months after their marriage, should be named "Pronto".[39] Their second child, Katherine (called Toni), was born in 1944, while Oppenheimer was scientific director of the Manhattan Project. This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


During his marriage, Oppenheimer continued his involvement with Jean Tatlock, though it is not clear if they continued their love affair.[40] Later their continued contact became an issue in Oppenheimer's security clearance hearings, due to Tatlock's communist associations. Jean Tatlock briefly dated Manhattan Project scientific leader J. Robert Oppenheimer while she was a graduate student in psychology at Stanford University in 1936 while he was a professor of physics at University of California, Berkeley. ...


The Manhattan Project

Main article: Manhattan Project
Oppenheimer's badge photo from Los Alamos.
Oppenheimer's badge photo from Los Alamos.

When World War II started, Oppenheimer became involved in the efforts to develop an atomic bomb, which were already taking up much of the time and facilities of Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. In 1941, Lawrence, Vannevar Bush, Arthur Compton, and James Conant worked to wrest the bomb project from the S-1 Uranium Committee, because they felt it was proceeding too slowly. Oppenheimer was invited to take over work on fast neutron calculations, a task that he threw himself into with full vigor. At this time he renounced what he called his "left-wing wanderings" to concentrate on his responsibilities, though he continued to maintain friendships with many who were quite radical. This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Robert Oppenheimers mugshot from Los Alamos, ca. ... Robert Oppenheimers mugshot from Los Alamos, ca. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Radiation Laboratory or often RadLab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was in operation from October 1940 until December 31, 1945. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the Compton effect named in his honor. ... James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 - February 11, 1978) was a chemist, educational administrator, and public servant. ... The S-1 Uranium Committee was a Committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that superceded the Briggs Advisory Committee on Uranium and later grew into the Manhattan Project. ...


In 1942, the U.S. Army was given jurisdiction over the bomb effort, which was renamed as the Manhattan Engineering District, or Manhattan Project. General Leslie R. Groves was appointed project director, and Groves, in turn, selected Oppenheimer as the project's scientific director. Groves knew Oppenheimer would be viewed as a security risk, but thought that Oppenheimer was the best man to direct a diverse team of scientists and would be unaffected by his past political leanings. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who...


Los Alamos

One of Oppenheimer's first acts was to host a summer school for bomb theory at his building in Berkeley. The mix of European physicists and his own students—a group including Robert Serber, Emil Konopinski, Felix Bloch, Hans Bethe, and Edward Teller—busied themselves calculating what needed to be done, and in what order, to make the bomb. Teller put forward the remote possibility that the bomb would generate enough heat to ignite the atmosphere. While such an event was soon shown to be impossible by Bethe, Oppenheimer nevertheless was concerned enough to meet with Arthur Compton in Michigan to discuss the situation. At the time, research for the project was going on at many different universities and laboratories across the country, presenting a problem for both security and cohesion. Oppenheimer and Groves decided that they needed a centralized, secret research laboratory. Scouting for a site in late 1942, Oppenheimer was drawn to New Mexico, not far from his ranch (the final site picked would be 40 miles from Perro Caliente). After Groves turned down a proposed site in a walled canyon, Oppenheimer suggested a site which he knew well: a flat mesa near Santa Fe, New Mexico, which was the site of a private boys' school called The Los Alamos Ranch School (Sp. Los Alamos means "The Cottonwoods"). Minutes after seeing the mesa site, Groves was convinced, and approached the owners to sell it. The Los Alamos laboratory was thus hastily built on the site of the school, taking over some of its buildings, but building many others in great haste. There Oppenheimer assembled a group of the top physicists of the time, which he referred to as the "luminaries."[41] Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman (then an unknown post-doctoral student), John von Neumann, Robert R. Wilson, and Victor Weisskopf, as well as Bethe and Teller, were already famous or would soon become famous. Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ... Felix Bloch (October 23, 1905 – September 10, 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the USA. // A stamp from Guyana commemorating Felix Bloch. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the Compton effect named in his honor. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Mathematics Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) is a current program that is building in schools around the United States. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... The Los Alamos Ranch School was a private boarding school for boys in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. It closed during the Great Depression and its campus was later used by scientists for part of the Manhattan Project. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... This article is about the physicist. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Robert Rathbun Wilson (March 4, 1914–January 16, 2000) was an American physicist who was the youngest group leader of the Manhattan Project, a sculptor, and an architect of Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab), where he was also the director from 1967-1978. ... External links National Academy of Sciences biography Categories: People stubs | 1908 births | 2002 deaths | Manhattan Project | Physicists ...

A group of physicists at a wartime Los Alamos colloquium. In the front row are Norris Bradbury, John Manley, Enrico Fermi, and J.M.B. Kellogg (L-R). Oppenheimer is in the second row on the left; to the right in the photograph is Richard Feynman.
A group of physicists at a wartime Los Alamos colloquium. In the front row are Norris Bradbury, John Manley, Enrico Fermi, and J.M.B. Kellogg (L-R). Oppenheimer is in the second row on the left; to the right in the photograph is Richard Feynman.

Oppenheimer at first had difficulty with organizational division of large groups, but soon rapidly learned the art of large-scale administration after he took up permanent residence on the mesa. He was noted for his mastery of all scientific aspects of the project and for his efforts to control the inevitable cultural conflicts between scientists and the military. He was an iconic figure to his fellow scientists, as much a figurehead of what they were working towards as a scientific director. Victor Weisskopf put it thus: Photograph of a wartime colloquium at Los Alamos. ... Photograph of a wartime colloquium at Los Alamos. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Norris Bradbury in his later years. ... Categories: People stubs | Manhattan Project ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... This article is about the physicist. ...

He did not direct from the head office. He was intellectually and even physically present at each decisive step. He was present in the laboratory or in the seminar rooms, when a new effect was measured, when a new idea was conceived. It was not that he contributed so many ideas or suggestions; he did so sometimes, but his main influence came from something else. It was his continuous and intense presence, which produced a sense of direct participation in all of us; it created that unique atmosphere of enthusiasm and challenge that pervaded the place throughout its time.[8]

All the while, Oppenheimer was under investigation by both the FBI and the Manhattan Project's internal security arm for his past left-wing associations. He was also followed by Army security agents during an unannounced trip to California in 1943 to meet his former girlfriend, Jean Tatlock, with whom he spent the night in her apartment.[42] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The Chevalier incident

In August 1943, Oppenheimer volunteered to Manhattan Project security agents that three men at Los Alamos had been solicited for nuclear secrets on behalf of the Soviet Union, by a person he did not know who worked for Shell Oil, and who had Communist connections. He gave that person's name: George Ellenton. However, when pressed on the issue in later interviews with General Groves, who ordered him to give the name of these men and promised to keep their identity from the FBI, he finally identified the only contact who had approached him, as his friend Haakon Chevalier, a Berkeley professor of French literature who he said had mentioned the matter privately at a dinner at Oppenheimer's house. Oppenheimer would be asked again in 1947 for interviews related to the "Chevalier incident," and he gave contradictory and equivocating statements, telling government agents that actually only one scientist had been approached at Los Alamos, and that person was himself. This was by Chevalier, who at the time had supposedly said that he had a potential conduit through Ellenton for information which could be passed to the Soviets. Oppenheimer claimed to have invented the other contacts in order to conceal the identity of Chevalier, whose identity he believed would be immediately apparent if he named only one contact, but whom he believed to be innocent of any disloyalty. General Groves during the war had thought Oppenheimer too important to the ultimate Allied goals to oust him over this suspicious behavior; he was, Groves reported, "absolutely essential to the project".[43] However, by 1947 Oppenheimer had now told two conflicting versions of this story, had both of them taped without his knowledge, and importantly was taped in a latter interview as admitting to have made up a deliberate lie in this first report. Haakon Maurice Chevalier (September 10, 1901 — July 4, 1985) was an author, translator, and professor of French literature at the University of California, Berkeley best known for his friendship with physicist Robert Oppenheimer whom he met at Berkeley in 1937. ...


All of this would remain suppressed by the government for another seven years. Meanwhile, Oppenheimer would continue to work for the government as an advisor on top secret nuclear weapons projects.

The first nuclear test, which Oppenheimer designated "Trinity".
The first nuclear test, which Oppenheimer designated "Trinity".

Image File history File links The 1945 TRINITY nuclear explosion, early stage of the fireball. ... Image File history File links The 1945 TRINITY nuclear explosion, early stage of the fireball. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ...

Trinity

Main article: Trinity test
See also: Bhagavad Gita#Influence of the Bhagavad Gita and Trinity test#Explosion

The joint work of the scientists at Los Alamos resulted in the first nuclear explosion near Alamogordo on July 16, 1945, the site of which Oppenheimer named "Trinity", Oppenheimer later said this name was from one of John Donne's Holy Sonnets. According to the historian Gregg Herken, this naming could have been an allusion to Jean Tatlock, who had committed suicide a few months previously, and had in the 1930s introduced Oppenheimer to Donne's work.[44] Oppenheimer later recalled that while witnessing the explosion he thought of a verse from the Hindu holy book, the Bhagavad Gita: The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... Alamogordo is a city located in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... This article is about the sonnet form of poetry. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one...

Years later he would explain that another verse had also entered his head at that time: It is the famous verse, which begins as "Kalo Asmi" and was quoted by Oppenheimer after the successful detonation of the first nuclear weapon. He unfortunately mistranslated it as "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds". The more correct meaning of the Sanskrit words is,

I am Time grown old to destroy the world, Embarked on the course of world annihilation.

(This is how J.A.B. van Buitenen translated the above passage in his version of the Bhagavadgita).[45]


Oppenheimer later would be persuaded to quote again in 1965 for a television broadcast:

We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried. Most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita; Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty, and to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.' I suppose we all thought that, one way or another.'[46]

According to his brother, at the time Oppenheimer simply exclaimed, "It worked." News of the successful test was rushed to President Harry S. Truman, who authorized the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Oppenheimer later became an important figure in the debates on the repercussions of this act. Krishna reveals his Vishvarupa form to Arjuna during their discourse of the Bhagavad Gita. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


Postwar activities

Overnight, Oppenheimer became a national spokesman for science, and emblematic of a new type of technocratic power. Nuclear physics became a powerful force as all governments of the world began to realize the strategic and political power that came with nuclear weapons and their horrific implications. Like many scientists of his generation, he felt that security from atomic bombs would come only from some form of transnational organization (such as the newly formed United Nations), which could institute a program to stifle a nuclear arms race. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ...


Atomic Energy Commission

After the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created in 1946, as a civilian agency in control of nuclear research and weapons issues, Oppenheimer was immediately appointed as the Chairman of its General Advisory Committee (GAC) and left the directorship of Los Alamos. From this position he advised on a number of nuclear-related issues, including project funding, laboratory construction, and even international policy—though the GAC's advice was not always implemented. Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...


As a member of the Board of Consultants to a committee appointed by President Truman to advise the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, Oppenheimer strongly influenced the Acheson-Lilienthal Report.[47] In this report, the committee advocated creation of an international Atomic Development Authority, which would own all fissionable material, and the means of its production, such as mines and laboratories, and atomic power plants where it could be used for peaceful energy production. Bernard Baruch was appointed to translate this report into a proposal to the United Nations, resulting in the Baruch Plan of 1946. The Baruch Plan introduced many additional provisions regarding enforcement, in particular requiring inspection of the USSR's uranium resources. The Baruch Plan was seen as an attempt to maintain the United States' nuclear monopoly, and was rejected by the USSR. With this, it became clear to Oppenheimer that an arms race was unavoidable, due to the mutual distrust of the U.S. and the USSR. The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded in 1946. ... Acheson-Lilienthal Report also known as the Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy (1946) An early United States Cold War document which tried to find an answer, at the point where only the United States had developed the nuclear bomb, to the question of whether to share knowledge... Bernard Baruch, 1920 Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870–June 20, 1965) was an American financier, stock market speculator, statesman, and presidential adviser. ... Yvonne Sturm was a proposal by the United States government, written mainly by Bernard Baruch, to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) in its first meeting in June 1946 to: a) extend between all nations the exchange of basic scientific information for peaceful ends; b) implement control of atomic... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


While still Chairman of the GAC, Oppenheimer lobbied vigorously for international arms control and funding for basic science, and attempted to influence policy away from a heated arms race. When the government questioned whether to pursue a crash program to develop an atomic weapon based on nuclear fusion—the hydrogen bomb—Oppenheimer initially recommended against it, though he had been in favor of developing such a weapon in the early days of the Manhattan Project. He was motivated partly by ethical concerns, feeling that such a weapon could only be used strategically against civilian targets, resulting in millions of deaths. But he was also motivated by practical concerns; as at the time there was no workable design for a hydrogen bomb, Oppenheimer felt that resources would be better spent creating a large force of fission weapons; he and others were especially concerned about nuclear reactors being diverted away from producing plutonium to produce tritium. He was overridden by President Truman, who announced a crash program after the Soviet Union tested their first atomic bomb in 1949. Oppenheimer and other GAC opponents of the project, especially James Conant, felt personally shunned and considered retiring from the committee. They stayed on, though their views on the hydrogen bomb were well known. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


In 1951, however, Edward Teller and mathematician Stanislaw Ulam developed what became known as the Teller-Ulam design for a hydrogen bomb. This new design seemed technically feasible, and Oppenheimer changed his opinion about developing the weapon. As he later recalled: Stanisław Ulam in the 1950s. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ...

The program we had in 1949 was a tortured thing that you could well argue did not make a great deal of technical sense. It was therefore possible to argue that you did not want it even if you could have it. The program in 1951 was technically so sweet that you could not argue about that. The issues became purely the military, the political, and the humane problems of what you were going to do about it once you had it.[48]

Oppenheimer's critics have accused him of equivocating between 1949, when he opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb, and 1951, when he supported it. Some have made this a case for reinforcing their opinions about his moral inconsistency. Historian Priscilla McMillan has argued,[49] however, that if Oppenheimer has been accused of being morally inconsistent, then so should Rabi and Fermi, who had also opposed the program in 1949. Most of the GAC members were against a crash hydrogen bomb development program then, and in fact, Conant, Fermi and Rabi had submitted even more strongly worded reports against it than Oppenheimer. McMillan's argument is that because the hydrogen bomb appeared to be well within reach in 1951, everybody had to assume that the Russians could also do it, and that was the main reason why they changed their stance in favor of developing it. Thus this change in opinion should not be viewed as a change in morality, but a change in opinions purely based on technical possibilities.


The first true hydrogen bomb, dubbed "Ivy Mike", was tested in 1952 with a yield of 10.4 megatons, more than 650 times the strength of the weapons developed by Oppenheimer during World War II. The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ...


Security hearings

In his role as a political advisor, Oppenheimer made numerous enemies. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover had been following his activities since before the war, when he showed Communist sympathies as a radical professor. They were willing to furnish Oppenheimer's political enemies with incriminating evidence about Communist ties. These enemies included Lewis Strauss, an AEC commissioner who had long harbored resentment against Oppenheimer both for his activity in opposing the hydrogen bomb and for his humiliation of Strauss before Congress some years earlier, regarding Strauss's opposition to the export of radioactive isotopes to other nations. Strauss and Senator Brien McMahon, author of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act, pushed President Eisenhower to revoke Oppenheimer's security clearance.[50] This came following controversies about whether some of Oppenheimer's students, including David Bohm, Joseph Weinberg, and Bernard Peters, had been Communists at the time they had worked with him at Berkeley. John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1896 births | 1974 deaths ... Brien McMahon (b. ... The McMahon Act is an informal name for the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 which determined, in the wake of World War II how the United States government would control and manage the nuclear technology it had developed. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... David Bohm. ...


Frank Oppenheimer was forced to testify in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he admitted that he had been a member of the Communist Party in the 1930s, but he refused to name other members. Frank Oppenheimer was subsequently fired from his university position, could not find work in physics for many years, and became instead a cattle rancher in Colorado, and later the founder of the San Francisco Exploratorium. HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Smoke billows at the exploratorium The Exploratorium is a public science museum located in the Marina District at the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco, California. ...


Oppenheimer had also found himself in the middle of more than one controversy and power struggle, in the years from 1949 to 1953. Edward Teller, who had been so uninterested in work on the atomic bomb at Los Alamos during the war that Oppenheimer had (instead of firing him) actually given him time instead to work on his own project of the hydrogen bomb, had eventually left Los Alamos to help found, in 1951, a second laboratory at what would become the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There, he could be free of Los Alamos control to develop the hydrogen bomb. This laboratory would go on to develop long-range jet-bomber delivered themonuclear "strategic weapons" (city-destroyers) which would necessarily be under control of the new Air Force. By contrast, Oppenheimer had for some years pushed for smaller "tactical" nuclear weapons which would be more useful in a limited theater against enemy troops, and which would be under control of the Army. As these two branches of the service fought for control of nuclear weapons, often allied with different political parties, the Air Force, with Teller pushing its program, had begun to gain ascendence in the Republican controlled government, after the election of Eisenhower in 1952. Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...

Oppenheimer's former colleague, physicist Edward Teller, testified against Oppenheimer at his security hearing in 1954.

In the 1953 Executive Sessions of the “McCarthy Hearings” on Security and the United Nations (made public in 2003), Paul Crouch, Communist Party organizer for Alameda County from April 1941 to early January 1942, testified that J. Robert Oppenheimer had been a Communist at that time: Edward Teller in 1958 as director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... Edward Teller in 1958 as director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... Joseph McCarthy This article is about the American politician. ...

Chairman: Is there any doubt in your mind that Oppenheimer was a member of the Communist Party?

Crouch: No, sir, none whatever. I met him in a closed meeting of the Communist Party in a house which was subsequently found to have been his residence at the time ... and following that I met him at quite a number of Communist Party affairs in Alameda County.[51]

In 1953, partly as the result of evidence provided by the U.S. Army's Signals Intelligence Service, Oppenheimer was accused of being a security risk, and President Dwight D. Eisenhower asked him to resign. Oppenheimer refused and requested a hearing to assess his loyalty; in the meantime, his security clearance was suspended. The public hearing that followed focused on Oppenheimer's past Communist ties and his association during the Manhattan Project with suspected disloyal or Communist scientists. One of the key elements in this hearing was Oppenheimer's earliest testimony about George Ellenton's approach to various Los Alamos scientists, a story that Oppenheimer confessed he had fabricated to protect his friend Haakon Chevalier (Unknown to Oppenheimer, both versions were recorded during his interrogations of a decade before, and in a breech of standard trial procedure which went unappealed, he was surprised on the witness stand with transcripts of these, which he had had no chance to review). In fact, Oppenheimer had never told Chevalier that he had finally named him, and the testimony had led to Chevalier losing his job. (Both Chevalier and Ellenton confirmed mentioning that they had a way to get information to the Soviets, Ellenton admitting he said this to Chevalier, and Chevalier admitting he mentioned it to Oppenheimer, but both put the matter in terms of gossip, and denying any thought or suggestion of treason, or thoughts of espionage, either in planning or in deed. Neither was ever convicted of any crime.) Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Teller testified against Oppenheimer, saying that he considered him loyal, but of such questionable judgement that he should be relieved of clearance on the basis of bad decision-making. This led to outrage by the scientific community and Teller's virtual expulsion from academic science.[50] General Groves, threatened by the FBI as having been potentially part of a coverup about the Chevalier contact in 1943, testified against Oppenheimer also.


Many top scientists, as well as government and military figures, testified on Oppenheimer's behalf. Inconsistencies in his testimony and his erratic behavior on the stand (at one point, saying he had given a "cock and bull story" and that this was because he "was a damned fool," convinced some that he was unstable, unreliable and a possible security risk. Oppenheimer's clearance was revoked one day before it was slated to lapse anyway. [52] Physicist I.I. Rabi's comment was that Oppenheimer was merely a government consultant at the time anyway, and that if the government "didn't want to consult the guy, then don't consult him." However, the prosecution would not settle for anything less than public humiliation of Oppenheimer. Isidor Isaac Rabi (July 29, 1898 - January 11, 1988) was an American physicist of Austro-Hungarian origin. ...


During his hearing, Oppenheimer testified willingly on the left-wing behavior of many of his scientific colleagues. Cornell University historian Richard Polenberg has speculated that if Oppenheimer's clearance had not been stripped (it would have expired in a matter of days anyhow, as he knew while testifying), he would have been remembered as someone who had "named names" to save his own reputation. As it happened, Oppenheimer was seen by most of the scientific community as a martyr to McCarthyism, an eclectic liberal who was unjustly attacked by warmongering enemies, symbolic of the shift of scientific creativity from academia into the military.[53] Wernher von Braun summed up his opinion about the matter with a quip to a Congressional committee: "In England, Oppenheimer would have been knighted."[54] Cornell redirects here. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ...


Institute for Advanced Study

Oppenheimer eventually took over Einstein's position at the Institute for Advanced Study.
Oppenheimer eventually took over Einstein's position at the Institute for Advanced Study.

In 1947, Oppenheimer left Berkeley, citing difficulties with the administration during the war, and took up the directorship of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey. He later held Albert Einstein's old position of senior professor of theoretical physics.[13] Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer Image courtesy of US Govt. ... Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer Image courtesy of US Govt. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ...


After 1953, deprived of political power, Oppenheimer continued to lecture, write, and work on physics. He toured Europe and Japan, giving talks about the history of science, the role of science in society, and the nature of the universe. On 3 May 1962 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1963, at the urging of many of Oppenheimer's political friends who had ascended to power, President John F. Kennedy awarded Oppenheimer the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation. Edward Teller, the winner of the previous year's award, had also recommended Oppenheimer receive it. A little over a week after Kennedy's assassination, his successor, President Lyndon Johnson, presented Oppenheimer with the award, "for contributions to theoretical physics as a teacher and originator of ideas, and for leadership of the Los Alamos Laboratory and the atomic energy program during critical years". Oppenheimer told Johnson: "I think it is just possible, Mr. President, that it has taken some charity and some courage for you to make this award today."[55] The rehabilitation implied by the award was partly symbolic, as Oppenheimer still lacked a security clearance and could have no effect on official policy, but the award came with a $50,000 tax free stipend, and its award to Oppenheimer outraged many prominent Republicans in Congress. The late President Kennedy's widow Jacqueline, still living in the White House, made it a point to meet with Oppenheimer to tell him how much her husband had wanted him to have the medal. While still a congressman in 1959, JFK had been instrumental in voting to narrowly deny Oppenheimer's enemy Lewis Strauss, a coveted government position as Secretary of Commerce, effectively ending Strauss' political career. This was partly due to lobbying on the basis of the scientific community on behalf of Oppenheimer, as was the Fermi prize later. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Enrico Fermi Award is a U.S. government Presidential award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1896 births | 1974 deaths ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ...


In his final years, Oppenheimer continued his work at the Institute for Advanced Study, bringing together intellectuals at the height of their powers and from a variety of disciplines to solve the most pertinent questions of the age. He directed and encouraged the research of many well-known scientists, including Freeman Dyson, and the duo of Yang and Lee, who won a Nobel Prize for their discovery of parity non-conservation. He also instituted temporary memberships for scholars from the humanities, such as T. S. Eliot and George Kennan. Some of these activities were resented by a few members of the mathematics faculty, who wanted the institute to stay a bastion of pure scientific research. Abraham Pais said that Oppenheimer himself thought that one of his failures at the institute was a failure to bring together scholars from the natural sciences and the humanities. Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... Zhen-Ning Franklin Yang (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born 22 September[1], 1922) is a Chinese American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics and symmetry principles. ... Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee, 李政道 Pinyin: Lǐ Zhèngdào) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese American physicist, well known for parity violation, Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ...


Oppenheimer's lectures in America, Europe, and Canada were published in a number of books. Still, he thought the effort had little effect on actual policy.


Final years

Oppenheimer Beach, in St John, U.S. Virgin Islands.
Oppenheimer Beach, in St John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

After the 1954 security hearings, Oppenheimer started to retreat to a simpler life. In 1957, he purchased a piece of land on Gibney Beach in the island of St John in the Virgin Islands. He built a spartan vacation home on the beach, where he would spend holidays, usually months at a time, with his wife Kitty. Oppenheimer also spent a considerable amount of time sailing with his wife. Download high resolution version (836x401, 187 KB)Oppenheimer beach. ... Download high resolution version (836x401, 187 KB)Oppenheimer beach. ... Saint John is the smallest of the three main United States Virgin Islands (USVI), a United States territory. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ... Saint John is the smallest of the three main United States Virgin Islands (USVI), a United States territory. ...


Increasingly concerned about the potential danger to humanity arising from scientific discoveries, Oppenheimer joined with Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell, Joseph Rotblat and other eminent scientists and academics to establish what would eventually become the World Academy of Art and Science in 1960. Significantly, however, after his public humiliation, Oppenheimer did not sign the major open protests against nuclear weapons of the 1950s, including the Russell-Einstein Manifesto of 1955. He also did not attend the first Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in 1957, though invited. However, in his speeches and public writings, Oppenheimer continually stressed the difficulty of managing the power of knowledge in a world in which the freedom of science to exchange ideas was more and more hobbled by political concerns.[56]. The World Academy of Art and Science (WASS) is an informal and non-official international network of individual fellows elected for distinguishing accomplishments in the fields of natural and social sciences, arts and the humanities. ... The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. ... Pugwash encounter and tour held at the National Accelerator Laboratory, now Fermilab, September 12, 1970. ...


A chain-smoker since adulthood, Robert Oppenheimer was diagnosed with throat cancer in late 1965, and after inconclusive surgery, underwent radiation treatment by cobalt gamma rays and high energy electrons, then finally chemotherapy late in 1966. These were not curative, and the tumor spread to his palate, affecting his swallowing, hearing, and breathing. [57]. He died at his home in Princeton, New Jersey in February 1967, at age 62. His funeral was attended by many of his scientific, political, and military associates, and eulogies were delivered by Hans Bethe and George F. Kennan among others. He was cremated and his wife placed his ashes in an urn and dropped them into the sea, within sight of the coast at the location of his beach house.[58] Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ...


Upon the death of Mrs. Oppenheimer (Kitty died of a intestinal infection complicated by pulmonary embolism in October 1972), Oppenheimer's ranch in New Mexico was inherited by his son Peter, while the beach property in St. John was inherited by their daughter Toni. Toni, who had been refused security clearance for her chosen vocation as a U.N. translator, committed suicide by hanging in the beach house in St. John in January 1977, and left it in her will to "the people of St. John for a public park and recreation area."[59] The original house, built too close to the coast, succumbed to a hurricane, but today, the Virgin Islands Government maintains a Community Center in the area, which can be rented. The northern portion of the beach is colloquially known to this day as "Oppenheimer Beach".[60] 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Legacy

As a scientist, Oppenheimer is remembered by his students and colleagues as being a brilliant researcher and engaging teacher, the founder of modern theoretical physics in the United States.[61] Many have asked why Oppenheimer never won a Nobel Prize. Scholars respond that his scientific attentions often changed rapidly and he never worked long enough on any one topic to achieve enough headway to merit the Nobel Prize.[62] His lack of a Prize would not be odd— many great scientists never won Nobel Prizes—had not so many of his associates (Einstein, Fermi, Bethe, Lawrence, Dirac, Rabi, Feynman, etc.) won them. Some scientists and historians have speculated that his investigations towards black holes may have warranted the Nobel, had he lived long enough to see them brought into fruition by later astrophysicists.[14] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...

Oppenheimer and Leslie Groves, shortly after the war.
Oppenheimer and Leslie Groves, shortly after the war.

As a military and public policy advisor, Oppenheimer was a technocratic leader in a shift in the interactions between science and the military and the emergence of "Big Science." During World War II, scientists became involved in military research to an unprecedented degree (some research of this sort had occurred during World War I, but it was far smaller in scope). Because of the threat Fascism posed to Western civilization, scientists volunteered in great numbers both for technological and organizational assistance to the Allied effort, resulting in such powerful tools as radar, the proximity fuse, and operations research. As a cultured, intellectual, theoretical physicist who became a disciplined military organizer, Oppenheimer represented the shift away from the idea that scientists had their "head in the clouds" and that knowledge on such previously esoteric subjects as the composition of the atomic nucleus had no "real-world" applications.[63] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... In 1977 the completion of the Shiva laser at LLNL ushered in a new field of big science; laser fusion. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... A proximity fuse (sometimes spelled fuze) is a fuse that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima...


When Oppenheimer was ejected from his position of political influence in 1954, he symbolized for many the folly of scientists thinking they could control how others would use their research. Oppenheimer has been seen as symbolizing the dilemmas involving the moral responsibility of the scientist in the nuclear world.[63]


Most popular depictions of Oppenheimer view his security struggles as a confrontation between right-wing militarists (symbolized by Edward Teller) and left-wing intellectuals (symbolized by Oppenheimer) over the moral question of weapons of mass destruction. Many historians have contested this as an over-simplification.[64] The hearings were motivated both by politics, as Oppenheimer was seen as a representative of the previous administration, and also by personal considerations stemming from his enmity with Lewis Strauss.[50] Furthermore, the ostensible reason for the hearing and the issue that aligned Oppenheimer with the liberal intellectuals, Oppenheimer's opposition to hydrogen bomb development, was based as much on technical grounds as on moral ones. Once the technical considerations were resolved, he supported "the Super," because he believed that the Soviet Union too would inevitably construct one. Nevertheless, the trope of Oppenheimer as a martyr has proven indelible, and to speak of Oppenheimer has often been to speak of the limits of science and politics, however more complicated the actual history.


One particular example of the view of Oppenheimer as martyr is found in German playwright Heinar Kipphardt's 1964 play, In the Matter J. Robert Oppenheimer. Even Oppenheimer himself had difficulty with this portrayal—after reading a transcript of Kipphardt's play soon after it began to be performed, Oppenheimer threatened to sue the playwright.[65] Later he told an interviewer:

The whole damn thing [his security hearing] was a farce, and these people are trying to make a tragedy out of it. ... I had never said that I had regretted participating in a responsible way in the making of the bomb. I said that perhaps he [Kipphardt] had forgotten Guernica, Coventry, Hamburg, Dresden, Dachau, Warsaw, and Tokyo; but I had not, and that if he found it so difficult to understand, he should write a play about something else.[66]
Oppenheimer, Groves, and others at the site of the Trinity test shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Oppenheimer, Groves, and others at the site of the Trinity test shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Despite Oppenheimer's remorseful, or at least conflicted, attitudes, Oppenheimer was a vocal supporter of using the first atomic weapons on "built-up areas" in the days before the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Rather than consistently opposing the "Red-baiting" of the late 1940s and early 1950s, he had testified against many of his former colleagues and students, both before and during his hearing. In one incident, Oppenheimer's damning testimony against former student Bernard Peters was selectively leaked to the press. Historians have interpreted this as an attempt by Oppenheimer to please his colleagues in the government (and perhaps to divert attention from his own previous left-wing ties and especially from those of his brother, who had earlier been a target of the anti-Red lobby). In the end it became a liability: under cross-examination, it became clear that if Oppenheimer had really doubted Peters' loyalty, then his recommending him for the Manhattan Project was reckless, or at least contradictory.[67] Image File history File links Trinity_Ground_Zero. ... Image File history File links Trinity_Ground_Zero. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


The question of the scientists' responsibility towards humanity, so manifest in the dropping of the atomic bombs and Oppenheimer's public questioning, in addition to Kipphardt's play, inspired Bertolt Brecht's drama Galileo (from 1955), left its imprint on Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Die Physiker, and is the basis of the opera Doctor Atomic by John Adams (2005), which portrays Oppenheimer as a modern Faust. {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Life of Galileo is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... Friedrich Dürrenmatt (January 5, 1921 – December 14, 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist. ... Die Physiker (The Physicists) (1962) is a satiric drama often recognized to be the most impressive, yet easiest to understand work by Swiss writer Dürrenmatt. ... Doctor Atomic is an opera by the contemporary minimalist American composer John Adams, with libretto by Peter Sellars. ... For other uses, see Faust (disambiguation). ...


Works

  • Science and the Common Understanding (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954).
  • The Open Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955).
  • The flying trapeze: Three crises for physicists (London: Oxford University Press, 1964).
  • Uncommon sense (Cambridge, MA: Birkhäuser Boston, 1984). (posthumous)
  • Atom and void: Essays on science and community (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989). (posthumous)

See also

A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The meaning of the "J" in J. Robert Oppenheimer has been the source of confusion among many. Historians Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner sum up the general historical opinion, in their volume Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and recollections (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1980), on page 1: "Whether the 'J' in Robert's name stood for Julius or, as Robert himself once said, 'for nothing' may never be fully resolved. His brother Frank surmises that the 'J' was symbolic, a gesture in the direction of naming the eldest son after the father but at the same time a signal that his parents did not want Robert to be a 'junior.'" In Peter Goodchild's J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of Worlds (Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1981), it is said that Robert's father, Julius, added the empty initial to give Robert's name additional distinction, but Goodchild's book has no footnotes so the source of this assertion is unclear. Robert's claim that the J. stood "for nothing" is taken from an autobiographical interview conducted by Thomas S. Kuhn on November 18, 1963, which currently resides in the Archive for the History of Quantum Physics. When investigating Oppenheimer in the 1930s and 1940s, the FBI itself was befuddled by the "J," deciding erroneously that it probably stood for Julius or, strangely, Jerome. On the other hand, Oppenheimer's birth certificate reads "Julius Robert Oppenheimer," according to a number of recent biographies.
  2. ^ James A. Hijiya, "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 144, no. 2 (June 2000).
  3. ^ Peter Michelmore (1969). The Swift Years: The Robert Oppenheimer Story. Dodd Mead. 
  4. ^ Michelmore (1969). An alternative source attributes the quote to James Franck as "I got out of there just in time. He was beginning to ask me questions.": "The Eternal Apprentice", TIME, 1948-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  5. ^ Thomas Hager (1995). Force of Nature: The life of Linus Pauling. Simon and Schuster. 
  6. ^ The Early Years. Oppenheimer – A Life. The University of California, Berkeley (2004). Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  7. ^ Quoted in Jennet Conant, 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos (Simon and Schuster, 2005), on 75.
  8. ^ a b Hans Bethe (1997). J. Robert Oppenheimer. National Academy of Sciences Press.
  9. ^ From a letter to Frank in 1929; in Smith and Weiner (1980), 135.
  10. ^ Smith and Weiner (1980), 91.
  11. ^ Herken (2002), 14-15.
  12. ^ See, for example, Hans Bethe's assessment, quoted in Pais (2006), 126-127: "[Oppenheimer and Teller] were also somewhat alike in that their actual production, their scientific publications, did not measure up in any way to their capacity. ...their papers, while they included some very good ones, never reached really the top standards."
  13. ^ a b Richard Rhodes. ""I AM BECOME DEATH…" The Agony of J. Robert Oppenheimer", American Heritage Magazine, October 1977. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. 
  14. ^ a b E.g. Edward Gerjuoy, "Oppenheimer as a teacher of physics and as a Ph.D. advisor," in Cynthia C. Kelly, ed., Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project (New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006), ISBN 9812564187: 119-140, on 128; Burton Feldman, The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige (Arcade Publishing, 2000), 196-198. ISBN 155970537X.
  15. ^ Karl Hufbauer, "J. Robert Oppenheimer's path to black holes," in Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, eds., Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley, Calif.: Office for History of Science and Technology, 2005): 31-47.
  16. ^ Pais (2006), p. 33.
  17. ^ Bird (2005).
  18. ^ Gregg Herken (2005-03-25). The Oppenheimer Case: An Exchange. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  19. ^The Brothers,” Time, June 27, 1949
  20. ^ J. Edgar Hoover to Lt. Col. John Lansdale, May 23, 1944 (FBI file: Katherine Oppenheimer, PDF p. 2)
  21. ^Oppenheimer: A Life,” Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley
  22. ^ On Communist affiliations of Oppenheimer's family and students, see the extensive coverage on the subject in Herken (2002).
  23. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 147
  24. ^ Findings and Recommendations of the Personnel Security Board in the Matter of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, United States Atomic Energy Commission, May 27, 1954
  25. ^Race for the Superbomb,” The American Experience (PBS)
  26. ^ Oppenheimer's Letter of Response on Letter Regarding the Oppenheimer Affair, March 4, 1954
  27. ^ Cushing Strout, ed., Conscience, Science and Security: The Case of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963), p. 4
  28. ^ Gregg Herken, Chevalier to Oppenheimer, July 23, 1964, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (Henry Holt and Co. 2002)
  29. ^ Gregg Herken, Excerpts from Barbara Chevalier's unpublished manuscript, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (Henry Holt and Co. 2002)
  30. ^ Gregg Herken, Excerpts from Gordon Griffith's unpublished memoir, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (Henry Holt and Co. 2002),
  31. ^ S. S. Schweber, “A Puzzle of a Man,” American Scientist, Vol. 2, No. 5 (September-October 2004)
  32. ^ FBI Report: J. Robert Oppenheimer, March 28, 1941, FBI file: J. Robert Oppenheimer, Internal Security - C, Sec. 1 (not paginated)
  33. ^ Custodial Detention Memorandum, May 27, 1941, FBI file: J. Robert Oppenheimer, Internal Security - C, Sec. 1 (not paginated)
  34. ^ FBI report: J. Robert Oppenheimer, December 2, 1943 (FBI File: J. Robert Oppenheimer, Section 1)
  35. ^ Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Mead: Center for Cryptological History, National Security Agency) p. 41
  36. ^ Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's, Inc., 2002), ISBN 1-57488-327-5, pp. 49-50
  37. ^ Ibid.
  38. ^ See essays by Gregg Herken, Martin Sherwin, Kai Bird, and Barton Bernstein in Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, eds., Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley, Calif.: Office for History of Science and Technology, 2005).
  39. ^ Bird (2005)
  40. ^ Bird (2005).
  41. ^ Smith and Weiner (1980), 227.
  42. ^ Herken (2002), 101-102.
  43. ^ Herken (2002), 102.
  44. ^ Herken (2002), 119.
  45. ^ The Bhagavad-Gita, 11:32, tr. J.A.B. Van Buitenen, ed. Alexandre Piatigorsky, Element Books, Rockport MA (1997). ISBN 1852309172 शरीभगवान उवाच कालॊ ऽसमि लॊकक्षयकृत परवृथ्धॊ; लॊकान समाहर्तुम इह परवृत्तः ऋते ऽपि तवा न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे; ये ऽवस्दिताः परत्यनीकेषु यॊधाः
    Bhagavad Gita, chapter 11 sloka 32}}
  46. ^ He spoke this quote on an NBC television documentary broadcast in 1965; see Hijiya (2000), 123, fn 1. The clip is available online: J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Trinity test (1965). atomicarchive.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  47. ^ Bird (2005).
  48. ^ Polenberg (2002), pp. 110-111.
  49. ^ McMillan (2005).
  50. ^ a b c McMillan (2005).
  51. ^ Testimony of Paul Crouch, Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee in Government Operations, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session, Vol. 3, “Security–United Nations,” September 15, 1953, p. 1837 (PDF p. 37)
  52. ^ Polenberg (2002).
  53. ^ Richard Polenberg, "The fortunate fox," in Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, eds., Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley, Calif.: Office of History of Science and Technology, 2005): 267-272.
  54. ^ Hans Bethe, The Road from Los Alamos (Springer, 1991), 27.
  55. ^ "Tales of the Bomb", Time, 1968-10-04. Retrieved on 2006-10-28. 
  56. ^ Bird (2005)
  57. ^ Bird (2005)
  58. ^ Bird (2005) p. 588
  59. ^ Gibney Beach, St. John US Virgin Islands (2000). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  60. ^ St John touristic brochure. See also: photographs of Oppenheimer at the beach, online touristic guide, views of Oppenheimer Beach.
  61. ^ Pais (2006).
  62. ^ Cassidy, David (2004). J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century. Pi Press. ISBN 0-13-147996-2.  See also David C. Cassidy, "From theoretical physics to the bomb: J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American school of theoretical physics," in Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, eds., Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley, Calif.: Office for History of Science and Technology, 2005): 13-29.
  63. ^ a b See, for example, the discussion in Charles Thorpe, "Disciplining Experts: Scientific Authority and Liberal Democracy in the Oppenheimer Case," Social Studies of Science 32, no. 4. (2002): 525-562.
  64. ^ See, for example, the essays in Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, eds., Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley, Calif.: Office for History of Science and Technology, 2005), esp. the introduction by Cathryn Carson, which discusses the "huge amount of effort" that "has been invested in getting past the clichés."
  65. ^ "The character speaks out", Time, 1964-11-20. Retrieved on 2006-10-28. 
  66. ^ Seagrave, Sterling. "Play about him draws protests of Oppenheimer", Washington Post, 1964-11-09, p. B8. 
  67. ^ On the Peters incident, see S.S. Schweber, In the shadow of the bomb: Bethe, Oppenheimer, and the moral responsibility of the scientist (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000).

James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Thorpe, Charles. Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect (University Of Chicago Press, 2006) ISBN 0-226-79845-3
  • Bird, Kai and Martin J. Sherwin. American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York: Knopf, 2005) ISBN 0-375-41202-6
  • Carson, Cathryn and David A. Hollinger eds. Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (Berkeley: Office for History of Science and Technology, 2005). ISBN 0-9672617-3-2
  • Cassidy, David C. J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century (New York: Pi Press, 2005). ISBN 0-13-147996-2
  • Davis, Nuel Pharr. Lawrence and Oppenheimer (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968).
  • Herken, Gregg. Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002). ISBN 0-8050-6588-1
  • Hijiya, James A. "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 144:2 (June 2000). [1] (on Oppenheimer's famous quote)
  • McMillan, Priscilla J. The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer: And the Birth of the Modern Arms Race (New York: Viking, 2005) ISBN 0-670-03422-3
  • Michelmore, Peter. The Swift Years: The Robert Oppenheimer Story (Dodd Mead, 1969) ISBN 0-396-06024-2
  • Pais, Abraham. J. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life (Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0-19-516673-6
  • Polenberg, Richard ed. In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002). ISBN 0-8014-3783-0
  • Romerstein, Herbert and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2000
  • Rummel, Jack. Robert Oppenheimer: Dark Prince (New York: Facts on File, 1992). ISBN 0-8160-2598-3
  • Schweber, S.S. In the Shadow of the Bomb: Oppenheimer, Bethe, and the Moral Responsibility of the Scientist, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-691-04989-0
  • Schweber, S.S. "J. Robert Oppenheimer: Proteus Unbound", Science in Context 16 (1/2), 219–242, 2003 (abstract, Retrieved on 2007-03-13)
  • Smith, Alice Kimball and Charles Weiner. Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980).
  • U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer (Washington, D.C.: 1954).
  • York, Herbert. The Advisors: Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976).

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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Persondata
NAME Oppenheimer, Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American physicist
DATE OF BIRTH April 22, 1904
PLACE OF BIRTH New York, New York
DATE OF DEATH February 18, 1967
PLACE OF DEATH Princeton, New Jersey


  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Oppenheimer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7378 words)
Robert Oppenheimer was born in New York City on April 22, 1904 to Julius S. Oppenheimer (a wealthy textile importer who had immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1888) and Ella Friedman, a painter.
Oppenheimer's clumsiness in the laboratory made it apparent that his forte was theoretical, not experimental, physics, so he left in 1926 for the University of Göttingen to study under Max Born.
Oppenheimer was noted for his mastery of all scientific aspects of the project and for his efforts to control the inevitable cultural conflicts between scientists and the military.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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