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Encyclopedia > Robert O'Hara Burke
Robert O'Hara Burke
Robert O'Hara Burke
Artist's depiction of Burke's death
Artist's depiction of Burke's death

Robert O'Hara Burke (1821 – c.28 June 1861) was an Irish soldier and police officer, who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The expedition party was well-equipped, but Burke was not experienced in bushcraft and his leadership is often blamed for the failure of the project and deaths of seven people in the party. Image File history File links Robert OHara Burke 1862 by William Strutt (1825-1915) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Robert OHara Burke 1862 by William Strutt (1825-1915) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Death of Burke (1892) by Arthur Loureiro (1853-1932) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Death of Burke (1892) by Arthur Loureiro (1853-1932) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Robert OHara Burke by William Strutt William John Wills In 1860-61 Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills led an expedition of 19 men with the intention of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around... VIC redirects here. ... The Gulf of Carpentaria from a 1859 Dutch map The Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and Indonesia). ...

Contents

Early years

Burke was born in County Galway, Ireland in 1821, the second of three sons of James Hardiman Burke (d. January 1854), an officer in the British army 7th Royal Fusiliers, and Anne Louisa Burke nee O'Hara (d.1844). Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... For the board game, see 1854 (board game). ... The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a regiment in the British Army. ... Jan. ...


Robert O'Hara was one of seven children, his brothers were John Hardiman (d. August 1863) and James Thomas and his younger sisters were Fanny Maria, Elizabeth, Hester Albinia (d. 10 November 1866) and Anne Celestine (d.1914). James Thomas Burke was a Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, and on 7 July 1854 at the battle of Giurgevo became the first British officer killed in the Crimean war. is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the board game, see 1854 (board game). ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


Military career

Burke entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in 1835 and then went on to further his education in Belgium. In 1841, at the age of twenty he entered the Austrian army and in 1842 was promoted to Second Lieutenant in the Prince Regent's 7th Hussar Regiment. He spent most of his time in the Imperial Austrian Army posted to northern Italy and in 1847 was promoted to 1st Lieutenant. In 1848 he suffered health problems and resigned from the Austrian army after charges against him relating to debts and absence without leave were dropped. The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Police career

After returning to Ireland in 1848, he joined the Royal Irish Constabulary. He did his cadet training at Phoenix Park Depot in Dublin before being promoted to 3rd Class Sub-Inspector, stationed first in County Kildare and later in Dublin. The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ...


Australia

Burke emigrated to Australia in 1853. Upon arrival in Melbourne he joined the Victorian police force and was initially posted to Carlsruhe as an inspector, but was soon promoted to Senior Inspector and moved to Beechworth. He returned to England to fight in the Crimean War, but peace was signed and the war ended before Burke got a chance to enlist and he returned to Victoria in December 1856. This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Carlsruhe is a small rural town in the Macedon Ranges Shire between Woodend and Kyneton, alongside the Calder Highway. ... Beechworth () is a well-preserved historical town located in the north-east of Victoria, Australia, famous for its major growth during the gold rush days of the mid-1850s. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


He returned to his posting at Beechworth and from there attended the "Buckland Valley" riots near Bright against the Chinese gold miners in 1857. In November 1858 he was transferred to Castlemaine as Police Superintendent. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Castlemaine (IPA: /ˈkæsəlmæɪn/; note the Flat A rather than a Broad A) is a town in Victoria, Australia, in the Midlands region about 120 kilometres northwest by road from Melbourne, and about 40 kilometres from the major provincial centre of Bendigo. ...


Burke and Wills Expedition

Burke and Wills Statue on the corner of Collins and Swanston Street, Melbourne

After the South Australian explorer, John McDouall Stuart had reached the centre of Australia, the South Australian parliament offered a reward of £2,000 for the promotion of an expedition to cross the continent from south to north, generally following Stuart's route. In May 1860, Burke was appointed to lead the Victorian Exploring Expedition with William John Wills as surveyor and astronomical observer. Robert OHara Burke by William Strutt William John Wills In 1860-61 Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills led an expedition of 19 men with the intention of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around... Download high resolution version (480x640, 165 KB)this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 165 KB)this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... John McDouall Stuart (7 September 1815 – 5 June 1866) was the most accomplished and most famous of all Australias inland explorers and led the first expedition to traverse the continent from south to north successfully. ... Robert OHara Burke by William Strutt William John Wills In 1860-61 Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills led an expedition of 19 men with the intention of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around... William John Wills William John Wills (1834-1861) was born in Totnes in Devon and migrated to Victoria in 1853. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ...


The expedition left Melbourne on 20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men, 27 camels and 23 horses. They reached Menindee on 23 September 1860 where several people resigned, including the second-in-command, George James Landells and the medical officer, Dr. Hermann Beckler. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Menindee is a small town in the far west of New South Wales, Australia. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Coopers Creek, 400 miles further on, was reached on 11 November 1860 by the advanced group, the remainder being intended to catch up. After a break, Burke decided to make a dash to the Gulf of Carpentaria, leaving on 16 December 1860. William Brahe was left in charge of the remaining party. The small team of Burke, William Wills, John King and Charley Gray reached the mangroves on the estuary of the Flinders River, near where the town of Normanton now stands, on 9 February 1861. Flooding rains and swamps meant they never saw open ocean. Coopers Creek is one of the most famous and yet least visited rivers in Australia. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The Gulf of Carpentaria from a 1859 Dutch map The Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and Indonesia). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... John King was the sole survivor of the ill fated Burke & Wills Exploration party that had left Melbourne sponsored by the Royal Society of Victoria to explore the Australian continent from South to North to the Gulf of Carpenteria. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... The Flinders River is the longest river in Queensland, Australia at about 840 km. ... Normanton is a town in the north of the state of Queensland, Australia. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Already weakened by starvation and exposure, progress on the return journey was slow and hampered by the tropical monsoon downpours of the wet season. Gray died four days before they reached the rendezvous at Cooper Creek. The other three rested for a day when they buried him. They eventually reached the rendezvous point on 21 April 1861, 9 hours after the rest of the party had given up waiting and left, leaving a note and some food, as they had not been relieved by the party supposed to be returning from Menindee. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


They attempted to reach Mount Hopeless, the furthest outpost of pastoral settlement in South Australia, which was closer than Menindie, but failed and returned to Cooper Creek. While waiting for rescue Wills died of exhaustion and starvation. Soon after, Burke also died, at a place now called Burke's Waterhole on Coopers Creek in South Australia. The exact date of Burke's death is uncertain, but has generally been accepted to be 28 June 1861. Mount Hopeless () is in the Flinders Ranges in South Australia, south-west of Lake Blanche. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


King survived with the help of Aborigines until he was rescued in September by Alfred William Howitt. Howitt buried Burke and Wills before returning to Melbourne. In 1862 Howitt returned to Coopers Creek and disinterred Burke and Wills' bodies, taking them first to Adelaide and then by steamer to Melbourne where they were laid in state for two weeks. On 23 January 1863 Burke and Wills received a State Funeral and were buried in Melbourne General Cemetery. Ironically, on that day Stuart and his Companions, having successfully completed the south-north crossing, were received back at a large ceremony in Adelaide. Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... Alfred William Howitt (1830 - 1908) was an Australian anthropologist and naturalist. ... This article is about 1862 . ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Melbourne General Cemetery The Melbourne General Cemetery is a large (43 hectare) necropolis located 2 km (1. ...


References

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Burke, Robert O'Hara.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Kathleen Fitzpatrick, 'Burke, Robert O'Hara (1821 - 1861)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 3, MUP, 1969, pp 301-303.
  • Serle, Percival (1949). "Burke, Robert O'Hara". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. 
  • The [Melbourne] Argus, 1861. "The Burke and Wills exploring expedition: An account of the crossing the continent of Australia from Cooper Creek to Carpentaria, with biographical sketches of Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills". Melbourne: Wilson and Mackinnon.
  • Bonyhady, Tim, 1991. Burke and Wills: From Melbourne to myth. Balmain: David Ell Press. ISBN 0-908197-91-8.
  • Burke and Wills Outback Conference 2003, 2005. The Inaugural Burke & Wills Outback Conference : Cloncurry 2003 : a collation of presentations. Dave Phoenix, Cairns Qld. ISBN 0-646-44702-5
  • Clune, Frank, 1937. Dig: A drama of central Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
  • Corke, David G, 1996. The Burke and Wills Expedition: A study in evidence. Melbourne: Educational Media International. ISBN 0-909178-16-X
  • Henry, William, 1997. The shimmering waste: The life and times of Robert O'Hara Burke. Galway, Ireland.: W Henry Publisher. ISBN 0-906312-46-9
  • Howitt, Alfred William, 1907. "Personal reminiscences of Central Australia and the Burke and Wills Expedition: Presidents inaugural address". Journal of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 1907 (Adelaide, 1907.), 43p.
  • Jackson, Andrew, 1862. Robert O'Hara Bourke [sic] and the Australian Exploring Expedition of 1860. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  • Manwaring, William Henry, 1970. "A contemporary’s view of Robert O’Hara Burke". La Trobe Library Journal. Vol. 2 (No. 6).
  • Murgatroyd, Sarah, 2002. The Dig Tree. Melbourne: Text Publishing. ISBN 1-877008-08-7
  • Victoria: Parliament, 1862. Burke and Wills Commission. Report of the Commissioners appointed to enquire into and report upon the circumstances connected with the sufferings and death of Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, the Victorian Explorers. Melbourne: John Ferres Government Printer.
  • Wills, William John, & Wills, Dr William, 1863. A successful exploration through the interior of Australia, from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria: from the journals and letters of William John Wills. London: Richard Bentley.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Dictionary of Australian Biography is a reference work containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ... Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne (Australia). ... The Dictionary of Australian Biography, first published in 1949, is a reference work by Percival Serle containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ...

See also

This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ...

External links


 
 

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