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Encyclopedia > Robert Mugabe
 Robert Gabriel Mugabe 
KCB
Robert Mugabe

Mugabe at the African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Jan. 31, 2008 Mugabe can refer to: Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ...


Incumbent
Assumed office 
31 December 1987
Vice President Simon Muzenda
Joshua Nkomo
Joseph Msika
Joyce Mujuru
Preceded by Canaan Banana

In office
18 April 1980 – 31 December 1987
President Canaan Banana
Preceded by Abel Muzorewa (Zimbabwe Rhodesia)
Succeeded by Post abolished

In office
06 September 1986 – 07 September 1989
Preceded by Zail Singh
Succeeded by Janez Drnovšek

Born 21 February 1924 (1924-02-21) (age 84)
Kutama, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia
Political party ZANU-PF
Spouse Sally Hayfron (deceased)
Grace Marufu
Alma mater University of Fort Hare
University of London
University of South Africa
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature Robert Mugabe's signature

Robert Mugabe, KCB (born on February 21, 1924) is the President of Zimbabwe. He has served as the head of government in Zimbabwe since 1980, as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987 and as the first executive President since 1987.[1] He rose to prominence in the 1960s as a Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) in guerilla warfare against white-minority rule in Rhodesia in the Bush War (1964–1979). This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Simon Vengai Muzenda (October 28, 1922 – September 20, 2003) was a Shona from the Karanga group, a Zimbabwean politician who served as a deputy prime minister and vice president under president Robert Mugabe, a Shona Zezeru. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... Joseph Msika (6 December 1923 — ) has been vice-president of Zimbabwe since 23 December 1999. ... Joyce Mujuru (born 1956) is a Zimbabwean politician, who serves as a vice-president of the Zanu-PF party, alongside fellow vice-president Joseph Msika and president Robert Mugabe, taking a position left vacant following the death of Simon Muzenda. ... Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 1936-10 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April, 1980 until 31 December, 1987. ... The Prime Minister of Zimbabwe was the head of government in Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 1936-10 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April, 1980 until 31 December, 1987. ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ... The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (until 1963 Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in the colony of Rhodesia. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Giani Zail Singh (Punjabi: , May 5, 1916 - December 25, 1994) was the President of India (1982-1987), and the first Sikh to hold Indias highest public office and honour. ... Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born May 17, 1950) is the current President of Slovenia and the former president of Yugoslavia. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) is a Zimbabwean Socialist party that has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking... Sally Francesca Hayfron (1933 - 1992) was the first wife of Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local Xhosa language. ... Website http://www. ... Note: UniSA can also refer to the University of South Australia. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at...


Emerging from the war, he was hailed by Africans as a hero.[2][3] After a costly intervention in the Second Congo War and mass expropriation of white-owned farmland, Western opinion turned sharply against Mugabe, and various forms of economic sanctions and reductions in aid were imposed. Zimbabwe's economy spiraled downward, leading to food and oil shortages, hyperinflation, and massive emigration. During this recent period his policies have been denounced in the West and at home as racist against Zimbabwe's white minority.[4][5][6] Mugabe has described his critics as "born again colonialists,"[7][8] and both he and his supporters claim that Zimbabwe's problems are the legacy of imperialism,[9] aggravated by Western economic meddling. On 3 April 2008, it was announced in the world press that the main opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change was claiming to have won control of the parliament. This was confirmed when the results were released, but is currently being disputed.[10] Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... In economics, hyperinflation is inflation that is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Mugabe was born in Matibiri village near Kutama Mission in the Zvimba District northeast of Salisbury in Southern Rhodesia. He had two older brothers, one of them, Michael, was very popular in the village. Both his older brothers died, leaving Robert and his younger brother, Donato.[11] His father, Gabriel Mugabe Matibiri, a carpenter,[12] abandoned the Mugabe family in 1934 after Michael died, in search of work in Bulawayo.[13] Mugabe was raised as a Roman Catholic, studying in Marist Brothers and Jesuit schools, including the exclusive Kutama College, headed by an Irish priest, Father Jerome O'Hea, who took him under his wing. He was bookish and very close to his mother in his youth.[12]. He qualified as a teacher, but left to study at Fort Hare in South Africa graduating in 1951 while meeting contemporaries such as Julius Nyerere, Herbert Chitepo, Robert Sobukwe and Kenneth Kaunda. He then studied at Driefontein in 1952, Salisbury (1953), Gwelo (1954), and Tanzania (1955–1957). Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... The City of Bulawayo is highlighted in this map of Zimbabwe. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Society of Mary (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Classrooms and Administration Block of Kutama College, 1995. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ... Julius Kambarage Nyerere (April 13, 1922 - October 14, 1999) was President of Tanzania, and previously Tanganyika, from the countrys founding in 1964 until his retirement in 1985. ... Herbert Witshire Chitepo (15th June, 1923 – 18th March, 1975) was a prominent Barrister in Southern Africa who was leader of ZANUs war to liberate Rhodesia from the white-minority government, led by Ian Smith. ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ... Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ... Driefontein is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Gweru (spelled Gwelo until 1982) is a city in Zimbabwe. ...


Originally graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Fort Hare in 1951, Mugabe subsequently earned six further degrees through distance learning including a Bachelor of Administration and Bachelor of Education from the University of South Africa and a Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Science and Master of Laws, all from the University of London External Programme.[14] The two Law degrees were taken whilst he was in prison, whilst the Master of Science degree was taken during his premiership of Zimbabwe.[15] A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local Xhosa language. ... Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ... A Bachelor of Education (BEd) is an undergraduate academic degree which qualifies the graduate as a teacher in schools. ... Note: UniSA can also refer to the University of South Australia. ... B.S. redirects here. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in the majority of common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree, commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. ... Website http://www. ...


After graduating, Mugabe lectured at Chalimbana Teacher Training College, in Zambia from 1955–1958, thereafter he taught at Apowa Secondary School at Takoradi, in the Western Region of Ghana (1958 – 1960) where he met Sally Hayfron, who later became his first wife. During his stay in Ghana, he was influenced and inspired by Ghana's then-Prime Minister, Kwame Nkrumah. In addition, Mugabe and some of his Zimbabwe African National Union party cadres received instruction at the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute, then at Winneba in southern Ghana.[16][17] Sekondi-Takoradi, population 93,822 (1984), is the capital of the Western Region of Ghana. ... The Western Region of Ghana includes the large cities of Sekondi and Takoradi on the coast, coastal Axim and a hilly inland area including Elubo, that reaches from the Côte dIvoire border in the west, to the Central Region (Ghana) in the east. ... Sally Francesca Hayfron (1933 - 1992) was the first wife of Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... Winneba is the capital of Awutu Efutu Senya, Ghana, lying on the south coast of, west of Accra. ...


Early political career

Main article: History of Zimbabwe

Mugabe returned to Southern Rhodesia and joined the National Democratic Party in 1960.[18] The administration of Prime Minister Ian Smith immediately banned the NDP when it later became Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). Mugabe left ZAPU in 1963 to join the rival Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) which had been formed in 1963 by the Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole, Edgar Tekere, Edson Zvobgo, Enos Nkala and lawyer Herbert Chitepo. ZANU was influenced by the Africanist ideas of the Pan Africanist Congress in South Africa[19] and influenced by Maoism while ZAPU was an ally of the African National Congress and was a supporter of a more orthodox pro-Soviet line on national liberation. Similar divisions can also be seen in the liberation movement in Angola between the MPLA and UNITA.It would have been easy for the party to split along tribal lines between the Ndebele and Mugabe's own Shona tribe, but cross-tribal representation was maintained by his partners. ZANU leader Sithole nominated Robert Mugabe as his Secretary General. The history of Zimbabwe began with the transition to majority rule in 1980 and Britains ceremonial granting of independence. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... Ndabaningi Sithole (31 July 1920 – 12 December 2000) was an Ndau, a Methodist minister, and a veteran of Zimbabwes liberation struggle. ... Edgar Z. Tekere (born 1937) is a Zimbabwean politician. ... Edson Jonasi Zvobgo (October 2, 1935 - August 22, 2004) was a founder of Zimbabwes ruling party Zanu-PF during the struggle years, was a member of the black delegation to the Lancaster House in late 1979, a Harvard-trained lawyer, and a poet. ... Enos Nkala is a Zimbabwean politician, and co-founder of the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front with Ndabaningi Sithole, Herbert Chitepo, Leopold Takawira and Henry Hamadziripi. ... Herbert Witshire Chitepo (15th June, 1923 – 18th March, 1975) was a prominent Barrister in Southern Africa who was leader of ZANUs war to liberate Rhodesia from the white-minority government, led by Ian Smith. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, generally exercising sovereignty. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Portuguese: Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe. ... Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ...


In 1964 he was arrested for “subversive speech” and spent the next 10 years in prison. During that period he earned three degrees, including a law degree from London and a bachelor of administration from the University of South Africa by correspondence courses. Smith did not allow Mugabe out of prison to attend the funeral of Mugabe's three-year-old son.[12] In 1974, while still in prison, Mugabe was elected -- with the powerful influence of Edgar Tekere -- to take over the reigns of ZANU after a no-confidence vote was passed on Ndabaningi Sithole (Mugabe himself abstained from voting). His time in prison burnished his reputation and helped his cause.[12] Edgar Z. Tekere (born 1937) is a Zimbabwean politician. ... Ndabaningi Sithole (31 July 1920 – 12 December 2000) was an Ndau, a Methodist minister, and a veteran of Zimbabwes liberation struggle. ...


Mugabe unilaterally assumed control of ZANU from Mozambique. Later that year, after squabbling with Ndabaningi Sithole, Mugabe formed a militant ZANU faction, leaving Sithole to lead the moderate Zanu (Ndonga) party, which renounced violent struggle.[citation needed] Many opposition leaders mysteriously died during this time, including one who died in a car crash but was allegedly riddled with bullet holes.[12] An opposing newspaper's printing press was bombed and its journalists tortured.[12] Ndabaningi Sithole (31 July 1920 – 12 December 2000) was an Ndau, a Methodist minister, and a veteran of Zimbabwes liberation struggle. ... Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) is a small political party in Zimbabwe. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


Lancaster House Agreement

Persuasion from B.J. Vorster, himself under pressure from Henry Kissinger, forced Smith to accept in principle that white minority rule could not continue indefinitely. On 3 March 1978 Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithole and other moderate leaders signed an agreement at Governor's Lodge in Salisbury, which paved the way for an interim power-sharing government, in preparation for elections. The elections were won by the United African National Council under Bishop Abel Muzorewa, but international recognition did not follow and sanctions were not lifted. The two 'Patriotic Front' groups under Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo refused to participate and continued the war. The Lancaster House Agreement was the independence agreement for Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ... Ndabaningi Sithole (31 July 1920 – 12 December 2000) was an Ndau, a Methodist minister, and a veteran of Zimbabwes liberation struggle. ... The Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election of April 1979 was held under the internal settlement negotiated by the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith intended to provide a peaceful transition to majority rule on terms not harmful to Rhodesians of European descent. ... The United African National Council was a party led by Abel Muzorewa, which during the period of Internal Settlement of 1979 (the short-lived span when Rhodesia changed into Zimbabwe Rhodesia), held formal power. ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ...


The incoming government did accept an invitation to talks at Lancaster House in September 1979. A ceasefire was negotiated for the talks, which were attended by Smith, Mugabe, Nkomo, Edson Zvobgo and others. Eventually the parties to the talks agreed on a new constitution for a new Republic of Zimbabwe with elections in February 1980. Mugabe had to concede to accepting 20 seats reserved for whites in the new Parliament and to the inability of the new government to alter the constitution for ten years. His return to Zimbabwe in December 1979 was greeted with enormous supportive crowds. The Lancaster House Agreement was the independence agreement for Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. ... Edson Jonasi Zvobgo (October 2, 1935 - August 22, 2004) was a founder of Zimbabwes ruling party Zanu-PF during the struggle years, was a member of the black delegation to the Lancaster House in late 1979, a Harvard-trained lawyer, and a poet. ...


Prime Minister and President

After a campaign marked by intimidation from all sides, mistrust from security forces and reports of full ballot boxes found on the road, the Shona majority was decisive in electing Mugabe to head the first government as prime minister on 4 March 1980. ZANU won 57 out of 80 Common Roll seats in the new parliament, with the 20 white seats all going to the Rhodesian Front. Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ...


Mugabe, whose political support came from his Shona-speaking homeland in the north, attempted to build Zimbabwe on a basis of an uneasy coalition with his Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) rivals, whose support came from the Ndebele-speaking south, and with the white minority. Mugabe sought to incorporate ZAPU into his Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) led government and ZAPU's military wing into the army. ZAPU's leader, Joshua Nkomo, was given a series of cabinet positions in Mugabe's government. However, Mugabe was torn between this objective and pressures to meet the expectations of his own ZANU followers for a faster pace of social change. ShonaThe word Shona is derived from the Ndebele word itshonalanga(where the sun set)(or ChiShona) is native language of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify those Bantu-language speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages(dialects) namely Zezuru,Karanga... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... Title page of one of the earliest Sindebele phrase books, published for the use of settlers in Matabeleland. This article relates to the Ndebele language spoken by the Ndebele or Matabele people of Zimbabwe. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ...


In 1983 Mugabe fired Nkomo from his cabinet, triggering bitter fighting between ZAPU supporters in the Ndebele-speaking region of the country and the ruling ZANU. Between 1982 and 1985 the military crushed armed resistance from Ndebele groups in the provinces of Matabeleland and the Midlands, leaving Mugabe's rule secure. Mugabe has been accused by the BBC's Panorama programme of committing mass murder during this period of his rule.[20] A peace accord was negotiated in 1987[21]. ZAPU merged into the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) on December 22, 1988.[22] Mugabe brought Nkomo into the government once again as a vice-president. Title page of one of the earliest Sindebele phrase books, published for the use of settlers in Matabeleland. This article relates to the Ndebele language spoken by the Ndebele or Matabele people of Zimbabwe. ... Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ... This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Provinces of Zimbabwe ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1987 the position of Prime Minister was abolished and Mugabe assumed the new office of executive President of Zimbabwe gaining additional powers in the process. He was re-elected in 1990 and 1996, and in 2002 amid claims of widespread vote-rigging and intimidation. Mugabe's term of office expired at the end of March 2008.


Mugabe has been the Chancellor of the University of Zimbabwe since Parliament passed the University of Zimbabwe Amendment Bill in November 1990.[23] A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The University of Zimbabwe (UZ), is the first, largest and most complete university in Zimbabwe. ...


Gukurahundi

Main article: Gukurahundi

Thousands of civilians were killed in an armed conflict between Mugabe's government and followers of Joshua Nkomo in the Matebele region. According to most accounts, about 1000 Nedebele deserters and suspected terrorists were killed by the pro-Mugabe forces of the Fifth Brigade. [24] [25] Their leader was Perence Shiri who called himself 'Black Jesus'. The Zimbabwe Government explained that Mugabe had no other options left to restore order. Only after an "armed assault on the prime minister's home," attacks on "military and police outposts," and the abduction of tourists, "thereby affecting the tourism industry," and the destruction of water develpment equipment and millions of dollars did the government send troops to pacify the region. The Zimbabwe Government said that ZAPU dissidents would not reocgnize any government not headed by Nkomo. Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... Perence Shiri, Air Marshall and Commander of the Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ). ...


Mugabe is rumored to fear prosecution for the armed conflict in the Matebele region, with bills calling for inquiries into the incident sometimes introduced into Parliament.[12] The opposition Movement for Democratic Change has threatened that if it comes to power, it will call for an international trial.[12] The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ...


Social programs

According to a 1995 World Bank report, after independence, "Zimbabwe gave priority to human resource investments and support for smallholder agriculture," and as a result, "smallholder agriculture expanded rapidly during the first half of the 1980s and social indicators improved quickly." From 1980 to 1990 infant mortality decreased from 86 to 49 per 1000 live births, under five mortality was reduced from 128 to 58 per 1000 live births, and immunisation increased from 25% to 80% of the population. Also, "child malnutrition fell from 22% to 12% and life expectancy increased from 56 to 64. By 1990, Zimbabwe had a lower infant mortality rate, higher adult literacy and higher school enrollment rate than average for developing countries."[26] The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ...


In 1991 the government of Zimbabwe, short on hard currency and under international pressure, embarked on an austerity program. The World Bank's 1995 report explained that such reforms were required because Zimbabwe was unable to absorb into its labour market the many graduates from its impressive education system and that it needed to attract additional foreign investments. The reforms however undermined the livelihoods of Zimbabwe's poor majority; the report noted "large segments of the population, including most smallholder farmers and small scale enterprises, find themselves in a vulnerable position with limited capacity to respond to evolving market opportunities. This is due to their limited access to natural, technical and financial resources, to the contraction of many public services for smallholder agriculture, and to their still nascent links with larger scale enterprises." Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ...


Moreover, these people were forced to live on marginal lands as Zimbabwe's best lands were reserved for mainly white landlords growing cash crops for export, a sector of the economy favoured by the IMF's plan. For the poor on the communal lands, "existing levels of production in these areas are now threatened by the environmental fragility of the natural resource base and the unsustainability of existing farming practices."[26] The International Monetary Fund later suspended aid, saying reforms were "not on track." IMF redirects here. ...


According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), life expectancy at birth for Zimbabwean men is 37 years and is 34 years for women, the lowest such figures for any nation.[27] The World Bank's 1995 report predicted this decline in life expectancy from its 1990 height of 64 years when, commenting on health care system cuts mandated by the IMF structural adjustment programme, it stated that "The decline in resources is creating strains and threatening the sustainability of health sector achievements."[26] For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Zimbabwe dollar suffers from the highest Inflation rate of any currency in the world. Zimbabwe official statistics reveal that the annualised inflation rate for September 2006 was 1000%. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), in its World Economic Outlook database, reported inflation in 2006 at 1216%.[28] Inflation reached 9,000% on June 21,[29] and 11,000% on June 22, 2007[30]. It continues to climb rapidly, and reportedly exceeds 100,000% as of April 2008. [31] IMF redirects here. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While Zimbabwe has suffered in many other measures under Mugabe, as a former schoolteacher he has been well-known for his commitment to education. [12] However, Catholic Archbishop of Zimbabwe Pius Ncube decried the educational situation in the country, saying, among other scathing indictments of Mugabe, "We had the best education in Africa and now our schools are closing."[32] Pius Ncube Pius Alick Mvundla Ncube (born 1946) is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, widely known as a human rights advocate and an outspoken critic of President Robert Mugabe. ...


Views on homosexuality

Mugabe has waged a violent campaign against homosexuals, arguing that prior to colonisation Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts.[33] His first major public condemnation of homosexuality came in 1995 during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair in August 1995.[34] He told the audience that homosexuality LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Same-sex relationships Opposition · Persecution Violence Male homosexuality is illegal in Zimbabwe and since 1995, the government has carried out anti-gay campaigns against both men and women. ...

degrades human dignity. It's unnatural and there is no question ever of allowing these people to behave worse than dogs and pigs. If dogs and pigs do not do it, why must human beings? We have our own culture, and we must re-dedicate ourselves to our traditional values that make us human beings... What we are being persuaded to accept is sub-animal behaviour and we will never allow it here. If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police![35]

In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts.[34] In 1997 a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault.[36] Banana's trial proved embarrassing for Mugabe, when Banana's accusers alleged that Mugabe knew about Banana's conduct and had done nothing to stop it.[37] Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 1936-10 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April, 1980 until 31 December, 1987. ...


Second Congo War

Mugabe was blamed for Zimbabwe's participation in the Second Congo War in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At a time when the Zimbabwean economy was struggling, Zimbabwe responded to a call by the Southern African Development Community to help the struggling regime in Kinshasa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo had been invaded by Rwanda and Uganda, both of which claimed that their civilians, and regional stability, were under constant threat of attack by various terrorist groups based in the Congo.[38] However, the Congolese government, as well as international commentators, charged that the motive for the invasion was to grab the rich mineral resources of eastern Congo.[39][40] The war raised accusations of corruption, with officials alleged to be plundering the Congo's mineral reserves. Mugabe's defence minister Moven Mahachi said, "Instead of our army in the DRC burdening the treasury for more resources, which are not available, it embarks on viable projects for the sake of generating the necessary revenue."[41] Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... // Properly managed, Zimbabwes wide range of resources should enable it to support continuing economic growth. ... SADC-only (yellow) and SADC+SACU members Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana Working languages Membership 15 African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Establishment  -  as the SADCC April 1, 1980   -  as the SADC August 17, 1992  Website http://www. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Moven Enock Mahachi (1952 - 2001) served as the Minister of Defence of the Republic of Zimbabwe. ...


Land reform

When Zimbabwe gained independence 46.5% of the country's arable land was owned by around 6,000 commercial farmers.[42] Mugabe accepted a "willing buyer, willing seller" plan as part of the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, among other concessions to the white minority.[43] As part of this agreement, land redistribution was blocked for a period of 10 years.[44] Land apportionment in Rhodesia in 1965. ... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ...


In 1997, the new British government led by Tony Blair unilaterally stopped funding the "willing buyer, willing seller" land reform programme on the basis that the initial £44 million allocated under the Thatcher government was used to purchase land for members of the ruling elite rather than landless peasants. Furthermore, Britain's ruling Labour Party felt no obligation to continue paying white farmers compensation, or in minister Clare Short's words, "I should make it clear that we do not accept that Britain has a special responsibility to meet the costs of land purchase in Zimbabwe. We are a new Government from diverse backgrounds without links to former colonial interests. My own origins are Irish and as you know we were colonised not colonisers."[45] For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ...


Some commentators, such as Matthew Sweet in the London Independent, hold Cecil Rhodes ultimately responsible: Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ...

But it was Cecil Rhodes who originated the racist 'land grabs' to which Zimbabwe's current miseries can ultimately be traced. It was Rhodes who in 1887 told the House Of Assembly in Capetown,South Africa that 'the native is to be treated as a child and denied the franchise.We must adopt a system on despotism in our relations with the barbarians of Southern Africa... I personally prefer land to niggers.'[46]

On 12 to 13 February 2000, a referendum was held on a new constitution. The proposed change would have limited future presidents to two terms, but as it was not retroactive, Mugabe could have stood for another two terms. It also would have made his government and military officials immune from prosecution for any illegal acts committed while in office. In addition, it allowed the government to confiscate white-owned land for redistribution to black farmers without compensation. The motion failed with 55% of participants against the referendum.[47] The referendum had a 20% turnout fuelled by an effective SMS campaign. Mugabe declared that he would "abide by the will of the people". The vote was a surprise to ZANU-PF, and an embarrassment before parliamentary elections due in mid-April. Almost immediately, self-styled "war veterans", led by Chenjerai 'Hitler' Hunzvi, began invading white-owned farms. Those who did not leave voluntarily were often tortured and sometimes killed. Many were forced to drink diesel fuel as a form of torture.[48] On April 6, 2000, Parliament pushed through an amendment, taken word for word from the draft constitution that was rejected by voters, allowing the seizure of white-owned farmlands without due reimbursement or payment[49]. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Zimbabwe constitution referendum of February 12-13, 2000 saw the defeat of a proposed new Constitution of Zimbabwe which had been drafted by a Constitutional Convention the previous year. ... Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Hunzvi at a rally Chenjerai Hitler Hunzvi (October 23, 1949—June 4, 2001) was born in Chiminya, a village in the Mashonaland province of Zimbabwe. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Since these actions, agricultural production has plummeted and the economy is crippled. Once the "bread basket" of southern Africa and a major agricultural exporter, Zimbabwe now depends on food programs and support from outside to feed its population.[50] A third of the population depends on food supplies from the World Food Programme to avoid starvation.[50] WFP redirects here. ...


On December 8, 2003, in protest against a further 18 months of suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations (thereby cutting foreign aid to Zimbabwe), Mugabe withdrew his country from the Commonwealth. Mugabe informed the leaders of Jamaica, Nigeria and South Africa of his decision when they telephoned him to discuss the situation. Zimbabwe's government said the President did not accept the Commonwealth's position, and was leaving the group[51]. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


The United Nations provoked anger when its Food and Agriculture Organisation invited Mugabe to speak at a celebration of its 60th anniversary in Rome. Critics of the move argued that since Mugabe could not feed his own people without the UN's support, he was an inappropriate speaker for the group, which has a mission statement of "helping to build a world without hunger."[50] UN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


In 2005 Mugabe ordered a raid conducted on what the government termed "illegal shelters" in Harare, resulting in 10,000 urban poor being left homeless from "Operation Murambatsvina (English: Operation Drive Out the Rubbish)." The authorities themselves had moved the poor inhabitants to the area in 1992, telling them not to build permanent homes and that their new homes were temporary, leading the inhabitants to build their own temporary shelters out of cardboard and wood.[52] Since the inhabitants of the shantytowns overwhelmingly supported the Movement for Democratic Change opposition party in the previous election, many alleged that the mass bulldozing was politically motivated.[52] The UK's Daily Telegraph noted that Mugabe's "latest palace," in the style of a pagoda, was located a mile from the destroyed shelters.[52] The UN released a report stating that the actions of Mugabe resulted in the loss of home or livelihood for more than 700,000 Zimbabweans and negatively affected 2.4 million more.[50] Siya-so Home Industries area in Mbare township before Operation Murambatsvina Operation Murambatsvina (Shona: Operation Drive Out Trash), also officially known as Operation Restore Order, is a large scale Zimbabwean government campaign to forcibly clear slum areas across the country. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ... Myanmars Shwedagon Pagoda is one of the most recognizable and revered pagodas in the Buddhist World A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia For other uses, see Pagoda (disambiguation). ...


As of September 2006, Mugabe's family owns three farms: Highfield Estate in Norton, 45 km west of Harare, Iron Mask Estate in Mazowe, about 40 km from Harare, and Foyle Farm in Mazowe, formerly owned by Ian Webster and adjacent to Iron Mask Farm, renamed to Gushungo Farm after Mugabe's own clan name.[53] These farms were seized forcibly from their previous owners[54]. Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ... Mazowe is a village in Mashonaland Central province in Zimbabwe. ...


Mugabe blames the food shortages on drought.[50] Zimbabwe's state-owned press accused former British Prime Minister Tony Blair of using chemical weapons to incite droughts and famines in Africa.[50] Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...


Elections

In April 1979, 64 percent of the black citizens of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) lined up at the polls to vote in the first democratic election in the history of that southern African nation. Two-thirds of them supported Abel Muzorewa, a bishop in the United Methodist Church. He was the first black prime minister of a country only 4 percent white. Muzorewa's victory put an end to the 14-year political odyssey of outgoing prime minister Ian Smith, the stubborn World War II veteran who had infamously announced in 1976, "I do not believe in black majority rule--not in a thousand years." Fortunately for the country's blacks, majority rule came sooner than Smith had in mind. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Less than a year after Muzorewa's victory, however, in February 1980, another election was held in Zimbabwe. This time, Robert Mugabe, the Marxist who had fought a seven-year guerrilla war against Rhodesia's white-led government, won 64 percent of the vote, after a campaign marked by widespread intimidation, outright violence, and Mugabe's threat to continue the civil war if he lost. Mugabe became prime minister and was toasted by the international community and media as a new sort of African leader. The rest, as they say, is history.


But the circumstances of the first election, and the story of the man who won it, Abel Muzorewa, have been lost to the past. As the Mugabe regime--responsible for the torture and murder of thousands, starvation, genocide, the world's highest inflation and lowest life expectancy--teeters on the brink of disaster after 27 years of authoritarian rule.


Mugabe faced Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) in presidential elections in March 2002.[55] Mugabe defeated Tsvangirai by 56.2% to 41.9% amid violence and the prevention of large numbers of citizens in urban areas from voting. The conduct of the elections was widely viewed internationally as having been manipulated.[56][57] Many groups, such as the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and Morgan Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), assert that the turnout was rigged.[55] Morgan Tsvangirai (Shona IPA: (the s and the v are coärticulated), English ?) born March 10, 1952) is a trade unionist, human rights activist, Democrat and President of the mainstream [1] Movement for Democratic Change, the main opposition party in Zimbabwe. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ... Morgan Tsvangirai (Shona IPA: (the s and the v are coärticulated), English ?) born March 10, 1952) is a trade unionist, human rights activist, Democrat and President of the mainstream [1] Movement for Democratic Change, the main opposition party in Zimbabwe. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ...


On July 3, 2004 a report adopted by the African Union executive council, which comprises foreign ministers of the 53 member states, criticized the government for the arrest and torture of opposition members of parliament and human rights lawyers, the arrest of journalists, the stifling of freedom of expression and clampdowns on other civil liberties. It was compiled by the AU's African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, which sent a mission to Zimbabwe from June 24 to 28 2002, shortly after the presidential elections. The report was apparently not submitted to the AU's 2003 summit because it had not been translated into French. It was adopted at the next AU summit in 2005[58]. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mugabe's ZANU-PF party won the 2005 parliamentary elections with an increased majority. The elections were said by (again) South African observers to "reflect the free will of the people of Zimbabwe", despite accusations of widespread fraud from the MDC.[59] Poster of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change accusing the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front of election fraud Parliamentary elections were held in Zimbabwe on March 31, 2005. ...


On February 6, 2007 Mugabe orchestrated a cabinet reshuffle, ousting ministers including five-year veteran finance minister Herbert Murerwa[60]. is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The HON. Herbert M. Murerwa, M.P. (Born 31 July 1941) is a former Zimbabwean Government Minister Herbert Murerwa recently engineered the historic repayment of US$120 million (out of US$300 million) in debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), prior to their enforcement of a threat to expel...


On March 11, 2007 opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was arrested and beaten following a prayer meeting in the Harare suburb of Highfields. Another member of the Movement for Democratic Change was killed while other protesters were injured.[61] Mugabe claimed that "Tsvangirai deserved his beating-up by police because he was not allowed to attend a banned rally" on March 30, 2007.[62] is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Morgan Tsvangirai (Shona IPA: (the s and the v are coärticulated), English ?) born March 10, 1952) is a trade unionist, human rights activist, Democrat and President of the mainstream [1] Movement for Democratic Change, the main opposition party in Zimbabwe. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


General elections 2008

Mugabe launched his election campaign on his birthday in Beitbridge, a small town on the border with South Africa on 23 February 2008 by denouncing both the opposition MDC and Simba Makoni's candidacy. He was quoted in the state media as saying: "Dr Makoni lacked majority support while Mr Tsvangirai was in the presidential race simply to please his Western backers in exchange for money."[63] These are the charges he has used in the past to describe the leader of the opposition. Image File history File links Ballot_box_current. ... This article is about the political process. ... Presidential elections will be held in Zimbabwe in March 2008. ... Beitbridge[1] is a border town in province of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... MDC can stand for: Multiple Description Coding Major Diagnostic Category Mega-Damage Capacity, a measure of the toughness and structural integrity of armored vehicles in the Palladium Books role-playing system MetaData Coalition - see metadata (computing) Modification Detection Code Movement for Democratic Change - A Zimbabwean political party MDC - a hardcore... Makoni is a constituency in the Manicaland province of Zimbabwe, with a population of 272,578 (2002 census [1]). Makoni has a high infection rate of HIV.[] In the 2005 general election the candidate of the Zanu PF was declared the winner, with an overall majority. ... Morgan Tsvangirai (more-gan chang-ir-ai) (born March 10, 1952) is a Zimbabwean politician and trade unionist, and the leader and founder of the Movement for Democratic Change, the opposition party in Zimbabwe. ...


In the week Dr. Makoni launched his campaign for the presidency, he accused Mugabe of buying votes from the electorate. This was a few hours after Dumiso Dabengwa had come out and endorsed Dr. Makoni's candidature. [64] Mugabe can refer to: Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe. ... Born 06 dec 1939 and former Zimbabwean Minister of Home Affairs (1992-2000) and also the Chairman of Matabeleland Zambezi Water Project (1991- ) Former Intelligence and Security chief of ZIPRA and ZAPU during the Zimbabwe war of liberation later became a cabinet minister later in the independent Zimbabwe but got...


On 2 April 2008, The Zimbabwe election commission confirmed that Mr. Mugabe and his party, known as ZANU-PF, lost control of Parliament. According to unofficial polling, Zanu-PF took 94 seats, and the main opposition party MDC took 96 seats.[65]. On 3 April 2008 Zimbabwean government forces began cracking down on the main opposition party and arresting at least two foreign journalists covering the disputed presidential election, including a correspondent for The New York Times. [66][67] is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


When British Prime Minister Gordon Brown attempted to intervene into the election controversy, Mugabe dismissed him as "a little tiny dot on this planet." [68] For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...


Criticism and opposition

Example of foreign criticism: a demonstration against Mugabe's regime next to the Zimbabwe embassy in London (Summer 2006).
Example of foreign criticism: a demonstration against Mugabe's regime next to the Zimbabwe embassy in London (Summer 2006).

Mugabe's critics accuse him of conducting a "reign of terror",[52][69] and being an 'extremely poor role model' for the continent, whose 'transgressions' are 'unpardonable'.[70] In solidarity with the April 2007 general strike called by the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), British Trades Union Congress General Secretary Brendan Barber said of Mugabe's regime: 'Zimbabwe's people are suffering from Mugabe's appalling economic mismanagement, corruption and brutal repression. They are standing up for their rights, and we must stand with them." Lela Kogbara, Chair of ACTSA (Action for Southern Africa) similarly has said: "As with every oppressive regime women and workers are left bearing the brunt. Please join us as we stand in solidarity with the people of Zimbabwe in their struggle for peace, justice and freedom."[71] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1952 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1952 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... Brendan Barber (born 3 April 1951) has been the General Secretary of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) since June 2003. ...


Robert Guest, the Africa editor for The Economist for seven years, argues that Mugabe is to blame for Zimbabwe's economic freefall. "In 1980, the average annual income in Zimbabwe was US$950, and a Zimbabwean dollar was worth more than an American one. By 2003, the average income was less than US$400, and the Zimbabwean economy was in freefall.[72] "[Mugabe] has ruled Zimbabwe for nearly three decades and has led it, in that time, from impressive success to the most dramatic peacetime collapse of any country since Weimar Germany".[12] Robert Guest is a Washington correspondent for The Economist and regularly appears on CNN and the BBC. Previously, he covered Africa for seven years, based in London and Johannesburg. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


In the The Daily Telegraph of London, Mugabe was criticised for comparing himself to Hitler. Mugabe was quoted as saying "This Hitler has only one objective: justice for his people, sovereignty for his people, recognition of the independence of his people and their rights over their resources. If that is Hitler, then let me be a Hitler tenfold."[73] This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


In recent years, Western governments have condemned Mugabe's government. On 9 March 2003, U.S. President George W. Bush approved measures for economic sanctions to be leveled against Mugabe and other high-ranking Zimbabwe politicians, freezing their assets and barring Americans from engaging in any transactions or dealings with them. Justifying the move, Bush's spokesman stated that the President and Congress believe that "the situation in Zimbabwe endangers the southern African region and threatens to undermine efforts to foster good governance and respect for the rule of law throughout the continent." The bill was known as the Zimbabwe Democracy Act.[74] is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ...


In reaction to human rights violations in Zimbabwe, students at universities from which Mugabe has honorary doctorates have sought to get the degrees revoked. So far, the University of Edinburgh has stripped Mugabe of his honorary degree[75] after years of campaigning from their student union. In addition, the student body at Michigan State University (ASMSU) unanimously passed a resolution calling for this. The issue is now being considered by the university[76]. The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... EUSA redirect here. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ...


Mugabe's office forbade the screening of the 2005 movie The Interpreter, claiming that it was propaganda by the CIA and fearing that it could incite hostility towards him.[77] For other uses, see Interpretation (disambiguation). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


An official from Chatham House suggested that Mugabe was unlikely to leave Zimbabwe, but that if he were to leave, he might go to Malaysia, where some believe that he has "stashed much of his wealth." [78]. Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs. ...


In response to Mugabe's critics, former Zambian leader Kenneth Kaunda was quoted blaming not Mugabe for Zimbabwe's troubles, but successive British governments.[79] He wrote in June 2007 that "leaders in the West say Robert Mugabe is a demon, that he has destroyed Zimbabwe and he must be got rid of - but this demonising is made by people who may not understand what Robert Gabriel Mugabe and his fellow freedom fighters went through."[2] Similarly, Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade, responded to his critics by saying that Zimbabwe's problems are the legacy of colonialism.[80] Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ... Abdoulaye Wade (born May 29, 1926 in Kébémer[2]) is the third and current President of Senegal, in office since 2000. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Mugabe's supporters characterize him as a true Pan-Africanist and a dedicated anti-imperialist who stands strong against forces of imperialism in Afria. According to Mugabe's supporters, the Western media are not objectively reporting on Zimbabwe, but are peddling falsehoods. Mugabe's supporters accuse certain western governments of trying to eradicate pan-Africanism in order to deny real independence to African countries by imposing client regimes. [81]


European Union travel ban

After observers from the European Union were barred from examining Zimbabwe's 2002 elections, the EU imposed a ban on Mugabe and 94 members of his government. The United States instituted a similar ban. The EU's ban has a few loopholes, resulting in Mugabe taking a few trips into Europe despite the ban. Mugabe is allowed to travel to UN events within European and American borders.[82]


On April 8, 2005, Mugabe attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II, a move which could be seen as defiance of a European Union travel ban that does not, however, apply to Vatican City. He was granted a transit visa by the Italian authorities, as they are obliged to under the Concordat. However, the Catholic hierarchy in Zimbabwe have been very vocal against his rule and the senior Catholic cleric, Archbishop Pius Ncube is a major critic, even calling for Western governments to help in his overthrow.[83][82] Mugabe surprised Prince Charles by shaking his hand during the service. Afterwards, the Prince's office released a statement saying, "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe’s hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."[84] April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The body of Pope John Paul II. April 5, 2005. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Pius Ncube Pius Alick Mvundla Ncube (born 1946) is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, widely known as a human rights advocate and an outspoken critic of President Robert Mugabe. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Pius Ncube Pius Alick Mvundla Ncube (born 1946) is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, widely known as a human rights advocate and an outspoken critic of President Robert Mugabe. ...


Prior to the ban, one of Mugabe's favourite pastimes was to travel to London.[12] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


US travel ban

Robert Mugabe and senior members of the Harare government are not allowed to travel to the United States because it is the position of the US government that he has worked to undermine democracy in Zimbabwe and has restricted freedom of the press.[85] Despite strained political relations, the United States remains a leading provider of humanitarian assistance to Zimbabwe, providing roughly $400 million in humanitarian assistance from 2002-2007, mostly food aid.[86]


Succession

As one of Africa's longest-lasting leaders, speculation has built over the years as to the future of Zimbabwe after Mugabe leaves office. His age and recurring rumours of failing health have focused more attention on possible successors within his party as well as the opposition. The March 11, 2007 crackdown against a religious gathering sponsored by the opposition attracted scrutiny.[87] is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


In June 2005 a report that Mugabe had entered a hospital for tests on his heart fueled rumours that he had died of a heart attack;[88] these reports were dismissed by a Mugabe spokesman. This coincided with Operation Murambatsvina (or "Drive Out Trash"), a police campaign to demolish houses and businesses that had been built without permission on land previously taken from white landholders and intended for redistribution. Opponents called this an attempt to disperse urban centres of dissent into rural areas where the government had more control. Former information minister Jonathan Moyo attributed the events to a power struggle within the party over who would succeed Mugabe. Heart attack redirects here. ... Siya-so Home Industries area in Mbare township before Operation Murambatsvina Operation Murambatsvina (Shona: Operation Drive Out Trash), also officially known as Operation Restore Order, is a large scale Zimbabwean government campaign to forcibly clear slum areas across the country. ... Jonathan Nathaniel Moyo (born 12 January 1957) is a political figure in Zimbabwe. ...


Joyce Mujuru, recently elevated to vice-president of ZANU-PF during the December 2004 party congress and considerably younger than Joseph Msika, the other vice-president, has been mentioned as a likely successor to Mugabe. Joyce Mujuru's candidacy for the presidency is strengthened by the backing of her husband, Solomon Mujuru, who is the former head of the Zimbabwean army. Joyce Mujuru (born 1956) is a Zimbabwean politician, who serves as a vice-president of the Zanu-PF party, alongside fellow vice-president Joseph Msika and president Robert Mugabe, taking a position left vacant following the death of Simon Muzenda. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Joseph Msika (6 December 1923 — ) has been vice-president of Zimbabwe since 23 December 1999. ... Solomon Mujuru, also known as Rex Nhongo, the leader of Robert Mugabes guerrilla forces during the independence war. ...


In October 2006, a report prepared by Zimbabwe's Ministry of Economic Development acknowledged the lack of coordination among critical government departments in Zimbabwe and the overall lack of commitment to end the crisis. The report implied that the infighting in Zanu-PF over Mugabe's successor was also hurting policy formulation and consistency in implementation.[89]


In late 2006 a plan was presented to postpone the next presidential election until 2010, at the same time as the next parliamentary election, thereby extending Mugabe's term by two years. It was said that holding the two elections together would be a cost-saving measure.[90] However, this plan was not approved and there were reportedly objections from some in ZANU-PF to the idea. In March 2007 Mugabe said that he thought the feeling was in favour of holding the two elections together in 2008 instead of 2010. He also said that he would be willing to run for re-election again if the party wanted him to run.[91] Other leaders in Southern Africa were rumoured to be less warm on the idea of extending his term to 2010; recently, at the independence celebrations in Ghana, South African President Thabo Mbeki was rumoured to have met with Mugabe in private and told him that "he was determined that South Africa's hosting of the Football World Cup in 2010 should not be disrupted by controversial presidential elections in Zimbabwe."[92] A presidential election will be held in Zimbabwe in 2008. ...


On March 30, 2007, it was announced that the ZANU-PF central committee had chosen Mugabe as the party's candidate for another term in 2008, that presidential terms would be shortened to five years, and that the parliamentary election would also be held in 2008.[93] Mugabe was chosen by acclamation as the party's presidential candidate for 2008 by ZANU-PF delegates at a party conference on December 13, 2007.[94] is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Personal life

His first wife, the former Sally Hayfron, died in 1992 from a chronic kidney ailment[95]. Their only son, Nhamodzenyika, born 27 September 1963, died on December 26, 1966 from cerebral malaria, while Mugabe was in prison. Sally Mugabe was a trained teacher who asserted her position as an independent political activist and campaigner[96] who was seen as Mugabe's closest friend and adviser, and some critics suggest that Mugabe began to misrule Zimbabwe after her death.[12] Sally Francesca Hayfron (1933 - 1992) was the first wife of Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Mugabe married his former secretary, Grace Marufu, 40 years his junior and with whom he already had two children,[97] on August 17, 1996. Mugabe and Marufu were married in a Roman Catholic wedding Mass at Kutama College, a Catholic mission school he previously attended. Nelson Mandela was among the guests. A spokesman for Catholic Archbishop Patrick Chakaipa, who presided over the ceremony, said the diocese saw "no impediment" to the nuptials.[citation needed] His wife, Grace, is known sarcastically as "Gucci Grace" or "The First Shopper" in reference to her numerous, lavish European shopping sprees[98][99]. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Classrooms and Administration Block of Kutama College, 1995. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Guccio Gucci and Gucci, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The Mugabes have three children: Bona, Robert Peter Jr. (although Robert Mugabe's middle name is Gabriel) and Bellarmine Chatunga. As First Lady, Grace has been the subject of much criticism for her lifestyle. When she was included in the 2002 EU travel sanctions on her husband, one EU parliamentarian was quoted as saying that the ban "will stop Grace Mugabe going on her shopping trips in the face of catastrophic poverty blighting the people of Zimbabwe."[100] The Daily Telegraph called her "notorious at home for her profligacy" in a 2003 coverage of a trip to Paris.[101] The Mugabes' children are not included in the EU travel sanctions.[citation needed]


Awards and honours

In 1994 Mugabe was bestowed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath by Queen Elizabeth II. This entitles him to use the postnominal letters KCB, but not to use the title "Sir." UK Foreign Affairs Select Committee called for the removal of this honour in 2003, but no action was taken.[102] Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The...


He also holds several honorary degrees and doctorates from various international universities, though in June 2007, he became the first international figure ever to be stripped of an honorary degree by a British university, when the University of Edinburgh withdrew the degree awarded to him in 1984.[103][104] An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Further reading

  • Chan, Stephen. Robert Mugabe: A life of power and violence, 2003. IB Taurus, London. ISBN 9781860648731.
  • East, R. and Thomas, Richard J. Profiles of People in Power: The World ́s Government Leaders, 2003 ISBN 185743126X.
  • Holland, Heidi. Dinner with Mugabe, 2008. Penguin, South Africa. ISBN 9780143025573.
  • Meredith, Martin : Mugabe: Power and Plunder in Zimbabwe, 2003. Oxford [rev. updated ed.] ISBN 1586482130 (American ed.: Our votes, our guns
  • Nolan, Cathal J. Notable U.S. Ambassadors Since 1775: A Biographical Dictionary, 1997 ISBN 0313291950
  • The Times (SA) Online. 'The angry little boy who showed them all'. Published: 01 Mar 2008.
  • Who's Who : African Nationalist Leaders in Rhodesia by Robert Cary and Diana Mitchell, 1977,1980,1994 Reprinted by Mardon Printers (PTY) Ltd, Harare.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey. Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, 2006, Chapter Eight: "The Rhodesian Crisis: Tanzania's Role." New Africa Press, South Africa. ISBN 9780980253412.

References

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  3. ^ Biles, Peter. "Mugabe's hold on Africans", BBC News, 2007-08-25. 
  4. ^ "UK anger over Zimbabwe violence", BBC News, 2000-04-01. 
  5. ^ McGreal, Peter. "Corrupt, greedy and violent: Mugabe attacked by Catholic bishops after years of silence", The Guardian, 2007-04-02. 
  6. ^ Bentley, Daniel. "Sentamu urges Mugabe Action", The Independent, 2007-09-17. 
  7. ^ "Mugabe: US must disarm", BBC News, 2007-02-25. 
  8. ^ Egbuna, Obi (2003-07-31). "Zimbabwe: Who else but Mugabe?". The Black Commentator (51). 
  9. ^ "Colonial history tugs at EU-Africa ties", People's Daily, 2007-12-05. 
  10. ^ "Robert Mugabe's reign set to end in Zimbabwe, but World fears a bloodbath", The Mirror
  11. ^ Staff reporter. "Mugabe mourns reclusive brother", newzimbabwe.com, 2007-05-21. Retrieved on 2008-04-03. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Staff (2007-03-29). "Robert Mugabe: The man behind the fist". The Economist. 
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  104. ^ The Observer Edinburgh University revokes Mugabe degree Paul Kelbie, July 15, 2007

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robert Mugabe
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Robert Mugabe
  • "Mugging Mugabe" (a commentary in defence of Mugabe)
  • "The truth about Mugabe" (an anti-Mugabe commentary)
  • "Zimbabwe election – a defeat for imperialism"
  • "Zimbabwe's silent selective starvation"
  • "Robert Mugabe's War to Crush Press Freedom in Zimbabwe"
  • Reporters Without Borders profile on Mugabe
  • Freedom House report on Zimbabwe
  • IFEX - Media Coverage Favours Mugabe
  • "Robert Mugabe at UMass" from the WGBH series, Ten O'clock News
  • Indict Zimbabwe's demagogue before the International Criminal Court
  • "Zimbabwe and the Politics of Torture"
  • Human Rights Watch on Zimbabwe
  • “Comrade Mugabe is our leader”,War Vets million man march for Mugabe,"Zimbabwe Metro"
Political offices
Preceded by
Abel Muzorewa
as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
1980 – 1987
Title abolished
Preceded by
Zail Singh
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
1986 – 1989
Succeeded by
Janez Drnovšek
Preceded by
Canaan Banana
President of Zimbabwe
1987 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Paul Biya
Cameroon
Chairperson of the African Union
1997 – 1998
Succeeded by
Blaise Compaoré
Burkina Faso
Party political offices
Preceded by
Herbert Chitepo
Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union
1975 – 1987
Merged with ZAPU
New political party
ZANU/ZAPU merger
Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front
1987 – present
Incumbent
Persondata
NAME Mugabe, Robert Gabriel
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 2nd President and former Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
DATE OF BIRTH 21 February 1924
PLACE OF BIRTH Kutama Mission, Harare
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 1936-10 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April, 1980 until 31 December, 1987. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... Joseph Arthur Ankrah (born 1915) was a Ghanaian general and political figure. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) (August 23, 1932 – December 27, 1978) (Arabic: هواري بومدين) served as as Algerias in his position as as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976, and from then on as President of Algeria to his death... Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (24 August 1924 - 30 November 1989) was the president of Cameroon from 1960 until 1982. ... Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ... Moktar Ould Daddah Moktar Ould Daddah (Arabic: مختار ولد داده; December 25, 1924 - October 14, 2003) was the President of Mauritania from 1960, when his country gained its independence from France, to 1978, when he was deposed in a military coup detat. ... King Hassan, pictured late in life. ... General Yakubu Jack Dan-Yumma Gowon (born October 19, 1934) was the head of state (Head of the Federal Military Government) of Nigeria from 1966 to 1975. ... Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1] – 16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (शिवसागर रामगुलाम), LRCP, MRCS (1900–1985) was the Prime Minister of Mauritius from 1961 until 1982. ... El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo on 30 December 1935) became President of Gabon in 1967. ... Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise known as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Gafar Muhammad an-Numayri; born 1 January 1930) (Arabic: جعفر محمد النميري) was the President of Sudan from 1971 to 1985. ... William Richard Tolbert, Jr. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906 – December 20, 2001) was a Senegalese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ... Siaka Probyn Stevens (August 24, 1905–May 29, 1988) was the President of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985. ... Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam (IPA: //) (born 1937[3][4]) was the most prominent officer of the Derg, the military junta that governed Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987, and the president of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. ... Julius Kambarage Nyerere (April 13, 1922 - October 14, 1999) was President of Tanzania, and previously Tanganyika, from the countrys founding in 1964 until his retirement in 1985. ... Abdou Diouf (Wolof: ) (born September 7, 1935) was the second president of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000. ... Time in Office 18 March 1977 – 3 April 1977 (part of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party); 8 February 1979 – 3 August 1992 (first time); 25 October 1997 – Predecessor Marien Ngouabi (as a part of the Military Committee of the CLP); Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya (first time... Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ... Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born c. ... General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (born August 17, 1941), popularly known as IBB, was the military ruler of Nigeria from August 1985 until his departure from office under heavy popular pressure in 1993, after his annulment of elections held that year which were widely held to have been the freest and... Abdou Diouf (Wolof: ) (born September 7, 1935) was the second president of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... General Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي; born in Hammam-Sousse on September 3, 1936) is the President of the Tunisian Republic since 7 November 1987 and only the second one since its independence from France on 20 March 1956. ... Meles Zenawi (Geez መለስ ዜናዊ meles zÄ“nāwÄ«, b. ... President Paul Biya of Cameroon with U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, New York, 16 September 2002 Paul Biya (born 13 February 1933) has been the President of Cameroon since 1982. ... Blaise Compaoré (born February 3, 1951) has been the president of Burkina Faso since 1987. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma (December 26, 1937 – February 5, 2005), was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death. ... Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba (born April 30, 1943) served as the President of Zambia from 1991 to 2002, when Zambians elected former Vice President Levy Mwanawasa as his successor. ... Levy Patrick Mwanawasa (born September 3, 1948) is the third President of Zambia. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Joaquim Chissano Joaquim Alberto Chissano (born 22 October 1939) served as the second President of Mozambique for nineteen years from 6 November 1986 until 2 February 2005. ... General (rtd. ... Time in Office 18 March 1977 – 3 April 1977 (part of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party); 8 February 1979 – 3 August 1992 (first time); 25 October 1997 – Predecessor Marien Ngouabi (as a part of the Military Committee of the CLP); Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya (first time... ĘýṚύ John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor (born in Kumasi December 8, 1938) is the current president of Ghana, since January 7, 2001. ... Colonel Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born October 7, 1950) is a Tanzanian politician and Current President. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Mugabe - MSN Encarta (898 words)
Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born at the Jesuit mission of Kutama in northwest Mashonaland, in the north of the British colony of Southern Rhodesia.
Mugabe was freed in 1974 and became active in the further development of ZANU’s guerrilla army.
Mugabe, whose political support came overwhelmingly from his homeland of Mashonaland in the north, attempted to build Zimbabwe on a basis of reconciliation with whites and with his ZAPU rivals, whose support came from Matabeleland in the south.
Robert Mugabe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3540 words)
Robert Gabriel Mugabe, honorary KCB (born February 21, 1924) is a Zimbabwean politician.
Mugabe was helped by an unprecedented turnout of 90% in his rural stronghold of Mashonaland (55% of the population voted overall), although there are credible claims that the turnout may have been rigged.
Mugabe's office forbade the screening of the 2005 movie The Interpreter claiming that it was propaganda by the CIA and fearing that it could incite hostility towards him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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