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Encyclopedia > Robert Maxwell
Robert Maxwell

Born Ján Ludvík Hoch
June 10, 1923(1923-06-10)
Flag of Ukraine Slatina-Doly (in Rusyn Solotvino [Солотвино]) Ukraine
Died November 5, 1991
Sea around Canary Islands
Nationality British
Other names Ian Robert Maxwell
Occupation Publisher, media proprietor
Children Ghislaine Maxwell, Kevin Maxwell, Ian Maxwell

Ian Robert Maxwell MC (June 10, 1923November 5, 1991) was a Czechoslovakian-born British media proprietor and formerly Member of Parliament (MP), who rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire, which collapsed after his death due to the fraud Maxwell had committed during his lifetime, including illegal use of pension funds. [1] Robert Maxwell (1923–1991) was a British media proprietor and Member of Parliament. ... Media magnate Robert Maxwell, 1923-1991. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Slatina (romanian language) is a medium village situated at the border with Romania (Zacarpatia region, Ucraine), on the right site of Tisa river. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ... Kevin Maxwell (born 1959) is a British businessman, son of Robert Maxwell and brother of Ian Maxwell. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto Czech: Pravda vítÄ›zí (Truth prevails; 1918-1989) Latin: Veritas Vincit (Truth prevails; 1989-1992) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Republic President  - 1918-1935 Tomáš G. Masaryk  - 1935-1938, 1945-1948 Edvard BeneÅ¡  - 1948-1953... A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist...

Contents

Early life

Robert Maxwell was born Ján Ludvík Hoch in the small town of Slatinské Doly, Carpathian Ruthenia, the easternmost province of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia (now part of Slatina-Doly (in Russian Solotvino [Солотвино]) Ukraine) into a poor Yiddish-speaking Jewish family. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary to which it had belonged for a thousand years. Most of his family was killed after Hungary was occupied in 1944 by its former ally, Nazi Germany but he had already escaped, arriving in Britain in 1940 as a 17-year-old refugee. He joined the British Army Pioneer Corps in 1941 and transferred to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He fought his way across Europe from the Normandy beaches, at which time he was still a sergeant, to Berlin. His intelligence and gift for languages gained him a commission in the final year of the war, and eventual promotion to captain, and in January 1945 he received the Military Cross. In the same year he shot and killed the mayor of a German town his unit was attempting to capture.[2] It was during this time that he changed his name several times, finally settling on Ian Robert Maxwell. He almost never used the "Ian," however; he only retained it as a vestige of his original name. // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Slatina (romanian language) is a medium village situated at the border with Romania (Zacarpatia region, Ucraine), on the right site of Tisa river. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Pioneer Corps was a British Army combattant corps used for light engineering tasks. ... History The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales) or Staffords was formed in 1959 by the amalgamation of The South Staffordshire Regiment and the North Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales). The Staffords can trace their history back to 1705 when a regiment known as the 38th Foot was raised at Lichfield... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ...


After the war, Maxwell first worked as a newspaper censor for the British military command in Berlin in Allied-occupied Germany. Later, he used various contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and United States distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951 he bought Pergamon Press Limited (PPL), a minor textbook publisher, from Springer Verlag, and went into publishing on his own. He rapidly built Pergamon into a major publishing house. By the 1960s, Maxwell was a wealthy man, while still espousing in public the socialism of his youth. The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... Pergamon Press was a United Kingdom based publishing house, founded by Robert Maxwell, which published general science books. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


Member of Parliament

In 1964 he was elected to the House of Commons for the Labour Party, and was MP for Buckingham until he lost his seat in 1970 to the Conservative William Benyon. Maxwell was a prosecution witness in the obscenity case concerning the American novel Last Exit to Brooklyn in 1966. He enjoyed mixed popularity in the Labour Party, having what was perceived by some to be an arrogant and domineering manner.[citation needed] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Buckingham is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sir William Richard Benyon (born 17 January 1930) is a retired British Conservative Party politician, Berkshire landowner and former High Sheriff. ... Cover of the 1988 Grove Press reissue of Last Exit to Brooklyn Last Exit to Brooklyn is a 1964 novel by American author Hubert Selby Jr. ...


Maxwell had also acquired a reputation for questionable business practices. In 1969 Saul Steinberg, who headed a company then known as Leasco Data Processing Corporation, was interested in a takeover bid for Pergamon. In negotiations, Maxwell falsely claimed that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was extremely profitable.[3] Following Steinberg's withdrawal on the discovery of the dishonesty, Maxwell was the subject of an inquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) under the Takeover Code, then in force, and at the same time the U.S. Congress was investigating Leasco's takeover practices. The DTI report concluded: "We regret having to conclude that, notwithstanding Mr Maxwell's acknowledged abilities and energy, he is not in our opinion a person who can be relied on to exercise proper stewardship of a publicly quoted company." It was found that Maxwell had contrived to maximise Pergamon's share price through transactions between his private family companies.[3] Maxwell lost control of Pergamon in England—but not in the United States—for a time. Backed by his editors, he resumed control and eventually sold the company. The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom government department. ...


Business activities

Maxwell — like many successful publishers — sought to buy a daily newspaper, hoping to exercise political influence through the media. In 1969 he was prevented from buying the News of the World by Rupert Murdoch, who became his archrival in the British newspaper world. The battle for the News of the World was particularly acrimonious, Maxwell accusing Murdoch of employing "the laws of the jungle" to acquire the paper and said he had "made a fair and bona fide offer... which has been frustrated and defeated after three months of [cynical] manoeuvring." Murdoch denied this, arguing the shareholders of the News of the World Group had "judged [his] record in Australia." The News of the World is a British tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ...


In 1970 Maxwell established the Maxwell Foundation in Liechtenstein, a tax haven. A condition of this type of company was that very little information is publicly available, which according to the Department of Trade and Industry suited Maxwell's business methods. In 1974 he reacquired PPL. In 1981 Maxwell acquired (through PPL) the British Printing Corporation (BPC) and changed its name to the British Printing and Communication Corporation (BPCC). The company was later sold off to a management buy-out, and is now known as Polestar. In July 1984 Maxwell (again through PPL) acquired Mirror Group Newspapers from Reed International plc. MGN were publishers of the Daily Mirror, a traditionally pro-Labour paper. He also bought the American interests of the Macmillan publishing house. A tax haven is a place where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all. ... The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom government department. ... Trinity Mirror is a large United Kingdom newspaper and magazine publisher. ... Reed Elsevier is a global publisher and information provider. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...


By the 1980s Maxwell's various companies owned the Daily Mirror, the Sunday Mirror, the Scottish Daily Record and Sunday Mail and several other newspapers, Pergamon Press, Nimbus Records, Collier books, Maxwell Directories, Prentice Hall Information Services, Macmillan (US) publishing, and the Berlitz language schools. He also owned a half-share of MTV in Europe and other European television interests, Maxwell Cable TV and Maxwell Entertainment. In 1987 Maxwell purchased part of IPC Media to create Fleetway Publications. Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... This article is about the country. ... Daily Record building at Central Quay, Glasgow The Daily Record is a combination of a comic for the mentally sub-normal and substitute tiolet paper, based in Glasgow. ... The Sunday Mail is a Scottish tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. ... Nimbus Records is a British record company specializing in classical music recordings. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Berlitz can refer to: Maximilian Berlitz, founder of the Berlitz Language Schools. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... IPC Media the UKs leading consumer magazine publisher, with an unrivalled portfolio of brands, selling over 350 million copies each year. ... Fleetway, also known as Fleetway Publications and Fleetway Editions, was a publishing company, mainly producing comic magazines for the U.K.. Fleetway began life as Amalgamated Press, the company owned by Alfred Harmsworth, who were based in Fleetway House. ...


Maxwell pioneered the dissemination of highly specialized scientific information, responding to the exponential growth of investment in academic research. After 1970, when research universities diverted attention from the growth of their libraries to the growth of financial reserves, he and other publishers were blamed for greatly increased subscription fees for scientific journals. The need to maintain profits for publishers and the profitability of higher education institutions created budget difficulties for academic libraries, and for publishers of monographs. At the same time, Maxwell's links with the Eastern European totalitarian regimes resulted in a number of biographies (normally considered to be hagiographies) of those countries' then leaders, with sycophantic interviews conducted by Maxwell, for which, in the UK, he received much derision. In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Maxwell was also well known as the chairman of Oxford United Football Club, saving them from bankruptcy and leading them into the top flight of English football, winning the League Cup in 1986. Oxford United were to pay a heavy price for his involvement in club affairs when Maxwell's questionable business dealings came into the public domain. Maxwell also bought into Derby County F.C. in 1987. He also attempted to buy Manchester United in 1984, but refused to pay the price that the owner Martin Edwards had put on the club. For the Northern Irish football club, see Oxford United Stars F.C. Oxford United Football Club are an English football team who are currently playing in the fifth tier of English football for the 2007–08 season. ... The Football League Cup, commonly known as the League Cup, is an English football competition. ... Derby County Football Club are an English football club based in Derby, who play in the Premier League. ... Manchester Uniteds emblem Manchester United F.C. (often abbreviated to Man United or just Man U, pronounced man-yoo) is an English football club based at Old Trafford in Greater Manchester. ... Charles Martin Edwards (b. ...


Business difficulties

Rumours circulated for many years about Maxwell's heavy indebtedness and his dishonest business practices. But Maxwell was well financed and had good lawyers, and threats of costly libel actions (libel law in the UK heavily favours claimants)[citation needed] caused his potential critics to treat him with caution. The satirical magazine Private Eye lampooned him as a "Cap'n Bob" and the "bouncing Czech", but was unable to reveal what it knew about Maxwell's businesses. Maxwell took out several libel actions against Private Eye, one resulting in the magazine losing an estimated £225,000 and Maxwell using his commercial power to hit back with Not Private Eye[4]. In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio... Not Private Eye was a one-off spoof of the British satirical magazine Private Eye. ...


Evidence suggests that Maxwell's business empire was built on debt and deception. He had "borrowed" millions of pounds from his companies' pension funds to prop up the financial position of his group of companies. This was, at the time, not illegal and fairly common practice. In the late 1980s he bought and sold companies at a rapid rate, apparently to conceal the unsound foundations of his business. In 1990 he launched an ambitious new project, a transnational newspaper called The European. The following year he was forced to sell Pergamon Press and Maxwell Directories to Elsevier for £440 million to cover debts, but he used some of this money to buy the New York Daily News. The European, billed as Europes first national newspaper, was a weekly newspaper founded by Robert Maxwell, the first edition appearing on May 11, 1990. ... Elseviers logo. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


By late 1990, investigative journalists, mainly from the Murdoch papers, were exploring Maxwell's manipulation of his companies' pension schemes. During May 1991 it was reported that Maxwell companies and pension schemes were failing to meet statutory reporting obligations. Maxwell employees lodged complaints with British and U.S. regulatory agencies about the abuse of Maxwell company pension funds. Maxwell may have suspected that the truth about his questionable practices was about to be made public. Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often involving crime, political corruption, or some other scandal. ...


In Christopher Hitchens's 1995 book The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, the author claims that Maxwell was involved with Mother Teresa in a "fund-raising scheme" through his various newspaper businesses. According to the book: "Mr. Maxwell inveigled a not unwilling Mother Teresa into a fundraising scheme run by his newspaper group, and then, it seems (having got her to join him in some remarkable publicity photographs), he made off with the money." One such photograph is reproduced within the book. Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... The Missionary Position is a book by Christopher Hitchens about Mother Teresas life and work. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ...


"Death spiral"

Shortly before his death, at a time of high interest rates and during a deep recession, Maxwell had substantial borrowings secured on his shareholdings in his public companies, Mirror and Maxwell Communications. The banks were permitted to sell these holdings in certain circumstances, which they did, depressing the share price and reducing the coverage of the remaining debt. Maxwell then used more money, both borrowed and redirected from pension funds and even the daily balances of his businesses, to buy shares on the open market, in an attempt to prop up the price and provide the shares as collateral for further debt. In reality he was bailing water back into a sinking ship.


Death

On November 5, 1991, at the age of 68, Maxwell is presumed to have fallen overboard from his luxury yacht, Lady Ghislaine, which was cruising off the Canary Islands, and his body was subsequently found floating in the Atlantic Ocean. He was buried in Jerusalem. The official verdict was accidental drowning, though some commentators have surmised that he may have committed suicide, and others that he was murdered. His daughter, Ghislaine Maxwell, quickly renounced on television the notion of an accidental death. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Lady Mona K (formerly Lady Ghislane) is a luxury yacht built by Amels in 1986. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Politicians were swift to pay their tributes. The then Prime Minister, John Major, said Maxwell had given him 'valuable insights' into the situation in the Soviet Union during the attempted coup. He was a 'great character', Mr Major added. Neil Kinnock, the then Labour Party leader, spoke of the former Labour MP for Buckingham, from 1964-70, as a man with "such a zest for life . . . Bob Maxwell was a unique figure who attracted controversy, envy and loyalty in great measure throughout his rumbustious life. He was a steadfast supporter of the Labour Party". It was later alleged that Maxwell had been financing the Labour leader's private office. For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ...


Shortly before Maxwell's death, a self-proclaimed former Mossad officer named Ari Ben-Menashe had approached a number of news organizations in Britain and the United States with the allegation that Maxwell and the Daily Mirror's foreign editor, Nick Davies, were both long time agents for the Israeli intelligence service, Mossad. Ben-Menashe also claimed that in 1986 Maxwell had tipped off the Israeli Embassy in London that Mordechai Vanunu had given information about Israel's nuclear capability to the Sunday Times, then to the Daily Mirror, (Vanunu was subsequently lured from London, where the Sunday Times had him in hiding, to Rome, whence he was kidnapped and returned to Israel, convicted of treason, and imprisoned for 18 years.) Ari Ben-Menashe Ari Ben-Menashe is a former arms dealer and the author of , a book purporting to describe his involvement in Iran-Contra and other intelligence operations. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


No news organization would publish Ben-Menashe's story at first, because of Maxwell's famed litigiousness, but eventually New Yorker journalist Seymour Hersh repeated some of the allegations during a press conference in London held to publicize The Samson Option, Hersh's book about Israel's nuclear weapons. A British Member of Parliament asked a question about Hersh's claims in the House of Commons (with the protection of Parliamentary Privilege which allows MP's to ask questions in Parliament without risk of being sued for defamation), which in turn meant that British newspapers were able to report what had been said without fear of being sued for libel. Nevertheless, writs were swiftly issued by Mirror Group Solicitors on instruction from Maxwell, who called the claims "ludicrous, a total invention". Maxwell then sacked Nick Davies, and just days later, was found dead.[5] For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Parliamentary privilege, also known as absolute privilege, is a legal mechanism employed within the legislative bodies of countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system. ...


The close proximity of his death to these allegations, for which Ben-Menashe had offered no evidence, served to heighten interest in Maxwell's relationship with Israel, and the Daily Mirror has since published claims, again without evidence, that he was assassinated by Mossad after he attempted to blackmail them.[6] For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...


Maxwell was given a funeral in Israel better befitting a head of state than a publisher, as described by author Gordon Thomas: Gordon Thomas is a Welsh author who has written fifty-three books. ...

On November 10, 1991, Maxwell’s funeral took place on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, the resting place for the nation’s most revered heroes. It had all the trappings of a state occasion, attended by the country’s government and opposition leaders. No fewer than six serving and former heads of the Israeli intelligence community listened as Prime Minister Shamir eulogized: "He has done more for Israel than can today be said" (Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, St. Martin's Press, 1999).[7] is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ...

Events after his death

Maxwell's death triggered a flood of revelations about his controversial business dealings and activities. It emerged that, without adequate prior authorisation, he had used hundreds of millions of pounds from his companies' pension funds to finance his corporate debt, his frantic takeovers and his lavish lifestyle. Thousands of Maxwell employees lost their pensions.


The Maxwell companies filed for bankruptcy protection in 1992. His sons, Kevin Maxwell and Ian Maxwell, were declared bankrupt with debts of 400 million pounds sterling. In 1995 the two Maxwell sons and two other former directors went on trial for fraud, but were acquitted in 1996. In 2001 the Department of Trade and Industry report on the collapse of the Maxwell companies accused both Maxwell and his sons of acting "inexcusably". Kevin Maxwell (born 1959) is a British businessman, son of Robert Maxwell and brother of Ian Maxwell. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


It came to light in early 2006 that, before his death, Maxwell was being investigated for possible war crimes in Germany in 1945. This renewed speculation that his death was a suicide.[2]


Maxwell in popular culture

  • The character of publisher Victor Ludorum in Clive James' 1985 novel Brilliant Creatures has many similarities to Maxwell (both Jewish refugees with families mostly killed by Nazis, both wealthy socialists, publishers, overweight etc).
  • Former Mossad agent Victor Ostrovsky alleged in his book The Other Side of Deception that Robert Maxwell was a long-time Mossad agent, providing them with money to finance operations. Ostrovsky claims that Maxwell was assassinated by a Mossad Kidon unit on his yacht while in the Canary Islands.
  • The character Lubji Hoch/ Richard Armstrong in Jeffrey Archer's novel The Fourth Estate is clearly based on Maxwell. The character of Keith Townsend, Armstrong's arch-rival in publishing, is based on Rupert Murdoch
  • In The James Bond movie Tomorrow Never Dies, M (Judi Dench) gives instructions for a cover story to be announced in the media for the death of the villainous media tycoon Elliot Carver (Jonathan Pryce): Carver, they are to say, is missing, believed drowned, having fallen from his luxury yacht.
  • A stage play by Rod Beacham, Lies Have Been Told: An Evening with Robert Maxwell, with Philip York as Maxwell, played to critical acclaim[citation needed] in the West End in 2006 and as of May 2007 is touring the UK.
  • A BBC drama titled Maxwell covering his life shortly before his death starring David Suchet was aired on May 4, 2007.[8]
  • A picture of Maxwell is used on the cover of the Iron Maiden single Be Quick or Be Dead.
  • The character Lord Michael Logan in Stephen Fry's novel The Hippopotamus is, like Maxwell, a media baron who rose to prominence from a poverty-stricken eastern-European background.
  • Maxwell has often been compared to Augustas Melmotte from The Way We Live Now by Anthony Trollope.
  • In the comedy Only Fools and Horses, Del Boy's character refers to unsecure private pensions as "Maxwell Money" with reference to Maxwell's looting of pensions.
  • Maxwell is also frequently mentioned in Andy Hamilton's Radio Comedy Old Harry's Game
  • Maxwell makes an "appearance" in the fifth episode of season 4 of The New Statesman. In the episode, his death is revealed to have been faked in order to allow him to escape with a misappropriated pension fund. In order to make good his disappearance, he makes a deal with the main character Alan B'Stard. Maxwell was featured using video clips to simulate a conversation between himself and Alan, played by Rik Mayall.
  • In series 2 of Goodnight Sweetheart there is an in-joke concerning Robert Maxwell when Gary meets a foreign soldier fighting in the British army. "Ludo" is looking for a more British name and decides on the first name of Robert. Seeing a jar of MAXWELL House coffee he considers it to be the obvious choice and asks to be called Robert House.

Clive James AM (born October 7, 1939 in Kogarah, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) is an expatriate Australian writer, poet, essayist, critic, and commentator on popular culture. ... Victor Ostrovsky (born on November 28, 1949 in Edmonton, Alberta) is a Canadian-born, Israel-raised former Mossad officer and author of 2 non-fiction books on the Mossad and two fictional spy novels. ... Kidon (Hebrew: bayonet) is the name of a department within Israels Mossad that is responsible for assassination and kidnapping. ... Not to be confused with Geoffrey Archer or Baron Archer of Sandwell. ... The Fourth Estate is a novel by Jeffrey Archer. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... 007 redirects here. ... Tomorrow Never Dies, released in 1997, is the eighteenth spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Pierce Brosnan as MI6 agent James Bond. ... M is a fictional character in Ian Flemings James Bond series, as well as the films in the Bond franchise. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... Elliott Carver is a fictional character in the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. ... Jonathan Pryce (born John Price; June 1, 1947) is a Welsh stage and film actor. ... May 2007 is the fifth month of that year It began on a Tuesday and will end after 31 days on a Thursday. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... David Suchet OBE (born May 2, 1946) is an English actor best known for his television portrayal of Agatha Christies Hercule Poirot in the television series Agatha Christies Poirot. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the band. ... Be Quick or Be Dead is the first single from the Iron Maiden album Fear of the Dark, released in 1992. ... Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, writer, actor, humourist, novelist, columnist, filmmaker and television personality. ... The Hippopotamus is a novel by Stephen Fry. ... The Way We Live Now is a scathing satirical novel published in London in 1875 by the prolific Anthony Trollope, after a popular serialization. ... Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ... Only Fools and Horses is a British television sitcom, created and written by John Sullivan, and made and broadcast by the BBC. Seven series were originally broadcast in the UK between 1981 and 1991, with sporadic Christmas specials until 2003. ... Derek Edward Trotter (born July 12, 1948 in Deptford),[1] more commonly known as Del Boy, is the fictional lead character in the popular BBC sitcom Only Fools and Horses. ... Andrew Neil Hamilton (born 1954) is a British comedian, game show panelist, director and comedy scriptwriter for television and radio. ... Old Harrys Game is a UK radio comedy written and directed by Andy Hamilton, who also plays the cynical, world-weary (or rather, underworld-weary) Satan. ... The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... Rik Mayall as Alan Bstard in The New Statesman The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... Richard Michael Rik Mayall (born 7 March 1958) is an English comedian and actor. ... Goodnight Sweetheart was a British sitcom starring Nicholas Lyndhurst as Gary Sparrow, an ordinary modern man who discovers a time portal in Stepney, in the East End of London that allows him to travel back to the Second World War. ...

See also

Headington Hill Hall stands on Headington Hill in the east of Oxford, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The Scottish Daily News (SDN) was a left-of-centre daily newspaper published in Glasgow, Scotland, from May 5 to November 8, 1975. ...

References

  1. ^ "The pensioners' tale", BBC, 29 March 2001
  2. ^ a b "War crimes police tracked Maxwell", BBC, 10 March 2006
  3. ^ a b Dennis Barker and Christopher Sylvester "The grasshopper", - Obituary of Maxwell, The Guardian, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 19 July 2007.
  4. ^ "Not Private Eye", Tony Quinn, Magforum.com, 6 March 2007
  5. ^ "Maxwell's body found in sea", Ben Laurance, John Hooper, David Sharrock, and Georgina Henry, The Guardian, 6 November 1991
  6. ^ "Robert Maxwell was a Mossad spy : New claim on tycoon's mystery death", Gordon Thomas and Martin Dillon, Daily Mirror, 2 December 2002.
  7. ^ "Review : Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad", Freedomwriter.com
  8. ^ Suchet in title role of BBC Two's Maxwell

is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Further reading

  • Short BBC profile of Robert Maxwell
  • Accountancy Age timeline
  • Department of Trade and Industry report on Maxwell's purchase of the Mirror Group
  • Biography
  • Hersh, Seymour. 1991. The Samson Option
  • Thomas, Gordon and Dillon, Martin. (2002). Robert Maxwell: Israel's Superspy : The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul, Carroll and Graf, ISBN 0-7867-1078-0
  • Henderson, Albert, (2004). "The Dash and Determination of Robert Maxwell, Champion of Dissemination," LOGOS. 15,2, pp. 65-75.
  • A book by Martin Dillon, The Assasination of Robert Maxwell, Israeli Superspy
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Frank Markham
Member of Parliament for Buckingham
1964–1970
Succeeded by
William Benyon

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Maxwell - Biography - Moviefone (609 words)
Born Robert Joffe Maxwell around 1910, he'd started out as a writer of pulps in the 1930s and had joined National Periodicals (aka DC Comics) at the end of the decade, with the job of licensing the merchandising rights to the Superman character.
Maxwell went on to produce the Lassie series into the 1960s, ironically as kid-friendly a show as there was, as well as the series Cannonball, National Velvet, and Father of the Bride.
Maxwell passed away in 1971, and is best remembered for that first season of The Adventures of Superman and the television series Lassie, both perennial nostalgia favorites in the 21st century.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Robert Maxwell (241 words)
Ian Robert Maxwell (June 10, 1923 - November 5, 1991) was born in Solotvino[?] (then part of Czechoslovakia, now part of Ukraine), as Jan Ludvik Hoch.
Maxwell's business practices were often considered questionable, but he sued many of those who implied that he was dishonest, notably Private Eye magazine.
His sons, Kevin Maxwell[?] and Ian Maxwell[?], were acquitted of any involvement in the fraud.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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