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Encyclopedia > Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke
A sketch portrait of Robert Lowe
A sketch portrait of Robert Lowe

Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke (December 4, 1811 - July 27, 1892), British statesman, was born at Bingham, Nottinghamshire, where his father was the rector. He was a pivotal but often forgotten figure who shaped British politics in the latter half of the 19th century. His is mostly remembered for his work in Education policy, his opposition to democratic reform and his contribution to modern Company Law. Robert Lowe, viscount Sherbrooke File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Robert Lowe, viscount Sherbrooke File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Bingham is in reference to several Wikipedia topics; for other uses click here. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ...


He was educated at Winchester and University College, Oxford, where he took a first class in classics and a second in mathematics, besides taking a leading part in the Union debates. In 1835 he won a fellowship at Magdalen, but vacated it on marrying, in 1836, Miss Georgina Orred (d. 1884). He was for a few years a successful "coach" at Oxford, but in 1838 was bitterly disappointed at not being elected to the professorship of Greek at Glasgow. Winchester College is a public school in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, in the south of England. ... University College (in full, the College of the Great Hall of the University, commonly known as University College in the University of Oxford, usually known by its derivative, Univ), is a contender for the claim to be the oldest of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure, space and change. ... Oxford Union Societys Victorian (new) debating chamber Oxford Union The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a private debating society whose membership is drawn primarily from the University of Oxford. ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Magdalen College (pronounced ) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Glasgow is the largest of the three universities in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


In 1841 Lowe moved to London, to read for the Bar ("called" 1842); but his eyesight showed signs of serious weakness, and, acting on medical advice, he determined to try his fortune in the colonies rather than in London. He went to Sydney, where he set to work in the law courts. In 1843 he was nominated by Sir George Gipps, the governor, to a seat in the New South Wales Legislative Council; owing to a difference with Gipps he resigned his seat, but was elected shortly afterwards for Sydney. Lowe soon made his mark in the political world by his clever speeches, particularly on finance and education; and besides obtaining a large legal practice, he was one of the principal writers for the Atlas newspaper. In 1850 he went back to England, in order to enter political life there. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... St. ... Sydney Harbour looking south from the vicinity of the Sydney Harbour Bridge towards the CBD skyline; the Opera House is visible in the background on the left. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sir George Gipps was Governor of the colony of New South Wales, Australia, for eight years, between 1848 and 1846. ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


His previous university reputation and connexions, combined with his colonial experience, stood him in good stead, The Times was glad to employ his ready pen, and as one of its ablest leader-writers he made his influence widely felt. In 1852 he was returned to Parliament for Kidderminster in the Liberal interest. In the House of Commons his acute reasoning made a considerable impression, and under successive Liberal ministries (1853-1858) he obtained official experience as secretary of the Board of Control and vice-president of the Board of Trade. During his time there he saw the Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 passed - the first nationwide codification of company law in the world. He has been referred to as "the father of modern company law" (see "The Company" by John Micklethwait, 2003). The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... Kidderminster is a town in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England. ... The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party to form a new party which would become known as... The President of the Board of Control was a British government official in the late 18th and early 19th century responsible for overseeing the British East India Company and generally serving as the chief official in London responsible for Indian affairs. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ...


In 1859 he went to the Education Office as vice-president of the Council in Lord Palmerston's ministry; there he pursued a vigorous policy, insisting on the necessity of payment by results, and bringing in the revised code (1862), which embodied this principle and made an examination in "the three R's" the test for grants of public money. He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1867, that "we must educate our masters," and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies. Considerable opposition was aroused by the new regime at the Education Office, and in 1864 Lowe was driven to resign by an adverse vote in Parliament with reference to the way in which inspectors' reports were "edited." The result was unjust to Lowe, but a good deal of feeling had been aroused against Lingen's administration of the Education Office, and this was the outcome. Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British Prime Minister and Liberal politician. ...


Lord Palmerston had been a towering opponent to widenening democratic participation and his death in October 1865 opened the way to the Russell-Gladstone reform ministry, which introduced the Reform Bill of 1866. Lowe carried his former Prime Minister's views, as part of the Canning and Peel Liberal school. Moreover he had been heavily shocked by his experiences of the comparatively developed union movement in his time in Australia in a less rigid class system. He had already made known his objections to the advance of "democracy", notably in his speech in 1865 on Sir E Baines's Borough Franchise Bill. He was not invited to join the new ministry. He retired into what Bright called the "Cave of Adullam," and opposed the bill in a series of brilliant speeches, which raised his reputation as an orator to its highest point and helped to cause government's downfall. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (August 18, 1792 - May 28, 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a Whig politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The Right Honourable William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809–19 May 1898) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... The Right Honourable George Canning (11 April 1770-8 August 1827) was a British politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... John Bright John Bright (November 16, 1811 - March 27, 1889), was a British politician, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... The Cave of Addulam was originally an underground cavern referred to in the Old Testament in which David, already anointed to succeed Saul as king, sought refuge from the latter (e. ...


However Benjamin Disraeli who led the subsequent Conservative government proposed his own Reform Bill, which by splitting the parties succeeded to become the Reform Act of 1867. As he said in the third reading of the Bill, Lowe thought any step towards democracy was bad because it engendered "a right existing in the individual as opposed to general expediency… numbers as against wealth and intellect" (pg 1540 Hansard 15/7/1867). So the bill contained "the terms of endless agitation" (pg 1542). Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Reform Act 1867 (also known as the Second Reform Act) was a piece of British legislation that greatly increased the number of men who could vote in elections in the UK. In its final form, the Reform Act 1867 enfranchised all male householders and abolished compounding (the practice of...


Proponents of the Bill argued a lower property qualification would give the vote to respectable members of the working class. But Lowe thought:

“the elite of the working classes you are so fond of, are members of trades unions... founded on principles of the most grinding tyranny not so much against masters as against each other... It was only necessary that you should give them the franchise, to make those trades unions the most dangerous political agencies that could be conceived; because they were in the hands, not of individual members, but of designing men, able to launch them in solid mass against the institutions of the country." (pg 1546)

Being a man of company law, Robert Lowe saw unions as a threat to the order, which as he drafted, allowed only for social participation through investment of capital. Not investment of labour. As it was the case that participation in Parliament was also only possibly through possession of property, Lowe was fearful that a change in one part of the world he understood would lead to another, ending in unforseeable chaos.

"This principle of equality which you have taken to worship, is a very jealous power; she cannot be worshipped by halves, and like the Turk in this respect, she brooks no rival near the throne. When you get a democratic basis for your institutions, you must remember that you cannot look at that alone, but you must look at it in reference to all your other institutions. When you have once taught the people to entertain the notion of the individual rights of every citizen to share in the Government, and the doctrine of popular supremacy, you impose on yourselves the task of re-modelling the whole of your institutions, in reference to the principles that you have set up," (pg 1543).

In spite of the fact that his appeals did not prevent the passing of the Second Reform Act, Robert Lowe beat Walter Bagehot in the next election to become the first MP for the London University - a new constituency created by the very Act he opposed! In 1868 he accepted office in the Gladstone Cabinet as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Walter Bagehot (February 3, 1826 – March 24, 1877), pronounced “Badge-utt” [1], was a nineteenth century British economist. ... Senate House, designed by Charles Holden home to the universitys central administration offices and its library The University of London is a federation of colleges which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ...


Lowe was a rather cut-and-dry economist, who prided himself that during his four years of office he took twelve millions off taxation; but later opinion has hardly accepted his removal of the shilling registration duty on corn (1869) as good statesmanship, and his failures are remembered rather than his successes. His proposed tax of a halfpenny a box on lucifer matches in 1871 (for which he suggested the epigram ex luce lucellum, "out of light a little profit") roused a storm of opposition, and had to be dropped. In 1873 he was transferred to the Home Office, but in 1874 the government resigned. When the Liberals returned to power in 1880 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Sherbrooke against the express wishes of Queen Victoria, but with the backing of William Gladstone (a peerage that would become extinct upon his death). But from 1875 till his death at Warlingham, Surrey, his health was constantly failing, and by degrees he figured less and less in public life. The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Warlingham is a small village on the south-eastern boundary of London, UK. It is just over the border in east Surrey. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, one of the Home Counties. ...


During the 1870s the following epitaph was suggested for him by one of the wits of his day: Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...

"Here lies poor old Robert Lowe;
Where he's gone to I don't know;
If to the realms of peace and love,
Farewell to happiness above;
If, haply, to some lower level,
We can't congratulate the devil."

Lowe was delighted with this, and promptly translated it into Latin, as follows:

"Continentur hac in fossa
Humilis Roberti ossa;
Si ad coelum evolabit,
Pax in coelo non restabit;
Sin in inferis jacebit,
Diabolum ejus poenitebit."

His literary talent, though mainly employed in journalism, was also shown in a little volume of verses, Poems of a Life (1884). Bobby Lowe, as he was popularly known, married a second time in 1885 but left no children. His political career showed that times changed too quickly for his admirably strong, but antiquated principles. Yet with his tall striking figure, albino complexion and hair and his faculty for epigram and irony he was one of the most remarkable personalities of his day. Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ...



Preceded by:
Edward Pleydell Bouverie
Paymaster-General
1855–1858
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Donoughmore
Preceded by:
George Ward Hunt
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1868–1873
Succeeded by:
William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by:
Henry Austin Bruce
Home Secretary
1873–1874
Succeeded by:
Sir Richard Assheton Cross


Paymaster-General is a ministerial position in UK. Former holders of this post include: Lord John Russell 1830-1834 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1834-1835 Sir Henry Brook Parnell 1835-1841 Edward John Stanley 1841 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1841-1845 William Bingham Baring 1845-1846 Thomas Babington Macaulay 1846-1848 The... Richard John Hely-Hutchinson, 4th Earl of Donoughmore (4 April 1823–22 February 1866) was a British Conservative politician. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... The Right Honourable William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809–19 May 1898) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare (April 16, 1815 - February 25, 1895) was a British statesman who served in government during the late 19th century, most notably as Home Secretary and as Lord President of the Council. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... The Rt Hon. ...



Preceded by:
New Creation
Viscount Sherbrooke
Succeeded by:
Extinct


A sketch portrait of Robert Lowe Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke (December 4, 1811 - July 27, 1892), British statesman, was born at Bingham, Nottinghamshire, where his father was the rector. ...


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


 
 

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