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Encyclopedia > Robert Louis Stephenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Transport in Scotland Timeline of Scottish history Caledonia List of not fully sovereign nations Subdivisions of Scotland National parks (Scotland) Traditional music of Scotland Flower of Scotland Wars of Scottish Independence National Trust for Scotland Historic houses in Scotland Castles in Scotland Museums in Scotland Abbeys and priories in Scotland... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Poets are authors of poems, or of other forms of poetry such as dramatic verse. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...

Contents


Life

Stevenson was born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of Thomas Stevenson and grandson of Robert Stevenson, both successful lighthouse engineers, and Margaret Balfour. He studied at Edinburgh Academy in his youth. His parents were both very religious. Robert gave up the religion of his parents while studying at Edinburgh University, but the teaching that he received as a child continued to influence him. Edinburghs location in Scotland Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... Thomas Stevenson, 1880 Thomas Stevenson (1818-1887) was a lighthouse designer, who designed over thirty lighthouses in and around Scotland, as well as the Stevenson screen used in meteorology. ... Robert Stevenson (8 June 1772–1850) was a Scottish lighthouse engineer and stepson of Thomas Smith, also a lighthouse engineer. ... The Edinburgh Academy The Edinburgh Academy is a private school that was founded in 1824 to promote classical learning in Edinburgh, Scotland, embracing both an English and a Scottish curriculum. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Although ill with tuberculosis from childhood, Stevenson had a full life. He began his education as an engineer but, despite his family history, he showed little aptitude and soon switched to studying law. At the age of 18 he dropped the name Balfour and changed his middle name from Lewis to Louis (but retaining the original pronunciation); from this time on he began styling himself "RLS". He turned to the law because of poor health, but he never practiced. He ended his life as a tribal leader (called by his tribe Tusitala, meaning "storyteller" in Samoan) and plantation owner at his residence "Vailima" in Samoa, all this in addition to his literary career. Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... External link Samoa Breweries Limited (producers of Vailima Beer) Categories: Stub | Brands of beer ...


Stevenson's novels of adventure, romance, and horror are of considerable psychological depth and have continued in popularity long after his death, both as books and as films. DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ... Adventure novels have adventure as a main theme. ... A romance novel is a novel from the genre currently known as romance. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the reader. ... Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. ...

Stevenson's grave on Mt Vaea, Samoa
Enlarge
Stevenson's grave on Mt Vaea, Samoa

His wife Fanny (née Osbourne), whom he married in 1880, was a great support in his adventurous and arduous life. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1961 KB)Photograph by --CloudSurfer 19:55, 3 Oct 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1961 KB)Photograph by --CloudSurfer 19:55, 3 Oct 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Stevenson made several trips to the Kingdom of Hawaii and became a good friend of King David Kalakaua with whom Stevenson spent much time. Stevenson also became best friends with the king's niece Princess Victoria Kaiulani, also of Scottish heritage. Since the tragic deaths of both Stevenson and Kaiulani, historians have debated the true nature of their relationship as to whether or not they had romantic feelings for each other. Because of the age difference, such stories have often been discredited. In 1888, Stevenson travelled to the island of Molokai just weeks after the death of Father Damien. He spent twelve days at the missionary priest's residence, Bishop Home at Kalawao. Stevenson taught the local girls to play croquet. When Congregationalist and Presbyterian ministers began to incite slander against Father Damien out of spite for his Catholicism, Stevenson wrote one of his most famous essays in defense of the life and work of the missionary priest. Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani, a member of the Kalākaua Dynasty, was in line to become Queen of Hawai‘i when her kingdom was overthrown by a small group of Hawaiian citizens primarily of European descent and United States citizens with the aid of the United States Marine Corps. ... David Kalākaua was elected by the legislature to assume the throne of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i upon the death of William Charles Lunalilo. ... Princess Kaiulani, a member of the Kalakāua Dynasty and descendant of the Kamehameha Dynasty, was in line to become Queen of Hawai‘i when her kingdom was overthrown. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Image of Molokai taken by NASA. Sign greeting visitors to Molokai at exit to airport. ... Father Damien Father Damien, formally Joseph de Veuster, ss. ... Croquet is a recreational game and, latterly, a competitive sport that involves hitting wooden or plastic balls with a mallet through hoops embedded into the grass playing arena. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ...


Stevenson died of a brain (cerebral) haemorrhage in Vailima in Samoa, aged 44. In his will, he bequeathed his birthday to a little girl who had been born on Christmas Day. External link Samoa Breweries Limited (producers of Vailima Beer) Categories: Stub | Brands of beer ...


Fiction

  • Treasure Island (1883) His first major success, a tale of piracy, buried treasure, and adventure, has been filmed frequently. It was originally called The Sea-Cook. The seeds of this novel came together for Stevenson circa 1879 as he walked on the sands of the beach at Monterey, California.
  • The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses (1884) An historical adventure and romance set during the Wars of the Roses. It features an unusual subplot involving crossdressing. This novel presents the Wars of the Roses, as it were, in miniature.
  • Kidnapped (1886) is an historical novel that tells of the boy David Balfour's pursuit of his inheritance and his alliance with Alan Breck in the intrigues of Jacobite troubles in Scotland. Catriona (1893), also known as David Balfour, is a sequel, telling of Balfour's further adventures.
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), a short novel about a dual personality much depicted in plays and films, also influential in the growth of understanding of the subconscious mind through its treatment of a kind and intelligent physician who turns into a psychopathic monster after imbibing a drug intended to separate good from evil in a personality.
  • The New Arabian Nights (1882), a collection of tales.
  • The Body Snatcher (1885), another influential horror novel.
  • The Wrong Box, (1892), with Lloyd Osbourne, a comic novel of a tontine, also filmed (1966). A tontine is a group life-insurance policy in which the last survivor gets all the insurance. Both in the novel and in real life, it is an incentive to murder, and no longer legal in most countries.
  • The Master of Ballantrae (1888), a masterful tale of revenge, set in Scotland and America.
  • Weir of Hermiston (1896), novel, unfinished at his death, considered to have promised great artistic growth.

Treasure Island. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Copyright infringement is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary An Adventure (from Latin res adventura, a thing about to happen) is a wild and exciting undertaking, especially where there is a chance of danger. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The City of Monterey is located on Monterey Bay along the Pacific coast in central California in the United States. ... A crucial moment in the novel when Sir Oliver, Sir Daniel, and Dick Shelton are surprized by a black arrow in the Moat House refectory hall The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses is an 1888 novel by Robert Louis Stevenson, which can be classed genre-wise as... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary An Adventure (from Latin res adventura, a thing about to happen) is a wild and exciting undertaking, especially where there is a chance of danger. ... As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) is the name generally given to the intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ... The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) is the name generally given to the intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... 1893 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Overview In psychiatry, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the current name of the condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and Multiple Personality Syndrome. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Body Snatcher is a 1885 work by Robert Louis Stevenson. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Wrong Box is a 1966 British comedy film directed by Bryan Forbes based on a story by Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd Osbourne. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A comic novel is a work of fiction in which the writer seeks to amuse the reader: sometimes with subtlety and as part of a carefully woven narrative, sometimes above all other considerations. ... A Tontine is an investment vehicle which is an odd mixture of group annuity, group life insurance, and lottery. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... The Master of Ballantrae is a book by Robert Louis Stevenson, focusing upon the conflict of two brothers, Scottish noblemen whose family is torn apart by the rebellion of 1745. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Poetry

  • A Child's Garden of Verses (1885), written for children but also popular with their parents. Includes such favorites as "My Shadow" and "The Lamplighter". Often thought to represent a positive reflection of the author's sickly childhood.

A Childs Garden of Verses is a collection of poetry for children by Robert Louis Stevenson. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Travel Writing

1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Canoe at El Nido, Philippines A canoe is a relatively small boat, typically human-powered, but also commonly sailed. ... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to a number of triptychs by Renaissance Belgian painter Rubens. ... Pontoise is a suburban commune of the Val-dOise département, in suburban Paris in France. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Cévennes are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements of Gard, Lozère, Ardèche, and Haute-Loire. ... Beautiful natural scenes are common hiking destinations Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... For other uses, see camping (disambiguation) Camping is an outdoor recreational activity involving the spending of one or more nights in a tent, primitive structure, a travel trailer or recreational vehicle at a campsite with the purpose of getting away from civilization and enjoying nature. ... Tigers playing in the water Girl playing on tyre swing Adults enjoying the day. ... In camping and other outdoor activities, a sleeping fag is a protective bag for sleeping, analogous to a bed and blanket. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Silverado is an American Western film, first released on July 10, 1985. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official language(s) English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...

Island Literature

Although not well known, his island fiction and non-fiction is among the most valuable and collected of the 19th century body of work that addresses the Pacific area. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Non-fiction works on the Pacific

  • In the South Seas. A collection of Stevenson's articles and essays on his travels in the Pacific.
  • A Footnote to History, Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa (1912)

Island fiction

  • The Beach at Falesa, one of his darkest works, explores the relationship between white traders and islanders in a way that anticipates Conrad and Maugham.
  • An Island Nights' Entertainment. Three great stories: The Bottle Imp, The Beach at Falesá and The Isle of Voices.
  • The Wrecker with Lloyd Osbourne
  • The Ebb Tide with Lloyd Osbourne

Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (December 3, 1857 – August 3, 1924) was a naturalized British novelist of Polish origin. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ... The Bottle Imp (1893) is a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson about a working class native of Hawaii, Keawe, who buys a strange bottle from a sad, elderly gentleman who credits the bottle with his wealth and fortune, and promises the bottle will also grant Keawe his every wish...

Works in Scots

Stevenson also wrote poetry and prose in Scots. See ScotsteXt Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Scottish Gaelic language of the highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or...


Further Reading

Claire Harman, Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography, HarperCollins, ISBN 0007113218 [reviewed by Matthew Sturgis in Times Literary Supplement, 11 March 2005, page 8]


External links

Wikisource
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Stephenson's Rocket - Uncyclopedia (463 words)
Stephenson, christened 'George (Lewis) Stephenson' shortly after his birth in 1781, wasn't a very good engineer and had been thrown out of college due to spending too much time hanging out on the farm or down the local pit.
Stephenson still longed for recognition as an engineer but with his limited skill, the best he could do was copy designs for helmet lights from the leading scientists at the Royal Academy.
Stephenson's new engine won the competition by utilising a clever technique of having a multi core heat exchanger - the use of a 'heat exchanger' to exchange heat was certainly a leap forward in efficiency!
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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