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Encyclopedia > Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...

Contents

Early life

Robert Hooke was fascinated by the sciences, particularly biology, from his early childhood. His father was John Hooke, curate of the Church of All Saints, Freshwater. Like his three other brothers (all ministers), Robert was expected to succeed in his education and join his father's church. However, Hooke continually suffered from headaches whilst studying. His parents, fearing he would not reach adulthood, decided to give up on his education and leave him to his own devices. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... John Hooke may refer to: John Hooke, a 13th-century Chancellor of the University of Cambridge John Hooke, a 17th-century English independent minister John Hooke, a 17th-century English judge Category: ... The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Saints Day, All Hallows or Hallowmas (hallows meaning saints, and mas meaning Mass), is a feast celebrated in the honour of all the saints, known and unknown. ... Freshwater is a village and parish at the western end of the Isle of Wight. ...


Born in Freshwater on the Isle of Wight, Hooke received his early education on the Isle of Wight and, from about the age of 13, at Westminster School under Dr. Busby. In 1653, Hooke secured a chorister's place at Christ Church, Oxford. There he met the chemist (and physicist) Robert Boyle, and gained employment as his assistant. It is possible that Hooke formally stated Boyle's Law, as Boyle was not a mathematician. Freshwater is a village and parish at the western end of the Isle of Wight. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire, between the Solent and the English Channel. ... For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws and basis of derivation for the Ideal gas law, which describes relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature remains at a fixed measure; both entities...


Career

Hooke's drawing of a flea.
Hooke's drawing of a flea.
Hooke's microscope, from an engraving in Micrographia.
Hooke's microscope, from an engraving in Micrographia.

In 1660, he discovered Hooke's law of elasticity, which describes the linear variation of tension with extension in an elastic spring. In 1662, Hooke gained appointment as Curator of Experiments to the newly founded Royal Society, and took responsibility for experiments performed at its meetings. Greyscale picture of Robert Hookes drawing of a flea in his Micrographia. ... Greyscale picture of Robert Hookes drawing of a flea in his Micrographia. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (625x693, 127 KB) Robert Hookes microscope. ... Download high resolution version (625x693, 127 KB) Robert Hookes microscope. ... Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... In solid mechanics, elasticity is the property of materials which undergo reversible deformations under applied loads. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


In 1665 he published a book entitled Micrographia which contained a number of microscopic and telescopic observations, and some original observations in biology. Hooke coined the biological term cell, so called because his observations of plant cells reminded him of monks' cells which were called "cellula." He is often credited with the discovery of the cell, although his microscope was very basic. Hooke's design was used by the Dutchman Anton van Leeuwenhoek, described as the father of microbiology. Hookes drawing of a flea Micrographia is a historical book by Robert Hooke, detailing the then twenty-eight year-old Hookes observations through various lenses. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... St. ... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ...


The hand-crafted, leather and gold-tooled microscope that Hooke used to make the observations for "Micrographia," originally made by Christopher Cock in London, is on display at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, DC. Also in 1665 he gained appointment as Professor of Geometry at Gresham College. Hooke also achieved fame as Surveyor to the City of London and chief assistant of Christopher Wren, helping to rebuild London after the Great Fire in 1666. He worked on designing the Monument, Royal Greenwich Observatory and the infamous Bethlem Royal Hospital (which became known as 'Bedlam'). Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... Royal Observatory, Greenwich The original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), which was built as a workplace for the Astronomer Royal, was on a hill in Greenwich Park in Greenwich, London, overlooking the River Thames. ... The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which has been variously known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlem Hospital, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is the worlds oldest psychiatric hospital. ...


He died in London on 3 March 1703 (ns). He amassed a sizeable sum of money during his career in London, which was found in his room at Gresham College after his death. He never married. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ...


No portrait

Supposed portrait of Hooke; actually Jan Baptist van Helmont.
Supposed portrait of Hooke; actually Jan Baptist van Helmont.

It seems that no authenticated portrait of him survives today. Newton instigated the removal of Hooke's portrait in the Royal Society. In 2003, the historian Lisa Jardine claimed a recently discovered portrait represents Robert Hooke. However, Jardine's hypothesis was soon disproved by William Jensen (University of Cincinnati) and independently by the German researcher Andreas Pechtl (Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz). Actually, the portrait depicts Jan Baptist van Helmont. A seal used by Hooke displays an unusual profile portrait of a man's head, that some have argued portrays Hooke. Both these claims remain in dispute, however. Moreover, the engraved frontispiece to the 1728 edition of Chambers' Cyclopedia shows as an interesting detail a bust of Robert Hooke. Image File history File links HOOKE_Robert. ... Image File history File links HOOKE_Robert. ... Jan Baptist van Helmont. ... Lisa Jardine is a British historian of the early modern period. ... Jan Baptist van Helmont. ...


Hooke the architect

The church at Willen, Milton Keynes.
The church at Willen, Milton Keynes.

Hooke was an important architect. He was the official London Surveyor after the Great Fire of 1666, surveying about half the plots in the city. As well as the Bethlem Royal Hospital, other buildings designed by Hooke include: The Royal College of Physicians (1679); Ragley Hall in Warwickshire; and the parish church at Willen, Milton Keynes (historical Buckinghamshire). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2304, 868 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Hooke Willen Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2304, 868 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Hooke Willen Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which has been variously known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlem Hospital, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is the worlds oldest psychiatric hospital. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... Panorama of Ragley Hall Ragley Hall (grid reference SP073555) is located south of Alcester, Warwickshire, eight miles west of Stratford-upon-Avon. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Willen is a district of Milton Keynes, England and is also one of the ancient villages of Buckinghamshire to have been included in the designated area of the New City in the 1960s. ... , Milton Keynes is a large town in northern Buckinghamshire, in South East England, about 45 miles (75 km) north-west of London, and roughly halfway between London and Birmingham. ... The name Buckinghamshire is Anglo Saxon and means The district (scire) of Buccas home. ...


Hooke's collaboration with Christopher Wren was particularly fruitful and yielded The Royal Observatory at Greenwich, The Monument (to the Great Fire) and St Paul's Cathedral, whose dome uses a method of construction conceived by Hooke. Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... The Monument to the Great Fire of London, more commonly known as the Monument, is located in the City of London, near to the northern end of London Bridge close to where the Great Fire of London (1666) started. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...


In the reconstruction after the Great Fire, Hooke proposed redesigning London's streets on a grid pattern with wide boulevards and arteries (a pattern subsequently used in the renovation of Paris, Liverpool and many American cities), but was prevented by problems over property rights. Many property owners were surreptitiously shifting their boundaries and disputes were rife. (Hooke was in demand to use his competence as a surveyor and tact as an arbitrator to settle many of these disputes.) So London was rebuilt along the original mediaeval streets. Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ...


Books

  • The Man Who Knew Too Much, Stephen Inwood, Pan Books, 2002. ISBN 0-330-48829-5. (Published in the USA as The Forgotten Genius)
  • Early Science in Oxford vol vii, Dr. R. T. Gunther, ed., privately printed, 1923-67.
  • Robert Hooke, Margaret 'Espinasse. William Heinemann Ltd, 1956.
  • The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man who Measured London, Lisa Jardine. Harper Collins Publishers, 2003. ISBN 0-00-714944-1.
  • London's Leonardo: The Life and Work of Robert Hooke, Jim Bennett, Michael Cooper, Michael Hunter and Lisa Jardine. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-852579-6.
  • England's Leonardo: Robert Hooke and the Seventeenth-century Scientific Revolution, Allan Chapman. Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-7503-0987-3.
  • Robert Hooke and the English Renaissance, Allan Chapman and Paul Kent (editors). Gracewing, 2005. ISBN 0-85244-587-3.
  • Hooke, Robert (1635-1703). Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses with observations and inquiries thereupon...

Robert T. Gunther (23 August 1869 – 9 March 1940), historian of science and founder of the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lisa Jardine is a British historian of the early modern period. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... James A. Bennett PhD is a museum curator and historian of science. ... Lisa Jardine is a British historian of the early modern period. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Allan Chapman FRAS (born 30 May, 1946) is a British historian of science. ... The Institute of Physics (IOP) is Britain and Irelands main professional body for physicists. ... Allan Chapman FRAS (born 30 May, 1946) is a British historian of science. ...

Commemorations

Two craters, on the Moon and Mars, were named in his honour. There is more than one crater named Hooke: Hooke (Lunar crater) Hooke (crater on Mars) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


See also

The following is a list of Astronomical Instrument Makers, along with lifespan and country of work, if available. ... The Shelley Memorial is a memorial to the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) at University College, Oxford, England, the college that he briefly attended and from which he was expelled for writing a pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robert Hooke
  • Website dedicated to Hooke, hosted by Westminster School
  • Works by Robert Hooke at Project Gutenberg
  • Hooke Timeline
  • England's Leonardo lecture on Robert Hooke
  • Engraved bust of Robert Hooke
  • Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke
  • Lost manuscript of Robert Hooke discovered — from The Guardian
  • Manuscript bought for The Royal Society — from The Guardian
  • Exploring our archives, a blog by researchers at the Royal Society exploring Hooke's lost manuscript

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Hooke (1223 words)
Hooke's language may be archaic, but his meaning is quite modern: Dead wood could be turned to stone by the action of water rich in dissolved minerals, which would deposit minerals throughout the wood.
Hooke realized, two and a half centuries before Darwin, that the fossil record documents changes among the organisms on the planet, and that species have both appeared and gone extinct throughout the history of life on Earth.
A brief biography of Hooke, with a listing of his contributions to mathematics, is part of the resources in the history of mathematics maintained at the School of Mathematics of Trinity College, Dublin.
Robert Hooke - MSN Encarta (291 words)
Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight and educated at the University of Oxford.
Hooke's most important contributions include the correct formulation of the theory of elasticity, which states that an elastic body stretches in proportion to the force that acts upon it; and analysis of the nature of combustion.
Hooke was also a pioneer in microscopic research and published his observations, which included the discovery of plant cells.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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