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Encyclopedia > Robert Garran
Robert Randolph Garran
Portrait of Garran in the 1930s.
Born 10 February 1867
Sydney, New South Wales
Died 11 January 1957
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
Occupation lawyer, public servant
Spouse Hilda Robson Garran
Parents Andrew Garran, Mary Garran


In addition to his professional work, Garran was also an important figure in the development of the city of Canberra during its early years. He founded several important cultural associations, organised the creation of the Canberra University College, and later contributed to the establishment of the Australian National University. Garran published at least eight books and many journal articles throughout his lifetime, covering such topics as constitutional law, the history of federalism in Australia, and German language poetry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920 within the city centre. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Portrait of Garran in 1896. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Canberra University College was a tertiary education institution established in Canberra by the Australian government and the University of Melbourne in 1930. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...

Contents

Early life

Garran was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the only son (among seven children) of journalist and politician Andrew Garran and his wife Mary Isham. His parents were committed to social justice, Mary campaigning for issues such as the promotion of education for women, and Andrew advocating Federation and covering reformist movements as editor of The Sydney Morning Herald and later promoting them as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council.[1] The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920 within the city centre. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Portrait of Garran in 1896. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ...


The family lived in Phillip Street in central Sydney. Garran's mother "had a deep distrust, well justified in those days, of milkman's milk" and so she kept a cow in the backyard, which would walk on its own to The Domain each day to graze and return twice a day to be milked.[2] The Garrans later lived in the suburb of Darlinghurst, just to the east of the centre city. Sydney Law School The Supreme Court Building Ben Chifley statue in Chifley Place Phillip Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... The Domain is a large open space in Sydney, Australia, immediately east of the central business district. ... Darlinghurst is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Garran attended Sydney Grammar School from the age of ten, starting in 1877. He was a successful student, and became school captain in 1884. He then studied arts and law at the University of Sydney, where he was awarded scholarships for classics, mathematics and general academic ability.[3] Garran graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree with first-class honours in 1888, winning the University's Medal in Philosophy, and a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1889.[3] Sydney Grammar School (colloquially known as Grammar) is a non-denominational, independent school for boys in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ...


After graduating, Garran began to study for the Bar examination. He was employed for a year with a firm of Sydney solicitors, and the next year served as associate to Justice William Charles Windeyer of the Supreme Court of New South Wales.[3] Windeyer had a reputation for being a harsh and inflexible judge, particularly in criminal cases, where he was said to have "a rigorous and unrelenting sense of the retribution that he believed criminal justice demanded, [and] a sympathy verging on the emotional for the victims of crime."[4] Garran however offered a different view, saying that "those who knew him well knew that under a brusque exterior he was the kindest of men", and his reputation had to some degree been created by misrepresentation.[5] In 1891, Garran was admitted to the New South Wales Bar, where he commenced practice as a barrister, primarily working in equity. A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, but not the United States (in the United States the word has a quite different meaning—see below). ... Sir William Charles Windeyer (29 September 1834 – 11 September 1897) was an Australian politician and judge. ... The Supreme Court of New South Wales is the highest state court for the Australian State of New South Wales. ... // Artists impression of an English barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ...


Federation movement

Portrait of Andrew Garran, Robert's father, in 1896.
Portrait of Andrew Garran, Robert's father, in 1896.

Garran, like his father, was strongly involved in the Australian Federation movement, the movement which sought to unite the British colonies in Australia (and, in early proposals, New Zealand) into one federated country. The first Constitutional Convention was held in 1891 in the chamber of the Legislative Council of New South Wales in Macquarie Street, Sydney, around the corner from Garran's chambers in Phillip Street, and Garran regularly attended and sat in the public gallery to see "history... in the making under my very eyes."[6] Garran would later recall with approval that the 1891 convention was the first with the courage to face the "lion in the path", the issue of customs duties and tariffs, which had previously divided states such as Victoria, who were in favour of protectionism, and states such as New South Wales, who were in favour of free trade. In Garran's view a clause proposed at the convention, which allowed for tariffs against international trade while ensuring free trade domestically (the predecessor to the final section 92 of the Australian Constitution), "expressed the terms on which New South Wales was prepared to face the lion."[7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 1052 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait of Andrew Garran, photographed in 1896. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 1052 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait of Andrew Garran, photographed in 1896. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings. ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the most eastern street of Sydneys CBD. Extending from Hyde Park at its southern end to the Sydney Opera House at its northern end, Macquarie Street is arguably Australias most beautiful and prominent avenue. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... A tariff is a tax on foreign goods. ... Capital Melbourne Government Constitutional monarchy Governor David de Kretser Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 37  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $222,022 (2nd)  - Product per capita  $44,443/person (5th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  5,110,500 (2nd)  - Density  22. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


Garran became involved with the work of Edmund Barton, who would later be the first Prime Minister of Australia but at the time was the de facto leader of the federation movement in New South Wales as Sir Henry Parkes declined into poor health. Garran, along with others such as Atlee Hunt, worked essentially as secretaries to Barton's federation campaign, drafting correspondence and planning meetings. At one late night meeting, planning a speech Barton was to give in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield, Barton coined the phrase "For the first time, we have a nation for a continent, and a continent for a nation"; Garran recalled that the now famous phrase "would have been unrecorded if I had not happened to jot it down."[8] Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Sir Henry Parkes Sir Henry Parkes GCMG, (27 May 1815 – 27 April 1896) was an Australian politician, also called the Father of Federation because he was the one who started federation for australians and is at least considered the most prominent among the Australian Founding Fathers. ... Ashfield (pop. ...


In June 1893, when the Australasian Federal League was formed at a meeting in the Sydney Town Hall, Garran joined immediately and was made a member of the executive committee. He was one of the League's four delegates to the 1893 Corowa Conference and a League delegate to the 1896 Bathurst Conference, informal conferences held between members of the League (primarily based in Sydney), the Australian Natives Association (mainly Victorian) and other pro-federation groups.[9] At Corowa he was part of an impromptu group organised by John Quick which drafted a resolution, passed at the Conference, calling on the colonial parliaments to hold a directly elected Constitutional Convention to be charged with drafting the Bill for the Constitution of Australia. The proposal, which came to be known as the Corowa Plan, was later accepted at the 1895 Premiers' Conference and formed the basis for the federation process over the following five years.[10] The Sydney Town Hall The Sydney Town Hall is a landmark sandstone building located in the heart of Sydney. ... An Australian Natives Association banquet held in 1901 to honour Prime Minister Edmund Barton, following his return from the United Kingdom. ... Sir John Quick (14 April 1852 – 17 June 1932), Australian politician and author, was the federal member for Bendigo from 1901 to 1913 and a leading delegate to the constitutional conventions of the 1890s. ... In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...


In 1897, Garran published The Coming Commonwealth,[11] an influential book on the history of the Federation movement and the debate over the 1891 draft of the Constitution of Australia. The book was based on material he prepared for a course on federalism and federal systems of government, which he had planned to give at the University of Sydney, but which failed to attract a sufficient number of students.[1] Nevertheless, the book was both unique and popular, as one of the few books on the topic at the time, with the first edition quickly selling out. Soon after its publication the Premier of New South Wales George Reid, who had been elected as a New South Wales delegate to the 1897–1898 Constitutional Convention, invited Garran to be his secretary. At the Convention, Reid appointed him secretary of the Drafting Committee, at Barton's request; he was also a member of the Press Committee.[12] Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... List of Premiers of New South Wales Before the 1890s there was no formal party system in New South Wales. ... Sir George Houstoun Reid (25 February 1845–12 September 1918), Australian politician and fourth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, son of a Church of Scotland minister, migrated to Victoria with his family as a child. ...


Garran recorded in a letter to his family during the convention's Melbourne sitting that: Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ...

"The committee professes to find me very useful in unravelling the conundrums sent down by the finance committee... The last two nights I have found the drafting committee fagged [tired] and despairing, and now they have pitched the conundrums at me and gone out for a smoke; and then I worked out algebraic formulas to clear the thing up, drafted clauses accordingly, and when the committee returned we had plain sailing."[13] Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ...

Garran joked that the long work of the drafting committee breached the Factory Acts, the group (primarily Barton, Richard O'Connor, John Downer and Garran) often working late into the night preparing drafts for the convention to consider and debate the next morning. On the evening before the convention's last day, Barton had gone to bed exhausted in the small hours, Garran and Charles Gavan Duffy finishing the final schedule of amendments at breakfast time.[14] The convention concluded successfully, approving a final draft which would ultimately, aside from a small amendment arranged at the last minute in London, become the Constitution of Australia. The Factory Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile industry, then later in all industries. ... Richard Edward OConnor (1851 - 18 November 1912), Australian politician, was a member of the first federal ministry. ... John Downer (1843–1915) was the Premier of South Australia from 16 June 1885 until 11 June 1887. ... Charles Gavan Duffy Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, KBE, KCMG (12 April 1816 - 9 February 1903) Irish nationalist and Australian colonial politician, was the 8th Premier of Victoria and one of the most colourful figures in Victorian political history. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Throughout 1898, following the completion of the proposed Constitution, Garran participated in the campaign promoting Federation leading up to the referendums at which the people of the colonies voted whether or not to approve the Constitution. He contributed a daily column to the Evening News, and had humorous poems critiquing opponents of federation published in The Bulletin. The following year, he began working with Quick on the Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth,[15] a reference work on the Constitution including a history, and detailed discussion of each section analysing its meaning and its development at the Conventions. Published in 1901, the Annotated Constitution, commonly referred to simply as "Quick & Garran", soon became the standard work on the Constitution and is still regarded as one of the most important works on the subject.[1] Front cover of the Feburary 24, 2004 edition of The Bulletin The Bulletin is a weekly magazine, which has been published in Sydney, Australia since 1880. ...


Public service

Garran and his wife Hilda (second and first from left respectively) and their friends Sir Littleton Groom and his wife Jessie (first and second from right respectively), photographed at Telopea Park in 1926.
Garran and his wife Hilda (second and first from left respectively) and their friends Sir Littleton Groom and his wife Jessie (first and second from right respectively), photographed at Telopea Park in 1926.

On the day that Federation was completed and Australia created, 1 January 1901, Garran was made a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG),[16] and was appointed secretary and Permanent Head of the Attorney-General's Department by the first Attorney-General of Australia, Alfred Deakin. Garran was the first, and for a time the only, public servant employed by the Government of Australia. Garran later said of this time that: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Honourable Littleton Ernest Groom (22 April 1867 - 1936), Australian commonwealth Minister and Speaker of the House, and Australias 10th longestest serving commonwealth Parliamentarian (33 years 1 month). ... Telopea Park Telopea Park is one of the oldest parks in Canberra, Australia. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Attorney-Generals Department is an Australian government department. ... The Attorney-General of Australia is the chief law officer of the Crown and a member of the Federal Cabinet. ... Alfred William Deakin (3 August 1856 – 7 October 1919), Australian politician, was a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later second Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ...

"I was not only the head [of the department], but the tail. I was my own clerk and messenger. My first duty was to write out with my own hand Commonwealth Gazette No. 1 proclaiming the establishment of the Commonwealth and the appointment of ministers of state, and to send myself down with it to the government printer."[17]

In this role, Garran was responsible for organising the first federal election in March 1901, and for organising the transfer of various government departments from the states to the federal government, including the Department of Defence, the postal and telegraphic services (now part of the Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts) and the Department of Trade and Customs (now part of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade). As parliamentary drafter, Garran also developed legislation to administer those new departments and other important legislation. Edmund Barton, Prime Minister and Protectionist Party leader The Australian legislative election, 1901 was the first federal election held in Australia following the establishment of the Federation of Australia. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... The Department of Defence is an Australian government department. ... It has been suggested that first class mail be merged into this article or section. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... The Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts (DCITA) is an Australian government department. ... The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade is an Australian government department concerned with the relations between Australia and other nations, both in political and economic terms. ...


Garran and his fellow staff aimed for a simple style of legislative drafting, a goal enabled by the fact that there was no pre-existing federal legislation on which their work would have to be based. In Garran's opinion the approach, which was put into practice many years before the similarly principled plain English movement became popular in government in the 1970s, was intended "to set an example of clear, straightforward language, free from technical jargon."[18] Subsequent parliamentary drafters have noted that Garran was unusual in this respect for deliberately setting out to achieve and improve a particular drafting style, and that it was not until the early 1980s that such discipline among drafters re-emerged.[19] Plain English focuses on being a flexible and efficient writing style that readers can understand in one reading. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


However, Garran himself admitted that his drafting could be overly simplistic, citing the first customs and excise legislation (the Customs Act 1901 and the Excise Act 1901), developed with the Minister for Trade and Customs Charles Kingston, as an example of the style taken to excess.[18] The style was also once parodied by foundation High Court Justice Richard O'Connor as follows: Charles Kingston (standing, second from right) as a member of the first federal Cabinet, January 1901 Charles Cameron Kingston, (October 22, 1850 - May 11, 1908) Australian politician, was Premier of South Australia and a member of the first Federal Parliament. ... In contemporary usage, a parody is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Richard Edward OConnor (1851 - 18 November 1912), Australian politician, was a member of the first federal ministry. ...

"Every man shall wear –
  (a) Coat
  (b) Vest
  (c) Trousers
Penalty: £100."[17]

In 1902, Garran married Hilda Robson. Together they would have four sons, Richard (born 1903), John (1905), Andrew (1906) and Isham (1910). At this time the family lived in Melbourne, and the boys all attended Melbourne Grammar School and later studied at the University of Melbourne, attending Trinity College there. Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Melbourne Grammar School is an independent school in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, founded in 1858. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Horsfall Chapel from the Bulpadok Organ in Horsfall Chapel Trinity College is the oldest residential college of the University of Melbourne, Australia, and was founded in 1872 on a site which had been granted to the Church of England. ...


The Attorney-General's Department also managed litigation on behalf of the government. Initially the department contracted private law firms to actually conduct the litigation, but in 1903 the office of the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor was established, with Charles Powers the first to hold the job. The other Crown Solicitors that Garran worked with included Gordon Castle (with whom he had also worked as a drafter) and William Sharwood. A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. ... Australian Government Solicitor, previously known as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, is a law firm that provides legal services to the Government of Australia, and occasionally to governments of the states and territories of Australia. ... Sir Charles Powers KCMG (8 March 1853 – 25 April 1939), Australian politician and judge, was a Justice of the High Court of Australia from 1913 to 1929. ...


Garran worked with several Attorneys-General as Permanent Head of the Department. Garran regarded the first Attorney-General, Alfred Deakin, as an excellent thinker and a natural lawyer, and on occasion "[spoke] of Deakin as the Balfour of Australian politics."[20] He was also very much impressed with the fifth Attorney-General, Isaac Isaacs, who was an extremely diligent worker, and two time Attorney-General Littleton Groom, who was "probably one of the most useful Ministers the Commonwealth has had."[21] Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, (25 July 1848-19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. ... Sir Isaac Isaacs Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs, KBE, PC (6 August 1855 - 12 February 1948) Australian judge and politician, was the ninth Governor-General of Australia, the first Jew, and the first Australian to occupy that post. ... The Honourable Littleton Ernest Groom (22 April 1867 - 1936), Australian commonwealth Minister and Speaker of the House, and Australias 10th longestest serving commonwealth Parliamentarian (33 years 1 month). ...


In 1912, Garran was considered as a possible appointee to the High Court, following the expansion of the bench from five seats to seven and the death of Richard O'Connor. Billy Hughes, Attorney-General in the Fisher government at the time, later said Garran would have been appointed "but for the fact that he is too valuable a man for us to lose. We cannot spare him."[1] William Morris Billy Hughes, (September 25, 1862–October 28, 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most colourful figures in Australian political history. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ...


Solicitor-General

The Australian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Garran is in the front row, seated, second from left. Also pictured are Billy Hughes, front centre, and Sir Joseph Cook, seated, second from right.
The Australian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Garran is in the front row, seated, second from left. Also pictured are Billy Hughes, front centre, and Sir Joseph Cook, seated, second from right.

In 1916, Garran was made the first Solicitor-General of Australia (the office was then known as Commonwealth Solicitor-General) by Billy Hughes, who had since become Prime Minister. The creation of the office and Garran's appointment to it was to some degree recognition of his existing role as Permanent Head of the Attorney-General's Department, in which Garran gave legal advice to several successive governments,[3] but it also represented a formal delegation of many of the powers and functions formerly exercised by the Attorney-General.[9] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... William Morris Billy Hughes, (September 25, 1862–October 28, 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most colourful figures in Australian political history. ... For the actor Joe Cook see Joe Cook (actor). ... The Solicitor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the Second Law Officer to the Attorney-General. ...


Garran developed a strong relationship with Hughes, giving him legal advice on the World War I conscription plebiscites and on the range of regulations which were made under the War Precautions Act 1914. The War Precautions Regulations had a broad scope, and were generally supported by the High Court, which adopted a much more flexible approach to the reach of the Commonwealth's defence power during wartime. A substantial amount of Garran's work during the war involved preparing and carrying out the regulations. Many of them were directed at maximising the economic aspect of the war effort and ensuring supplies of goods to Australian troops; others were directed at controlling citizens or former citizens of the enemy Central Powers living in Australia. On one occasion, when Hughes had been informed that at a party hosted by a German man, the band had played "Das Lied der Deutschen", Hughes asked Garran "By the way, what is this tune?" to which Garran replied that it was Haydn's melody to "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser", and as it was used as the tune to several hymns "it was probably sung in half a dozen churches in Sydney last Sunday." Hughes then said "Good Heavens! I have played that thing with one finger hundreds of times."[22] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. ... The War Precautions Act 1914 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which gave the Government of Australia special powers for the duration of World War I and for six months afterwards. ... Section 51(vi) of the Australian Constitution, commonly called the defence power, is a subsection of Section 51 of the Australian Constitution that gives the Commonwealth Parliament the right to legislate with respect to the naval and military defence of the Commonwealth and of the several States, and the control... European military alliances in 1914. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Save Emperor Francis) is an anthem to the Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and later of Austria, written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749-1827) and set to a tune written by Joseph Haydn in 1797. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


The partnership between Garran and Hughes is regarded by some as unusual, given that Garran was "tall, gentlemanly, wise and scholarly", and patient with his staff, whereas Hughes was "short of stature [and] renowned for bursts of temper."[3] Nevertheless, the partnership was a successful one, with Hughes recognising the importance of Garran's constitutional expertise, remarking once about the World War I period that "the best way to govern Australia was to have Sir Robert Garran at [my] elbow, with a fountain pen and a blank sheet of paper, and the War Precautions Act."[9] Likewise, Garran respected Hughes' strong leadership style, which had been important in guiding the country through the war, although in describing the Nationalist Party's loss in the 1922 federal election, Garran later said that "Hughes also overestimated his own hold on Parliament [although] his hold on the people was probably undiminished."[23] The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ...


Garran accompanied Hughes and Joseph Cook (then the Minister for the Navy) to the 1917 and 1918 meetings of the Imperial War Cabinet in London, United Kingdom, and was also part of the British Empire delegation to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference in Paris, France. There he was on several of the treaty drafting committees, and contributed to many provisions, notably the portions of the League of Nations Covenant relating to League of Nations mandates. Though focusing mainly on League of Nations matters, Garran and John Latham (the head of Australian Naval Intelligence) had the status of technical advisers to Hughes and Cook, and so could attend the main conference and any of the associated councils. Observing the proceedings, Garran admired the "moral and physical courage" of French premier Georges Clemenceau, whom he regarded as determined to protect France from Germany but in a measured and temperate way; in Garran's words, Clemenceau "always withstood the excessive demands of the French chauvinists, of the French army, and of Foch himself."[24] Garran viewed some similarities between British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and United States President Woodrow Wilson where others saw only differences, since Lloyd George "also had a strong vein of idealism in his character", and Wilson could be pragmatic when the situation called for it, such as in discussions relating to American interests.[25] Garran also met other political and military leaders at the conference, including T. E. Lawrence, "an Oxford youth of 29 – he looks 18", who was modest and "without any affectation... in a company of two or three [he] could talk very interestingly, but at a larger gathering he was apt to be dumb."[26] For the actor Joe Cook see Joe Cook (actor). ... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Rt Hon Sir John Latham, as Minister for External Affairs in the Lyons government Sir John Latham KBE (26 August 1877 – 25 July 1964), Australian judge and politician, was the fifth Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... and of the Jesus College College name Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeths Foundation Named after Jesus Christ Established 1571 Sister college Jesus College, Cambridge Principal The Lord Krebs JCR President Paolo Wyatt Undergraduates 340 MCR President Jahan Zahid Graduates 160 Location Turl Street, Oxford...

The Garran family house in Canberra, 22 Mugga Way, Red Hill.
The Garran family house in Canberra, 22 Mugga Way, Red Hill.

Following the war, Garran worked with Professor Harrison Moore of the University of Melbourne and South Australian judge Professor Jethro Brown on a report about proposed constitutional amendments which ultimately became the referendum questions put forward in the 1919 referendum. Garran had been made a Knight Bachelor in 1917[27] and was appointed as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in 1920.[28] Garran attended two Imperial Conferences, accompanying Prime Minister Stanley Bruce in 1923 and in 1930 joining Prime Minister James Scullin and Attorney-General Frank Brennan, chair of the Drafting Committee which prepared drafts of agreements on various topics, such as merchant shipping. He also attended the eleventh League of Nations conference that year with them in Geneva, Switzerland. At the Royal Commission on the Constitution in 1927, Garran was invited to give evidence by Prime Minister Bruce, where he discussed the history and origins of the Constitution and the evolution of the institutions established under it. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Suburbs of Canberra (incomplete) | Suburbs of Canberra ... Moore pictured in his office in the Melbourne University Law School, circa 1916. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The 1919 Australian Referendum was held on 13 December 1919. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... Rt Hon Stanley Bruce Stanley Melbourne Bruce (15 April 1883 - August 25, 1967), Australian politician and diplomat, later Viscount Bruce of Melbourne and Westminster, was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia. ... James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876–January 28, 1953), Australian politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in the small town of Trawalla, in western Victoria, the son of a railway worker of Irish Catholic descent. ... Francis (Frank) Brennan (1873 – 6 November 1950) was an Australian lawyer and politician. ... In most seafaring countries, the merchant marine (or merchant navy) is a fleet of ships used for commerce that sometimes complements the navy. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Royal Commission on the Constitution can refer to: Royal Commission on the Constitution (Australia), 1927-1929 Royal Commission on the Constitution (United Kingdom), 1969-1973, also known as the Crowther Commission, Kilbrandon Commission or Kilbrandon Report Royal Commission of Inquiry on Constitutional Problems, Canada, 1953-1956 Category: ...


Through the 1920s and early 1930s, Garran prepared annual summaries of legislative developments in Australia, highlighting important individual pieces of legislation for the Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law (now known as the International and Comparative Law Quarterly) published by Oxford University Press.[29] Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...


Towards the end of his time as Solicitor-General, Garran's work included the preparation of the Debt Conversion Agreement between the Government of Australia and the governments of the states, which involved the federal government taking over and managing the debts of the individual states, following the 1928 referendum.[30] The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... The referendum of the 17th November, 1928 approved an amendment to the Commonwealth of Australia and its states. ...


In 1927, Garran had moved from his home in Melbourne, Victoria to the newly established capital Canberra, one of the first public officials to do so (many government departments and their public servants did not move to Canberra until after World War II). He also worked within the Government to facilitate housing in Canberra for officials moving from other cities, and was involved in establishing cultural organisations in the city. In 1928 he was the inaugural President of the Canberra Rotary Club. In 1929, he formed the Canberra University Association in order to promote the formation of a university in Canberra, and in 1930 organised the establishment of Canberra University College (essentially a campus of the University of Melbourne) which taught undergraduate courses, chairing its council for its first twenty-three years. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Garran "consistently advocated the establishment of what he prophetically called 'a National University at Canberra' ",[9] which would be primarily for specialist research and postgraduate study, in areas particularly relating to Australia, such as foreign relations with Asia and the Pacific region.[9] This vision was evidently influential on the establishment of the Australian National University (ANU) in 1946,[9] the only research-only university in the country (although in 1960 it amalgamated with Canberra University College to offer undergraduate courses).[31] Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Capital Melbourne Government Constitutional monarchy Governor David de Kretser Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 37  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $222,022 (2nd)  - Product per capita  $44,443/person (5th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  5,110,500 (2nd)  - Density  22. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Rotary International Logo Rotary International is an organization of Rotary Clubs (service clubs) located all over the world (more than 32,000 clubs in more than 200 countries and geographical areas) and 1. ... Canberra University College was a tertiary education institution established in Canberra by the Australian government and the University of Melbourne in 1930. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ...


Retirement

The presentation of the Charter of the Canberra Rotary Club, 1928, at the Hotel Canberra. Garran is seated, front centre.
The presentation of the Charter of the Canberra Rotary Club, 1928, at the Hotel Canberra. Garran is seated, front centre.

Garran retired from his governmental positions on 9 February 1932, a fixed retirement date on the day before his sixty-fifth birthday. He soon returned to practice as a barrister, and within a month he was made a King's Counsel (KC). However, he occasionally carried out more prominent work. In 1932, he was selected on the advice of now Attorney-General John Latham to chair the Indian Defence Expenditure Tribunal, to advise on the dispute between India and the United Kingdom regarding the costs of the military defence of India. In 1934, along with John Keating, William Somerville and David Gilbert, he formed a committee which prepared The Case for Union,[32] the Government of Australia's official reply to the secessionist movement in the state of Western Australia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... William Somervile or Somerville (September 2, 1675 - July 19, 1742) was an English poet. ... American radical organizer, author and prisoner David Gilbert (b. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ... Secessionist How To Vote card, 1933 Secessionism has been a recurring feature of Western Australias political landscape since shortly after European settlement in 1829. ... Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person (3rd) Population (December 2006)  - Population  2,050,900 (4th)  - Density  0. ...


Garran was also involved with the arts; he was the vice-president of the Canberra Musical Society, where he sang and played the clarinet, and in 1946 won a national song competition run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[1] Garran also published translations of Heinrich Heine's 1827 work Buch der Lieder ("Book of Songs") in 1924,[33] and of the works of Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann in 1946.[34] Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born Chaim Harry Heine, December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


In 1937, Garran was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG),[35] the third time he had been knighted. Shortly after the establishment of the ANU in 1946, Garran became its first graduate when he was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws. He had already been awarded such an honorary doctorate from the University of Melbourne (in 1937) and later receiving one from his alma mater, the University of Sydney (in 1952). Garran served on ANU's council from 1946 until 1951. Garran's influence on Canberra is remembered by the naming of the suburb of Garran, Australian Capital Territory, and his link with ANU is remembered by the naming of a chair in the university's School of Law, by the naming of the hall of residence Burton & Garran Hall and by the naming Garran house at Canberra Grammar School after this individual for his work with the school. An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Garran is a suburb in the Woden district of Canberra. ... A chair or seat is also a seat of office, authority, or dignity, such as the chairperson of a committee, or a professorship at a college or university, or the individual that presides over business proceedings. ... Burton & Garran Hall is a residential hall for undergraduate and postgraduate students at the Australian National University in Canberra. ... Grounds and buildings of Canberra Grammar School viewed from Red Hill The schools Main Oval and Breezeway Canberra Grammar School (CGS) is an independent school for boys in the Red Hill suburb of Canberra, the capital of Australia. ...


Garran died in 1957 in Canberra. He was granted a state funeral, the first given to a public servant of the Government of Australia.[9] He was survived by his four sons; his wife Hilda had died in 1936. His memoirs, Prosper the Commonwealth,[36] were published posthumously in 1958, having been completed shortly before his death. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...


Legacy

Garran at ANZAC Day celebrations at the cenotaph in Martin Place, Sydney, 25 April 1944.
Garran at ANZAC Day celebrations at the cenotaph in Martin Place, Sydney, 25 April 1944.

Garran's "personality, like his prose, was devoid of pedantry and pomposity and, though dignified, was laced with a quizzical turn of humour."[9] His death "marked the end of a generation of public men for whom the cultural and the political were natural extensions of each other and who had the skills and talents to make such connections effortlessly."[1] At his death, Garran was one of the last remaining people involved with the creation of the Constitution of Australia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. ANZAC Day is also a public holiday in the... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... Martin Place Martin Place is a pedestrian mall in the business district of Sydney, Australia. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ...


Prime Minister John Howard, in describing Garran, said: John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ...

"I wonder though if we sometimes underestimate the changes, excitements, disruptions and adjustments previous generations have experienced. Sir Robert Garran knew the promise and reality of federation. He was part of the establishment of a public service which, in many ways, is clearly recognisable today."[37]

Garran's friend Charles Daley, a long time civic administrator of the Australian Capital Territory, emphasised Garran's contribution to the early development of the city of Canberra, particularly its cultural life, remarking at a celebratory dinner for Garran in 1954 that: Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ...

"There has hardly been a cultural movement in this city with which Sir Robert has not been identified in loyal and inspiring support, as his constant aim has been that Canberra should be not only a great political centre but also a shrine to foster those things that stimulate and enrich our national life... his name will ever be inscribed in the annals, not only of Canberra, but of the Commonwealth as clarum et venerabile nomen gentibus.[38][3]

However Garran is perhaps best remembered as an expert on constitutional law, more so than his other contributions to public service. On his experience of Federation and the Constitution, Garran was always enthusiastic:

"I'm often asked 'has federation turned out as you expected?' Well yes and no. By and large the sort of thing we expected has happened but with differences. We knew the constitution was not perfect; it had to be a compromise with all the faults of a compromise... But, in spite of the unforseen [sic] strains and stresses, the constitution has worked, on the whole, much as we thought it would. I think it now needs revision, to meet the needs of a changed world. But no-one could wish the work undone, who tries to imagine, what, in these stormy days, would have been the plight of six disunited Australian colonies."[17]

Memorials

In 1983, the former Patent Office building was renamed Robert Garran Offices[39]. The art deco building is within the Parliamentary Triangle of Canberra, and was constructed in 1932 at the corner of Kings Avenue and National Circuit, Parkes, Australian Capital Territory. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Asheville City Hall. ... The Parliamentary Triangle is the ceremonial precinct of Canberra and contains the Parliament (which also houses the executive branch and the High Court of Australia. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Kings Avenue is a road in Canberra which goes between New Parliament House, across Lake Burley Griffin at the Kings Avenue Bridge, to Russell near the Australian-American Monument. ... Categories: Suburbs of Canberra (incomplete) | Suburbs of Canberra ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Irving, Helen (2001). "Garran, Robert Randolph". The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia. Ed. Blackshield, Tony, Coper, Michael & Williams, George. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554022-0. 
  2. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 65. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Francis, Noel (1983). The Gifted Knight: Sir Robert Garran. Canberra: Noel Francis (Australia); Australian National University Press (worldwide). ISBN 0-9592095-0-6. 
  4. ^ "Windeyer, Sir William Charles (1834–1897)". Australian Dictionary of Biography 6. (1976). Carlton: Melbourne University Press. 420–422. Retrieved on 2006-09-15. 
  5. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 78. 
  6. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 92. 
  7. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 96–97. 
  8. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 101. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Parker, R.S. (1981). "Garran, Sir Robert Randolph (1867–1957)". Australian Dictionary of Biography 8. Carlton: Melbourne University Press. 622–625. Retrieved on 2006-07-20. 
  10. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 104. 
  11. ^ Garran, Robert (1897). The coming Commonwealth: an Australian handbook of federal government. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. 
  12. ^ GARRAN, SIR ROBERT RANDOLPH (1867–1957). National Library of Australia's Federation Gateway. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  13. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 119–120. 
  14. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 122. 
  15. ^ Quick, John & Garran, Robert (1901). The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. 
  16. ^ Robert Garran CMG. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  17. ^ a b c Rayner, Michelle (1950s). Sir Robert Garran: a memoir of federation. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  18. ^ a b Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 145. 
  19. ^ Penfold, Hilary (6 December to 8 December 2001). "When words aren't enough: Graphics and other innovations in legislative drafting" ( RTF). Language and the Law Conference, University of Texas at Austin, Office of Parliamentary Counsel. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
  20. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 156. 
  21. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 158. 
  22. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 223. 
  23. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 280. 
  24. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 260. 
  25. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 262. 
  26. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 264. 
  27. ^ Sir Robert Garran. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  28. ^ Robert Garran KCMG. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  29. ^ For example, Garran, Robert (1930). "Commonwealth of Australia". Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 1930. OCLC 1680994. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.  and Garran, Robert (1932). "Commonwealth of Australia". Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 1932. OCLC 1680994. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. 
  30. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth, 336–338. 
  31. ^ Canberra University College 1930–1960. Information Services @ ANU. Australian National University. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  32. ^ Garran, Robert et al (1934). The Case for union : a reply to the case for the secession of the state of Western Australia. Canberra: Government Printer. 
  33. ^ Heine, Heinrich; translated by Garran, Robert (1924). The book of songs. Melbourne: Keating-Wood. 
  34. ^ Garran, Robert (1946). Schubert and Schumann : songs and translations. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 
  35. ^ Robert Garran GCMG. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  36. ^ Garran, Robert. Prosper the Commonwealth. 
  37. ^ Howard, John (1997-11-19). The 1997 Sir Robert Garran Oration. Prime Minister of Australia. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  38. ^ Daley quotes Lucan's epic poem Pharsalia; the phrase may be translated as "Among the people his name is honoured and distinguished."
  39. ^ Patent Office (former), accessed 16 June 2007

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Angus & Robertson is a bookstore chain in Australia. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Angus & Robertson is a bookstore chain in Australia. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Noia_64_mimetypes_wordprocessing. ... The Rich Text Format (often abbreviated to RTF) is a proprietary document file format developed by Microsoft in 1987 for cross-platform document interchange. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... In Roman literature, the Pharsalia (also known as the Bellum civile) is an epic poem by the poet Lucan. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robert Garran
  • Francis, Noel (1983). The Gifted Knight: Sir Robert Garran. Canberra: Noel Francis (Australia); Australian National University Press (worldwide). ISBN 0-9592095-0-6. 
  • Garran, Robert (1930). "Commonwealth of Australia". Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 1930. OCLC 1680994. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. 
  • Garran, Robert (1932). "Commonwealth of Australia". Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 1932. OCLC 1680994. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. 
  • Garran, Robert (1958). Prosper the Commonwealth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. 
  • Garran, Robert (1946). Schubert and Schumann : songs and translations. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 
  • Garran, Robert et al (1934). The Case for union : a reply to the case for the secession of the state of Western Australia. Canberra: Government Printer. 
  • Garran, Robert (1897). The coming Commonwealth: an Australian handbook of federal government. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. 
  • Heine, Heinrich; translated by Garran, Robert (1924). The book of songs. Melbourne: Keating-Wood. 
  • Howard, John (1997-11-19). The 1997 Sir Robert Garran Oration. Prime Minister of Australia. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  • Irving, Helen (2001). "Garran, Robert Randolph". The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia. Ed. Blackshield, Tony, Coper, Michael & Williams, George. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554022-0. 
  • Parker, R.S. (1981). "Garran, Sir Robert Randolph (1867–1957)". Australian Dictionary of Biography 8. Carlton: Melbourne University Press. 622–625. Retrieved on 2006-07-20. 
  • Penfold, Hilary (6 December to 8 December 2001). "When words aren't enough: Graphics and other innovations in legislative drafting" ( RTF). Language and the Law Conference, University of Texas at Austin, Office of Parliamentary Counsel. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
  • Quick, John & Garran, Robert (1901). The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. 
  • Rayner, Michelle (1950s). Sir Robert Garran: a memoir of federation. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  • Unknown, "Windeyer, Sir William Charles (1834–1897)". Australian Dictionary of Biography 6. (1976). Carlton: Melbourne University Press. 420–422. Retrieved on 2006-09-15. 

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Angus & Robertson is a bookstore chain in Australia. ... Angus & Robertson is a bookstore chain in Australia. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Noia_64_mimetypes_wordprocessing. ... The Rich Text Format (often abbreviated to RTF) is a proprietary document file format developed by Microsoft in 1987 for cross-platform document interchange. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Angus & Robertson is a bookstore chain in Australia. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Canberra University College 1930–1960. Information Services @ ANU. Australian National University. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  • GARRAN, SIR ROBERT RANDOLPH (1867–1957). National Library of Australia's Federation Gateway. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  • Robert Garran CMG. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  • Robert Garran KCMG. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  • Sir Robert Garran. Australian Honours Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
Legal Offices
New Title Solicitor-General of Australia
1916–1932
Succeeded by
George Knowles
Persondata
NAME Garran, Robert Randolph
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION First Solicitor-General of Australia
DATE OF BIRTH 10 February 1867
PLACE OF BIRTH Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
DATE OF DEATH 11 January 1957
PLACE OF DEATH Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Andrew Garran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (622 words)
Garran was one of the earliest supporters of the federation of Australia, and used his position in the media to advocate the cause, writing many editorials in favour of federation.
From March 1895 to November 1898, Garran was the leader of the Reid government in the Legislative Council, and vice-president of the Executive Council of New South Wales.
Garran died in 1901, in the Sydney suburb of Darlinghurst.
Robert Garran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1868 words)
Garran accompanied Hughes and Joseph Cook to the 1917 meetings of the Imperial War Cabinet in London, United Kingdom, and was also part of the British Empire delegation to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference in Paris, France.
Garran was also involved with the arts; he was the vice-president of the Canberra Musical Society, where he sang and played the clarinet, and in 1946 won a national song competition run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Garran's influence on Canberra is remembered by the naming of the suburb of Garran, Australian Capital Territory, and his link with ANU is remembered by the naming of a chair in the university's School of Law, and by the naming of the hall of residence Burton and Garran Hall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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