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Encyclopedia > Robert Gallo
Dr. Robert C. Gallo
Dr. Robert C. Gallo

Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. He is best known for his role in identifying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the infectious agent responsible for the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) although his role and this discovery remains controversial. From [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to present) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York, New York Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President  â€¢ Vice President Federal republic... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (or acronym AIDS or Aids), is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


Gallo was born in Waterbury, Connecticut to a working-class family of Italian immigrants. He earned a B.S. degree in biology in 1959 from Providence College and received an M.D. from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1963. After completing his medical residency and internship at the University of Chicago, he became a researcher at the National Cancer Institute. Gallo states that his choice of profession was influenced by the early death of his sister from leukemia, a disease to which he initially dedicated much of his research. Waterbury is a city located in New Haven County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Providence College is a Catholic college in Providence, Rhode Island, the states capital city. ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Official website: http://www. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The University of Chicago is an elite private university principally located in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1890 and opened in 1892. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


After listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore, Gallo became interested in the study of retroviruses. In 1974 he identified the first retrovirus in humans: the "human T-cell leukemia virus," or HTLV. In 1984, Gallo and his collaborators published a series of four papers in the research journal Science arguing that HIV, a retrovirus that had recently been identified in AIDS patients by Luc Montagnier and his collaborators at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, was the cause of AIDS. However, the striking similarity between the first two human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates Lai/LAV (formerly LAV, isolated at the Pasteur Institute) and Lai/IIIB (formerly HTLV-IIIB, reported to be isolated from a pooled culture at the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology (LTCB) of the National Cancer Institute) provoked considerable controversy in light of the high level of variability found among subsequent HIV-1 isolates. Since then, there has been considerable and often acrimonious controversy over the priority for the discovery of HIV, including accusations that Gallo improperly used a sample of HIV produced at the Institut Pasteur. In November 1990, the Office of Scientific Integrity at the National Institutes of Health commissioned a group at Roche to analyse archival samples established at the Pasteur Institute and the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology (LTCB) of the National Cancer Institute between 1983 and 1985. Retrospective analyses showed that contamination of a culture derived from patient BRU by one from patient LAI was responsible for the provenance of HIV-1 Lai/LAV; the contaminated culture (M2T-/B) was sent to LTCB in September 1983. Chang et al.(1993) examined archival specimens and reported in Nature the detection of six novel HIV-1 sequences in the cultures used to establish the pool: none was closely related to HIV-1 Lai/IIIB. A sample derived from patient LAI contained variants of both HIV-1 Lai/IIIB and HIV-1 Lai/LAV, and a sequence identical to a variant of HIV-1 Lai/IIIB was detected in the contaminated M2T-/B culture. They concluded that the pool, and probably another LTCB culture, MoV, were contaminated between October 1983 and early 1984 by variants of HIV-1 Lai from the M2T-/B culture. Therefore, the origin of the HIV-1 Lai/IIIB isolate also was patient LAI. However, today it is generally agreed that Montagnier's group was the first to identify HIV, but that Gallo's group contributed significantly to demonstrating that it causes AIDS. Furthermore, Gallo's group was the first to grow the virus in an immortalized cell line, leading to the development of blood tests for HIV and the ability to screen donated blood for this virus. Also, the work of Montagnier had relied on a technique previously developed by Gallo for growing T cells in the laboratory by supplementing interleukin-2. The two scientists continued to dispute each other's claims until 1987, when they finally agreed to share credit for the discovery of HIV. David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and a winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A Retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two RNA molecules, which may or may not be identical. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu† Homo sapiens sapiens Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or thinking man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Luc Montagnier (born 1932) is a French virologist. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Roche is French for boulder. The word is (part of) several names: // Business & companies Hoffmann-La Roche, also known as Roche, is a Swiss pharmaceutical company that owns the patent on Tamiflu®. Places in France Roche or Roches is the name or part of the name of several communes in... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Interleukin-2 (IL2) is an interleukin, a type of biological response modifier that can improve the bodys natural response to disease. ...


In 1995, Gallo published his discovery that chemokines, a class of naturally occurring compounds, can block HIV and halt the progression of AIDS. This was heralded as by Science magazine as one of the top scientific breakthroughs within the same year of his publication, but has yet to result in any actual therapetic benefits. reference The role of protection chemokines plays for controlling progression of HIV infection to AIDS has been influencing medical thinking on how AIDS works against the human body. It is regarded as having great potential in playing a future role in possible vaccine development. (See: Alfredo Garzino-Demo, Ronald B. Moss, Joseph B. Margolick, Farley Cleghorn, Anne Sill, William A. Blattner, Fiorenza Cocchi, Dennis J. Carlo, Anthony L. DeVico, and Robert C. Gallo (October 1999). "Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β-chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 (21): 11986–11991..) 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chemokines are a class of chemotactic cytokines, or small secreted protein signals. ... Chemokines are a class of chemotactic cytokines, or small secreted protein signals. ...


Dr. Gallo has received criticism from the gay community over issues regarding AIDS, principally based on views expressed about him in the book and movie And the Band Played On, written by Randy Shilts. There is also strong controversy about some issues regarding HIV discovery and AIDS blood test patent pointing to Gallo's scientific behavior and NIH covering of it. One point of view about it is well documented in John Crewdson's book Science Fictions:A Scientific Mystery, A Massive Cover-Up, and the Dark Legacy of Robert Gallo. The notion of the gay community is complex and slightly controversial. ... And the Band Played On: People, Politics, and the AIDS Epidemic is a book written by San Francisco Chronicle journalist Randy Shilts (original copyright 1987) chronicling the discovery and spread of HIV and AIDS, with a special emphasis on alleged government indifference to what was initially perceived as a gay... Randy Shilts (August 8, 1951 – February 17, 1994) was a gay American journalist and author. ...


Gallo is currently the director of the Institute for Human Virology, an institution affiliated with the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute. Formed in 1985, the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute (UMBI) is part of the University System of Maryland. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Gallo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (891 words)
Gallo was born in Waterbury, Connecticut to a working-class family of Italian immigrants.
Gallo states that his choice of profession was influenced by the early death of his sister from leukemia, a disease to which he initially dedicated much of his research.
In 1984, Gallo and his collaborators published a series of four papers in the research journal Science arguing that HIV, a retrovirus that had recently been identified in AIDS patients by Luc Montagnier and his collaborators at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, was the cause of AIDS.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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