FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert Falcon Scott
Robert Falcon Scott

Born June 6, 1868(1868-06-06)
Devon, England
Died March 29, 1912 (aged 43)
Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica
Education Naval cadet programme, HMS Britannia
Occupation Royal Navy officer and Antarctic explorer
Spouse Kathleen Bruce
Children Peter Markham Scott, later Sir Peter Scott
Parents John and Hannah Scott

Robert Falcon Scott (1868–1912) was a British Royal Naval officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition, 1901–04, and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13. During this second venture Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole on 18 January 1912, to find that they had been preceded by Roald Amundsen's Norwegian party in an unsought "race for the Pole". On their return journey Scott and his four comrades all perished, due to a combination of exhaustion, hunger and extreme cold. Scott of the Antarctic was a 1948 film about Robert Falcon Scotts explorations of Antartica. ... Robert Scott may refer to: Robert Falcon Scott (1868–1912), British Royal Navy officer and Antarctic explorer, narrowly failed to be the first to reach the South Pole Robert Wellbeloved Scott (1803–1856), British Liberal Member of Parliament for Walsall Robert Scott (philologist) (1811–1877), co-editor with Henry George... Photographed from a 1912 newspaper, `The Sphere. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... HMS Britannia was a 120 gun first rate of the Royal Navy which was laid down in 1813 and launched on October 20, 1820. ... Edith Agnes Kathleen Scott, Baroness Kennet, FRSBS, (March 27, 1878 - July 25, 1947) was a British sculptor. ... Categories: People stubs | 1909 births | 1989 deaths | British illustrators | British painters | Ornithologists ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The Discovery in the Antarctic ice The British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, generally known as the Discovery Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since James Clark Rosss voyage sixty years earlier. ... The Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913) was a British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast and interior of Antarctica. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ...


Before his appointment to lead the Discovery Expedition,[1] Scott had followed the conventional career of a naval officer in peacetime Victorian Britain, where opportunities for career advancement were limited, and keenly sought after by ambitious officers. It was the chance for personal distinction that led Scott to apply for the Discovery command, rather than any predilection for polar exploration.[2] However, having taken this step, his name became ever after associated with the Antarctic, the field of work to which he remained committed during the final twelve years of his life.


Following the news of his death, Scott became an iconic British hero, a status maintained for more than 50 years. In the closing decades of the twentieth century, however, in a more sceptical age, the legend was reassessed. From a previously unassailable position, Scott became a figure of controversy, with questions raised about his competence and character.


Scott was undoubtedly capable of commanding great personal loyalty. Some were prepared to follow him anywhere, and did so.[3] "He wouldn’t ask you to do anything he wasn’t prepared to do himself", said Terra Nova stoker William Burton. Tom Crean, the Irishman who accompanied Scott on both the Discovery and Terra Nova Expeditions, was more effusive: "I loved every hair of his head".[4] But his relations with others, including Ernest Shackleton, Lawrence Oates, and his expedition second-in-commands, were less easy.[5] Despite his considerable exploration experience, something of the resourceful amateur remained with him until the end. For example his reluctance to rely on dogs, despite the advice of expert ice travellers such as Nansen, has been cited as a critical factor that lost him the race to the pole and, ultimately, his and his party's lives.[6] Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847–April 20, 1912) was an Anglo-Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... For Victoria Cross recipient, see Thomas Joseph Crean. ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ... Captain Lawrence Edward Grace Oates (March 17, 1880 – March 16, 1912[1]) was an English Antarctic explorer. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ...

Map showing the field of work of the Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13, indicating place and date of Scott's death
Map showing the field of work of the Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13, indicating place and date of Scott's death

Contents

Early life

Family background

Scott was born on 6 June 1868, the third child and elder son of John and Hannah (nee Cuming) Scott of Stoke Damerel, near Devonport, Devonshire. There were naval and military traditions in the family, Scott's grandfather and four uncles all having served in the army or navy.[7] John Scott's prosperity came from a brewery, which he had inherited from his father and which he subsequently sold.[8] In later years, when Scott was establishing his naval career, the family would suffer serious financial misfortune, but his early childhood years were spent in comfort. In accordance with the family's tradition the two boys, Robert and Archie, were predestined for careers in the armed services. Robert was educated first in the nursery at home, then for four years at a local day school before being sent to Stubbington House, a cramming establishment preparing candidates for the entrance examinations to the naval training ship HMS Britannia. Having passed these exams Scott, aged 13, began his naval career in 1881, as a cadet.[9] is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Devonport, in Devon, was formerly called Plymouth Dock. ... This page is about the English county, for alternative meanings see Devon (disambiguation). ... Cram schools (also known as crammers) are specialized schools that train their students to meet particular goals, most commonly to pass the entrance examinations of high schools or universities. ... HMS Britannia was a 120 gun first rate of the Royal Navy which was laid down in 1813 and launched on October 20, 1820. ...


Early naval career

The first of the two HMS Britannias which served as naval training ships between 1859 and 1909. Scott trained on the second, which came into service in 1869.
The first of the two HMS Britannias which served as naval training ships between 1859 and 1909. Scott trained on the second, which came into service in 1869.

In July 1883 Scott passed out of Britannia as a midshipman, seventh overall in a class of 26,[10] and by October was en route to South Africa to join HMS Boadicea. He served on several ships during his midshipman years, and it was while stationed in St Kitts, West Indies, that he had his first encounter with Sir Clements Markham, then Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS), who would loom large in Scott's later career. On this occasion, 1 March 1887, Markham noted that Midshipman Scott's cutter had won that morning's race. Markham's habit was to “collect” likely young naval officers with a view to their undertaking polar exploration work in the future, and Scott was duly noted.[11] For the fish called midshipman, see midshipman fish. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Sir Clements Robert Markham (20 July 1830 – 1916) was a British explorer, author and geographer. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Later that year Scott passed his examinations for Sub-Lieutenant, with four First Class certificates out of five.[12] His career progressed smoothly, with service on various ships and promotion to Lieutenant in 1889. In 1891, after a long spell in foreign waters, he applied for the torpedo course on HMS Vernon, an important career step. In the summer of 1893, while commanding a torpedo boat, he managed to run it aground, which earned him a mild rebuke.[13] A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Vernon. ...


During the research for his dual biography of Scott and Roald Amundsen,[14] Roland Huntford got wind of a possible scandal in Scott's early naval career, but was unable to pin it down. He focuses on the period 1889–90 when Scott was a lieutenant on HMS Amphion. According to him Scott “disappears from naval records” for eight months, from mid-August 1889 until 24 March 1890. Huntford hints at involvement with a married American woman, of cover-up, and protection from senior officers. David Crane reduces the missing period to eleven weeks, but is unable to throw much more light other than scorning the notion of protection by senior officers, on the grounds that Scott was not important or well-connected enough to warrant this. Documents that may have offered explanations are missing from Admiralty records.[15] Roland Huntford is acknowledged as the pre-eminent author of Polar biographies. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


In 1894, while serving as Torpedo Officer on the depot ship HMS Vulcan, Scott learned of the financial calamity that had overtaken his family. John Scott, having sold the brewery, invested the proceeds unwisely and lost all his capital.[16] He was forced to take a job as a brewery manager in Somerset, but his death in 1897 created a fresh crisis.[16] The family – mother and two unmarried daughters – now relied entirely on the service pay of Scott and the salary of younger brother Archie, who had left the army for a post in the colonial service. Archie's own death that same year thrust the whole financial responsibility for the family on to Scott.[16] This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ...


An ambitious officer, Scott now had an additional weight of domestic responsibility. The main thing that concerned him now was promotion, and the extra income this would bring.[17] Early in June 1899 he had a chance encounter in a London street with Sir Clements Markham (now the RGS President), and learned for the first time of a pending Antarctic expedition. It was an opportunity for early command and a chance to distinguish himself. Markham remembered him from St Kitts, and presumably said something encouraging, because a few days later, on 11 June, Scott appeared at the Markham residence and volunteered to lead the expedition.[11] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Discovery Expedition

Main article: Discovery Expedition
Discovery in 2005 at its home port of Dundee
Discovery in 2005 at its home port of Dundee

The National Antarctic Expedition, as it was officially known until its association with the ship, was a joint enterprise of the RGS and the Royal Society. It represented a long-cherished dream of Markham's, and it required the deployment of all of his considerable skills and cunning to bring it to fruition under naval command and largely staffed by naval personnel. Scott may not have been Markham's first choice as leader but,[18] having decided on him, his support remained constant. There were committee battles over the scope of Scott's responsibilities, with the Royal Society pressing to put a scientist in charge of the expedition's programme while Scott merely commanded the ship. Eventually, however, Markham's view prevailed.[19] Scott was promoted to the naval rank of Commander[20] before Discovery sailed for the Antarctic on 31 July 1901. The Discovery in the Antarctic ice The British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, generally known as the Discovery Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since James Clark Rosss voyage sixty years earlier. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Despite an almost total lack of Antarctic or Arctic experience within the 50-strong party, there was very little special training in equipment or techniques before the ship set sail.[21] Dogs were taken, as were skis, but hardly anyone knew how to use them. Professionalism was considered less praiseworthy, in Markham's view, than "unforced aptitude",[22] and possibly Scott was influenced by Markham's belief. In the first of the two full years which Discovery spent in the ice this insouciance was severely tested, as the expedition struggled to meet the challenges of the unfamiliar terrain.[23] The expedition was not a quest for the Pole, but a long march south was a major objective. This march, undertaken by Scott, Shackleton and Edward Wilson, was a physical ordeal which took them to a latitude of 82°17'S, approximately 500 miles (800 km) from the Pole, followed by a harrowing journey home which brought about Shackleton's physical collapse.[24]


The second year showed improvements in technique and achievement, culminating in Scott's western journey which led to the discovery of the Polar Plateau, and which has been described by one writer as “one of the great polar journeys”.[25] The scientific results of the expedition included important biological, zoological and geological findings.[26] Some of the meteorological and magnetic readings, however, were later criticised as amateurish and inaccurate.[27] The Antarctic Plateau is an area of the Antarctic continent, extending for a few hundred kilometres around the South Pole. ...

The Discovery hut at Hut Point
The Discovery hut at Hut Point

At the end of the expedition it took the combined efforts of two relief ships and liberal use of explosives to free Discovery from the ice.[28] Nevertheless Scott could feel satisfied that he was returning in good order, with much to show for his efforts. In contrast to his naivety at the expedition's commencement he was now a seasoned Antarctic traveller, although with many of his prejudices intact. He remained unconvinced that dogs and ski were the keys to efficient ice travel, and continued to laud the British preference for man-hauling (the practice of propelling sledges by manpower, unassisted by animals),[29] a view he maintained until very late in his Antarctic career. His insistence on Royal Navy formalities made for uneasy relations with the Merchant Navy members of the expedition, most of whom departed with the first relief ship in March 1903.[30] However, the question of Scott's relationship with Ernest Shackleton, Third Officer on Discovery and later his polar rival, has been muddied by speculation. The claim that it was personal animosity on Scott's part, rather than Shackleton's physical breakdown, that resulted in the latter being sent home on the supply ship in January 1903 seems largely to have been concocted by Scott's second-in-command, Albert Armitage.[31] There would be tensions later between Scott and Shackleton, when their polar ambitions clashed, but mutual civilities were always preserved.[32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2224x1572, 405 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2224x1572, 405 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Manhauling: is the name given to the often arduous physical act of dragging a load (usually in a sledge or pulk) forwards, commonly over snow or ice, only using human motive power. ... Albert Borlase Armitage (born 1864 in Balquhidder, Pertshire; died 31 October 1943) was a Scottish explorer of the Antarctica. ...


Between expeditions

Popular hero

Discovery returned to Britain in September 1904. The expedition had caught the public imagination, and Scott became a popular hero, awarded with a cluster of honours and medals, promoted to the Royal Navy (RN) rank of Captain,[33] and invited to Balmoral for investiture by King Edward VII as a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO).[34] Scott's next few years were crowded. For more than a year he was occupied with post-expedition duties – public receptions, lectures and the writing of the expedition record The Voyage of the Discovery. In January 1906 he resumed his full-time naval career, first as assistant to the Director of Naval Intelligence at the Admiralty and, in August, as Flag-Captain to Rear-Admiral Sir George Egerton on HMS Victorious.[35] He was now moving in ever more exalted social circles – a telegram to Markham in February 1907 refers to meetings with the Queen and Crown Prince of Portugal, and a later letter home reports lunch with the Commander-in-Chief and Prince Heinrich of Prussia.[36] A Royal Navy captains rank insignia. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Queen Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... Naval intelligence refers to the gathering and distribution of information relevant to a nations navy. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... In the Royal Navy a Captain of the fleet could be appointed to assist an admiral when the admiral had ten or more ships to command. ... The third ship to be named HMS Victorious had the most quiet of careers. ... Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1726-1802) Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1862-1929) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Shackleton

Ernest Shackleton, Scott's polar rival
Ernest Shackleton, Scott's polar rival

By early 1906 Scott had sounded out the RGS about the possible funding of a future Antarctic expedition.[37] It was therefore unwelcome news to him that Ernest Shackleton had announced his own plans, to travel to Discovery's old McMurdo Sound base and launch a bid for the South Pole from there.[38] Scott claimed, in the first of a series of letters to Shackleton, that the area around McMurdo was his own "field of work" to which he had prior rights until he chose to give them up, and that Shackleton should therefore work from an entirely different area.[39] In this he was strongly supported by Edward Wilson, who appeared to believe that Scott's rights extended to the entire Ross Sea sector.[40] This Shackleton refused to concede. Finally, to end the impasse, Shackleton agreed, in a letter to Scott dated 17 May 1907, to work to the east of the 170°W meridian and therefore to avoid all the familiar Discovery ground.[39] It was a promise that, in the event, he was unable to keep after his search for alternative landing grounds proved fruitless. He based his Nimrod expedition at Cape Royds in McMurdo Sound, and this breach of agreement strained relations between Scott and Shackleton thereafter.[41] It has been said that the promise "should never ethically have been demanded",[40] Scott's intransigence on this matter being compared unfavourably with the generous attitude of Fridtjof Nansen, who gave freely of his advice and expertise to Shackleton, and indeed to all-comers, whether potential rivals or not.[42] Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... Edward A. Wilson Dr. Edward Adrian Wilson (Uncle Bill) (July 23, 1872 – March 29, 1912) was a notable English polar explorer, physician, naturalist, painter and ornithologist. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... darn ... Cape Royds ( ) is a dark rock cape forming the west extremity of Ross Island, facing on McMurdo Sound. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ...


Marriage

Kathleen and Robert Scott, circa 1908
Kathleen and Robert Scott, circa 1908

Scott, who because of his Discovery fame had entered Edwardian society, first encountered Kathleen Bruce early in 1907, at a private luncheon party.[43] She was a sculptor, socialite and cosmopolitan who had studied under Auguste Rodin[44] and whose circle included Isadora Duncan, Picasso and Aleister Crowley.[45] Their initial meeting was brief, but when they met again later that year mutual attraction was obvious. A stormy courtship followed – Scott was not her only suitor and his absences at sea did not assist his cause[46] – but his persistence was rewarded and, on 2 September 1908, at the Chapel Royal, Hampton Court Palace, the wedding took place.[47] Their only child, Peter Scott, was born on 14 September 1909.[48] The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War... Edith Agnes Kathleen Scott, Baroness Kennet, FRSBS, (March 27, 1878 - July 25, 1947) was a British sculptor. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Isadora Duncan Isadora Duncan (May 27, 1877 – September 14, 1927) was an American dancer. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (pronounced ), (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hampton Court redirects here. ... Statue of Sir Peter Scott at the WWT London Wetland Centre Sir Peter Markham Scott, CH, CBE, DSC, FRS, FZS, (September 14, 1909 – August 29, 1989) was a British ornithologist, conservationist, painter and sportsman. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


By this time Scott had announced his plans for his second Antarctic expedition. Shackleton had returned, having narrowly failed to reach the Pole,[49] and this gave Scott the impetus to proceed. On 24 March 1909 he had taken the Admiralty-based appointment of Naval Assistant to the Second Sea Lord which placed him handily in London. In December he was released on half-pay,[50] to take up the full-time command of the British Antarctic Expedition 1910, to be known as the Terra Nova Expedition from its ship, Terra Nova. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Second Sea Lord is one of the senior admirals of the Royal Navy. ... The Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913) was a British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast and interior of Antarctica. ...


Terra Nova

Main article: Terra Nova Expedition

The Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913) was a British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast and interior of Antarctica. ...

Preparation

It was the expressed hope of the RGS that this expedition would be "scientific primarily, with exploration and the Pole as secondary objects"[51] but, unlike the Discovery Expedition, neither they nor the Royal Society were in charge this time. In his expedition prospectus Scott stated plainly that its main objective was "to reach the South Pole, and to secure for the British Empire the honour of this achievement".[51] Later claims that the race to the pole was lost because Scott refused to compromise the scientific programme[52] are somewhat undermined by this unequivocal announcement; Scott had, as Markham observed, been “bitten by the Pole mania”.[51] Scott took scientific work seriously, as his Discovery record shows, but despite its having “the largest and most efficient scientific staff that ever left England”,[53] Scott had made it clear that, on this second expedition, the priority lay with the Pole, and with getting there first. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...

A modern photograph of Scott's old Cape Evans headquarters hut, inundated by snow
A modern photograph of Scott's old Cape Evans headquarters hut, inundated by snow

Scott did not of course know that he would be in a race for the Pole until he received Amundsen's telegram in Melbourne, in October 1910.[54] Before this he had set about fashioning the expedition according to his own preferences, without the restraints of a joint committee. In the decisions that he made with regard to the expedition's methods of travel on the ice he showed that his prejudices against dogs had not faded. They were to be merely one element in a complicated transport strategy that also involved horses and motor sledges and much man-hauling. Scott knew nothing of horses, but felt that as they had seemingly served Shackleton well, he ought to use them.[55] Dogs expert Cecil Meares was going to Siberia to select the dogs, and Scott ordered that, while he was there, he should deal with the purchase of Manchurian ponies.[56] Meares was not an experienced horse-dealer, and the ponies he chose proved mostly of poor quality, and ill-suited to prolonged Antarctic work.[57] Meanwhile Scott spent time in France and Norway, testing motor-sledges, and recruited Bernard Day, from Shackleton's expedition, as his motor expert.[58] This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


First season

The expedition itself suffered a series of early misfortunes, which hampered the first season's work and impaired preparations for the main polar march. On its journey from New Zealand to the Antarctic, Terra Nova was trapped in pack-ice for 20 days,[59] far longer than other ships had experienced, which meant a late-season arrival and less time for preparatory work before the Antarctic winter. One of the motor sledges was lost during its unloading from the ship, disappearing through the sea ice.[60] Deteriorating weather conditions and weak, unacclimatised ponies affected the initial depot-laying journey to the extent that the main supply point, One Ton Depot, was laid 35 miles (56 km) north of its planned location at 80°S.[61] Six ponies died during this journey. The expedition also learned of the ominous presence of Amundsen, who was camped with a large contingent of dogs in the Bay of Whales, 200 miles (320 km) to their east.[62] Ice breaker research vessel using the Whales Bay ice harbor. ...


Despite these trials Scott refused to amend his schedule to deal with the Amundsen threat.[63] While acknowledging that the Norwegian's base was closer to the pole and that his experience as a sledge driver was formidable, Scott still had the advantage of travelling over a known route (that pioneered by Shackleton). During the 1911 winter his confidence increased, to the extent of recording, after the return of the Cape Crozier party from their winter journey, that “I feel sure we are as near perfection as experience can direct”.[64]


Journey to the Pole

The march south began on 1 November 1911, a complex caravan of mixed transport groups (motors, dogs, horses), with loaded sledges, travelling at different rates, all designed to support a final group of four men who would make a dash for the Pole. Scott had earlier outlined his plans for the southern journey to the entire shore party,[65] without being specific as to precise roles – no one knew, for instance, who would form the final polar team. There was continuing uncertainty about how he proposed to use the dogs, a variety of different orders being issued which left it unclear whether they were to be saved for future scientific journeys, or were to assist the polar party home.[66] The consequence was that his subordinates back at base were confused and uncertain as to how they should act, and failed to use the dogs in a concerted attempt to relieve the returning polar party when the need arose.[67] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen

The southbound party continued, steadily reducing in size as the support teams turned back. By 4 January 1912 the last two four-man groups had reached 87°34'S.[68] Scott announced his decision: five men (himself, Edward Wilson, H. R. Bowers, Laurence Oates and Edgar Evans) would go forward, the other three (Teddy Evans, William Lashly and Tom Crean) would return.[69] The chosen group marched on, reaching the Pole on 17 January 1912, only to find that Amundsen had preceded them by five weeks. Scott's anguish is palpable from his diary: “The worst has happened”, “All the day dreams must go”, “Great God! This is an awful place”.[70] Photo portrait of Roald Amundsen from 1912 magazine This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Photo portrait of Roald Amundsen from 1912 magazine This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Edward A. Wilson Dr. Edward Adrian Wilson (Uncle Bill) (July 23, 1872 – March 29, 1912) was a notable English polar explorer, physician, naturalist, painter and ornithologist. ... Lieutenant Henry Robertson (Birdie) Bowers (July 29, 1883 - March 29, 1912) was one of Robert Falcon Scotts polar party on the ill-fated Terra Nova expedition in 1910-1912 who all died during their return from the South Pole. ... Lawrence Oates at South Pole Lawrence Edward Grace Oates (March 17, 1880-March 17, 1912) was a British Antarctic explorer. ... Petty Officer Edgar Evans (1876 - February 17, 1912) was one of Robert Falcon Scotts companions on his ill-fated expedition to the South Pole in 1911-1912. ... William Lashly (1868? - 1940) was a Royal Navy seaman who was a member of both of Robert Falcon Scotts Antarctic expeditions. ... For Victoria Cross recipient, see Thomas Joseph Crean. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Last march

The deflated party began the 800-mile (1,300 km) return journey on 19 January. "I'm afraid the return journey is going to be dreadfully tiring and monotonous", wrote Scott on the next day.[71] However, the party made good progress despite poor weather, and had completed the Polar Plateau stage of their journey, approximately 300 miles (500 km), by 7 February. During the following days the 100-mile (160 km) descent of the Beardmore Glacier saw the increasing decline of Edgar Evans, whose condition Scott had noted with concern as early as 23 January.[72] A fall on 4 February had left Evans "dull and incapable",[73] and on 17 February, after a further fall, he died near the glacier foot.[74] From then on, with 400 miles (670 km) still to travel across the Ross Ice Shelf, the party's prospects steadily worsened, as in deteriorating weather,[75] handicapped by frost-bite, snow-blindness, hunger and exhaustion, they struggled northward. On 16 March, Oates, whose condition was aggravated by an old war-wound to the extent that he was barely able to travel,[76] voluntarily left the tent and walked to his death, in the faint hope that this sacrifice would save the others.[77] After walking a further 20 miles, the three remaining men made their final camp on 19 March, 11 miles (18 km) short of One Ton Depot, but 24 miles (38 km) beyond the original intended location of the depot. The next day a fierce blizzard prevented them making any progress. During the next nine days, as their supplies ran out, with frozen fingers, little light, and storms still raging outside the tent, Scott wrote his final words, although he gave up his diary after 23 March, save for a final poignant entry on 29 March.[78] He left letters to Wilson's mother, Bowers's parents, a string of notables including his former commander Sir George Egerton, his own mother and his wife. He also wrote his "Message To The Public", primarily a defence of the expedition's organisation and conduct in which the party's failure is adduced to weather and other misfortunes, but ending on an inspirational note, with these words: is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Beardmore Glacier (83º45´S 171º00´E) in Antarctica is the largest glacier in the world, with a length exceeding 160 km (100 mi). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Scott's party at the South Pole
Scott's party at the South Pole

We took risks, we knew we took them; things have come out against us, and therefore we have no cause for complaint, but bow to the will of Providence, determined still to do our best to the last [...] Had we lived, I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance, and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman. These rough notes and our dead bodies must tell the tale, but surely, surely, a great rich country like ours will see that those who are dependent on us are properly provided for.[79] Image File history File linksMetadata Scottgroup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Scottgroup. ...

Scott is presumed to have died on 29 March 1912, possibly a day later. The positions of the bodies in the tent, when it was discovered eight months later, suggested that Scott was the last of the three to die.[80] is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...




Scott's reputation

Glorification

The bodies of Scott and his companions were discovered by a search party on 12 November 1912 and their records retrieved. Their final camp became their tomb; a high cairn of snow was erected over it, topped by a roughly fashioned cross.[81] In January 1913, before Terra Nova left for home, a large wooden cross was made by the ship's carpenters, inscribed with the names of the lost party and Tennyson's line from his poem Ulysses: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield", and was erected on Observation Hill overlooking Hut Point.[82] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Ulysses is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, written in 1833 but not published until 1842. ... Hut Point, with the Royal Society Range on the horizon, and Scotts hut in the foreground. ...

Observation Hill, McMurdo Sound, site of the Terra Nova memorial cross
Observation Hill, McMurdo Sound, site of the Terra Nova memorial cross

The world was informed of the tragedy when Terra Nova reached Oamaru, New Zealand, on 10 February 1913.[83] Within days Scott had become a national icon.[84] A fierce nationalistic spirit was aroused; the London Evening News called for the story to be read to schoolchildren throughout the land,[85] to coincide with the memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral on 14 February. Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scouts Association, asked: “Are Britons going downhill? No!...There is plenty of pluck and spirit left in the British after all. Captain Scott and Captain Oates have shown us that”.[86] 11-year-old Mary Steel wrote a poem which ended: Oamaru ( ), the largest town in North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand, also functions as the main town in the Waitaki District. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is an English tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (February 22, 1857 - January 8, 1941) was a soldier, writer and founder of the world scouting movement. ...

Though naught but a simple cross
Now marks those heroes’ grave,
Their names will live forever!
Oh England, Land of the Brave![87]

The survivors of the expedition were suitably honoured on their return, with polar medals and promotions for the naval personnel.[88] In place of the knighthood that might have been her husband's had he survived, Kathleen Scott was granted the rank and precedence of a widow of a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. This did not amount to Scott being posthumously knighted, and it did not entitle her to call herself "Lady Scott", although both of these claims are sometimes erroneously made.[89] In 1922 she married Edward Hilton Young, later Lord Kennet (she becoming Lady Kennet), and remained a doughty defender of Scott's reputation until her death, aged 69, in 1947.[90] Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Edward Hilton Young, 1st Baron Kennet (1879-1960), was a British politician and writer. ...


Amundsen heard of Scott's death while lecturing in the United States. “I would gladly forgo any honour or money if thereby I could have saved Scott his terrible death”, he is reported as saying.[91] He did forgo some honour anyway, in the English-speaking world at least. Scott was much the better wordsmith of the two, and the story that spread throughout the world was largely that told by him, with Amundsen's victory reduced in the eyes of many to an unsporting stratagem.[92] Even before Scott's death was known, Amundsen's feat was reportedly the object of a sneer from RGS President Lord Curzon, at a meeting held supposedly to honour the polar victor, prompting Amundsen to resign his honorary RGS fellowship.[93] George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ...


The response to Scott's final plea on behalf of the dependents of the dead was enormous by the standards of the day. The Mansion House Scott Memorial Fund closed at £75,000 (2008 approximation £3.5 million). This was not equally distributed; Scott's widow, son, mother and sisters received a total of £18,000. Wilson's widow got £8,500 and Bowers's mother £4,500 . Edgar Evans's widow, children and mother received £1,500 between them.[94]


In the dozen years following the disaster more than 30 monuments and memorials were set up in Britain alone. These ranged from simple relics (Scott's sledging flag in Exeter Cathedral) to the foundation of the Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge. Many more were established in other parts of the world.[95] The popularity of the 1948 film Scott of the Antarctic showed that the public perception of Scott as hero had continued into the post-war era. The US scientific base at the South Pole, founded in 1957, is called the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, to honour the memories of both polar conquerors. The Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is centre for research into both polar regions. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Scott of the Antarctic was a 1948 film about Robert Falcon Scotts explorations of Antartica. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ...


Modern reaction

Scott's "Message to the Public" begins: “The causes of the disaster are not due to faulty organisation but to misfortune”.[79] This chimed with the prevailing image of heroic endeavour thwarted at the last by sheer bad luck, and was broadly unquestioned for half a century. In fact, Scott's diaries, even in their edited published form, contain repeated references to errors of organisation or judgement for which he accepts responsibility,[96] but these tended to be overlooked or disregarded. Any unease at the public version, expressed by relatives of Scott's dead companions, was kept private.[97]

Memorial window in Binton Church, Warwickshire, one of four panels. This one depicts the cairn erected over the site of Scott's last tent.
Memorial window in Binton Church, Warwickshire, one of four panels. This one depicts the cairn erected over the site of Scott's last tent.

The catalyst that finally altered the public's perception of Scott was Roland Huntford's 1979 joint biography Scott and Amundsen, reissued as The Last Place on Earth in 1985 and tied into a serialised television docudrama. Two post-war biographies of Scott, by Reginald Pound (1966) and Elspeth Huxley (1977), had contained criticisms but had not questioned his heroism. By contrast Huntford's book attacks Scott's competence and character, blames him for all the failures of the Terra Nova Expedition and for the deaths of his comrades, and sums him up as a ”heroic bungler”.[98] The television version reinforces this image, with added fictional sequences designed to discredit Scott.[99] The extent of Huntford's practical experience of snow and ice conditions, and his credentials for criticising Scott on technical matters of polar travel, is challenged by Ranulph Fiennes,[100] who also draws attention to Huntford's expressed prejudices, including his personal hatred of Scott.[101] The power of television, however, is such as to imprint a negative impression of Scott in the public mind, especially among later generations for whom the legend is ancient history.[102] Writing in the shadow of Huntford, Francis Spufford asserts that, like Sir John Franklin[103] before him, Scott “probably died of incompetence”. More harshly, he goes on: “Scott doomed his companions, then covered his tracks with rhetoric”.[104] Robert Falcon Scott Memorial window, Binton church, Warwickshire (detail) Photographed August 21 2002; one of four panels This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Robert Falcon Scott Memorial window, Binton church, Warwickshire (detail) Photographed August 21 2002; one of four panels This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roland Huntford is acknowledged as the pre-eminent author of Polar biographies. ... Elspeth Joscelin Huxley (née Grant) (July 23, 1907 - January 10, 1997) - a woman of compelling personality and energy - was a polymath. ... Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, 3rd Baronet OBE (born 7 March 1944), usually known simply as Ranulph (Ran) Fiennes, is a British adventurer and holder of several endurance records. ... John Franklin (April 15, 1786 - June 11, 1847) was an English sea captain and Arctic explorer, whose fate — and that of his last expedition — was for many years a mystery. ...


Fiennes, Scott's chief contemporary champion as well as Huntford's principal antagonist, claims to use logic based on his personal experiences as an explorer to reconstruct the events of the Terra Nova Expedition.[105] In his 2003 biography of Scott, which he asserts is an unbiased account, he maintains a robust and unapologetic defence. He draws attention to the political motives (from Right and Left respectively, according to Francis Spufford)[106] underlying Huntford's and TV scriptwriter Trevor Griffiths's attacks, and casts doubts on the credibility of much of Huntford's evidence.[107] Another fairly recent book, Susan Solomon's The Coldest March, provides new information about the weather encountered by the polar party in February and March 1912, and makes the case that they were killed: "not primarily by human error but by this unfortunate and unpredictable turn of meteorological events".[108] Trevor Griffiths (born 4 April 1935 in Manchester) is an English dramatist. ...


However, a long-term Huntford effect was perhaps reflected in the BBC's 2002 100 Greatest Britons nominations, in which Ernest Shackleton was eleventh, while Scott was fifty-fourth.[109] One hundred years after their rivalry, Shackleton's bravura and charisma define a modern Britain which has "shaken off the straitjacket of class prejudice"[110] and appears securely established in the nation's affections as "a hero for our time, a man who, like millennial Britain, has learned to crave the winning (even when it doesn’t) rather than just the playing of the game".[110] By contrast, Captain Scott, with his aura of heroic failure, is out of fashion.[111] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... // Not to be confused with the later ITV Greatest Britons show. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Officially the British National Antarctic Expedition, commonly called after its ship, the Discovery.
  2. ^ Crane, p. 84
  3. ^ Preston, p. 222 (Wilson's comment to Markham)
  4. ^ Fiennes, p. 435
  5. ^ Crane, p. 101 re Armitage, and Max Jones, p. 128 re Evans.
  6. ^ This view was first stated explicitly by James Gordon Hayes in Antarctica, A Treatise on the Southern Continent, published in 1928, and has been repeated in most later Scott biographies. Hayes's book, however, had little impact compared with Stephen Gwynn's officially sanctioned hagiography published in the following year. Max Jones, pp. 265–66
  7. ^ Crane, p. 14–15
  8. ^ Crane, p. 22
  9. ^ Fiennes, p. 17
  10. ^ Crane, p. 23
  11. ^ a b Crane, p. 82
  12. ^ Crane, p. 34
  13. ^ Crane, p.50
  14. ^ Scott and Amundsen, later republished as The Last Place On Earth. See Sources section.
  15. ^ Huntford, pp. 121–23, and Crane, footnote pp. 39–40
  16. ^ a b c Fiennes, p. 21
  17. ^ Crane, p. 59
  18. ^ Crane, p. 90
  19. ^ Preston. pp. 28-29
  20. ^ Crane, p. 63
  21. ^ Scott is honest about this, writing in The Voyage of the Discovery, p. 170, some years later: "Our ignorance was deplorable"
  22. ^ Huntford Shackleton biography, p. 134
  23. ^ The most severe of the "harsh lessons" (Crane's chapter heading) was the ill-fated Cape Crozier party that resulted in the death of George Vince, 4 February 1902. Crane, pp. 161–167
  24. ^ Preston, p. 60–67
  25. ^ Crane, p. 270
  26. ^ Summarised by Fiennes, p. 148
  27. ^ Huntford, pp. 229–30, Crane, pp. 392–93
  28. ^ Preston, pp. 78–79
  29. ^ Max Jones, p. 71, quoting from The Voyage of the Discovery
  30. ^ Second-in-command Armitage, a Merchant officer, was also offered the chance to go home, on compassionate grounds, but chose to interpret the offer as a personal slight. Preston, pp. 67–68
  31. ^ See Crane, pp. 240–41.
  32. ^ Shackleton sent Scott a cordial letter to welcome him home in 1904(Crane, p. 310). Scott, however reluctantly, joined in the official receptions that greeted Shackleton on his return in 1909 (Crane, p. 396–97), and the two were exchanging polite letters about their respective ambitions in 1909–10 (Preston, p. 113).
  33. ^ According to Scott's Navy record facsimile included in the Crane biography, Scott was promoted Captain on 10 September 1904, the day of his arrival in England. He did not command his first ship as Captain until 21 August 1906.
  34. ^ Preston, pp. 83–84
  35. ^ Preston, p. 86
  36. ^ Crane, p. 334. The telegram related to a collision involving Scott's ship, by then HMS Albemarle. Scott was cleared of blame.
  37. ^ Preston, p. 87
  38. ^ Shackleton publicly announced his plans to the RGS on 7 February 1907. Scott had enjoined RGS Secretary Keltie to secrecy about his own intentions. Crane, p. 335
  39. ^ a b Crane, p. 335
  40. ^ a b Riffenburgh, pp. 113–14
  41. ^ Relations between the two had been good after the Discovery Expedition in spite of Shackleton's being sent home early for health reasons. However, Shackleton had felt "humiliated" (Riffenburgh, p. 111) by Scott's references in Voyage of the Discovery to his weakness on the 1902 southern journey. The disagreement over Shackleton's 1907 plans caused "a profound shift in their relationship". Preston, p. 89
  42. ^ Riffenburgh, p. 118
  43. ^ Crane, p. 344
  44. ^ Preston, p. 94
  45. ^ Crane, p. 350
  46. ^ Crane reports that Scott's main rival was would-be novelist Gilbert Cannan, who later suffered a mental collapse.
  47. ^ Crane, pp. 373–74
  48. ^ Crane, p. 387
  49. ^ see Nimrod Expedition
  50. ^ Fiennes, p. 161
  51. ^ a b c Crane, pp. 397–99
  52. ^ For example, Cherry-Garrard, p. 608, says: "We were primarily a great scientific expedition", and, p. 275, "We travelled for science".
  53. ^ Cherry-Garrard, p. 608
  54. ^ Crane, pp. 425–28
  55. ^ Preston, p. 107. Also Crane, pp. 432–33
  56. ^ Huntford, on p. 305, implies that Oates, who had much experience with horses, should have been sent to choose them. But Meares left England for Siberia in January 1910, and Oates was not available to the expedition until May Huntford, p.262
  57. ^ Preston, p. 113
  58. ^ Preston, p. 112
  59. ^ SLE Vol I pp. 30–71
  60. ^ SLE Vol I pp. 106–07
  61. ^ Crane, p.466. Prophetically, Oates is reported as saying to Scott: "Sir, I’m afraid you’ll come to regret not taking my advice" (to kill ponies for food and advance the depot to 80°S). Oates became unimpressed with Scott's grasp of polar transport methods, as a letter to his mother makes clear. Crane, p. 462
  62. ^ SLE Vol I pp. 187–88
  63. ^ “The proper, as well as the wiser course, is for us to proceed exactly as though this had not happened”. SLE Vol I, pp. 187–88
  64. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 369
  65. ^ SLE, Vol I, p. 407
  66. ^ In his foreword to the 1965 edition of Cherry-Garrard's Worst Journey, George Seaver gives a concise account of the muddle that arose from the conflicting orders given at different times concerning the use of dogs. Cherry-Garrard, pp. 30–32
  67. ^ See Atkinson's account in SLE Vol II, pp. 298–306
  68. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 528
  69. ^ Exactly when Scott decided on a five-man polar party is uncertain. On the first page of the fresh journal started 22 December 1911 –two weeks before the polar party was chosen – Scott lists the five names of those eventually selected, but the list is not itself dated and could have been entered later.
  70. ^ SLE Vol I, pp. 543–44
  71. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 548
  72. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 551
  73. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 560
  74. ^ SLE Vol I, pp. 572–73 Wilson surmised that Evans had injured his brain in a fall, perhaps that on 4 February
  75. ^ Research by Susan Solomon, published in The Coldest March, Yale UP 2001, point to the exceptional severity of the Barrier weather encountered by the party in February–March 1912 as the ultimate cause of their deaths.
  76. ^ SLE Vol I, p. 589: "Titus Oates is very near the end" – Scott diary entry, 11 March 1912
  77. ^ SLE Vol I, pp. 591–92
  78. ^ The scrawled "Last entry. For God's sake look after our people" is an undated afterthought to the 29 March entry, and is usually presumed to have been written on that date.
  79. ^ a b From Scott's Message to the Public, SLE Vol I pp. 605–07
  80. ^ Max Jones, p. 126. Huntford says (p. 509) that Bowers was probably the last to die, citing evidence on p. 528.
  81. ^ SLE Vol II, pp. 345–47
  82. ^ SLE Vol II, p. 398
  83. ^ Crane, pp. 1–2
  84. ^ Preston, p. 230
  85. ^ Max Jones, pp. 199–201
  86. ^ Max Jones, p. 204
  87. ^ Max Jones, p. 205–06
  88. ^ Lieutenant Evans was promoted Commander; Lashly and Crean each received the Albert Medal for saving Evans's life during the last support party's return journey to Cape Evans. Crean was also promoted to Warrant Officer.
  89. ^ Fiennes, p. 383, and Huntford, p. 523, both refer to her as Lady Scott, but that is not in accordance with The Times announcement, 22 February 1913
  90. ^ Preston, p. 232
  91. ^ Huntford, p. 525
  92. ^ The word "stratagem" is used in the Publisher's Note to the 1976 reprint of Amundsen's The South Pole, to describe how many viewed Amundsen's achievement in the years immediately following Scott's death.
  93. ^ Huntford, p. 538, Max Jones, p. 90. The “sneer”, apparently, was a call for three cheers for the dogs.
  94. ^ Max Jones, pp. 106–108. £34,000 (£1.6m) in total went to relatives, £17,500 to the publication of the scientific results, £5,100 to meet expedition debts, and the balance to the creation of suitable monuments and memorials
  95. ^ See Max Jones, p. 295–96 for a full listing of British memorials.
  96. ^ Fiennes, p. 490
  97. ^ Huntford, p. 523, says that Oates's mother privately called Scott a "murderer", but quotes no source for this. He also quotes (p.524) from a letter to Mrs Oates from Teddy Evans: "One cannot state facts plainly when they reflect on the organisation".
  98. ^ Huntford, p. 527
  99. ^ Fiennes, p. 433
  100. ^ Fiennes, p. 416
  101. ^ Fiennes, p. 426
  102. ^ Fiennes, pp. 432–34
  103. ^ Sir John Franklin was the leader of an 1845 British Naval expedition to the Arctic, which resulted in the deaths of the entire expedition complement of 128 men.
  104. ^ Spufford, pp. 104–05
  105. ^ Fiennes, Introduction, p. xii
  106. ^ Spufford, p. 5
  107. ^ Fiennes, 416–17
  108. ^ Solomon, p. xvii
  109. ^ The list has numerous anomalies, e.g. actor Michael Crawford in 17th place ahead of Queen Victoria, Henry VIII and William Wilberforce. Other explorers listed are Captain Cook (12th), Francis Drake (49th), Walter Raleigh (91st) and David Livingstone (96th).
  110. ^ a b Max Jones, p. 289
  111. ^ Max Jones, p. 293

is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... At least two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Albermarle after George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... darn ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Michael Crawford (right) as Frank Spencer in Some Mothers Do Ave Em Michael Crawford, OBE (born Michael Patrick Dumble-Smith, 19 January 1942 in Salisbury, Wiltshire), is an English actor and singer. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... British explorer James Cook is most noted for having discovered Australia and Hawaii. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ...

Sources

  • Scott's Last Expedition Vols I and II Smith, Elder & Co, London, 1913 (Vol I is Scott's diary, edited by Leonard Huxley) OCLC 1522514
  • Cherry-Garrard, Apsley:The Worst Journey in the World: Antarctic 1910-13 1965 edition, pub. Penguin Travel Library, Harmondsworth, Middlesex (UK), 1970, ISBN 0 14 009501 2 OCLC 16589938
  • Crane, David: Scott of the Antarctic: A Life of Courage, and Tragedy in the Extreme South Harper Collins, London, 2005 ISBN 978 0 00 715068 7 OCLC 60793758
  • Fiennes, Ranulph: Captain Scott Hodder & Stoughton, London, 2003 ISBN 0 340 82697 5 OCLC 52695234
  • Huntford, Roland: The Last Place on Earth Pan Books edition, London, 1985 ISBN 0 330 82697 5 OCLC 12976972
  • Huntford, Roland: Shackleton Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1985 ISBN 0 340 25007 0 OCLC 13108800
  • Jones, Max: The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice Oxford University Press, Oxford (UK), 2003 ISBN 0 19 280483 9 OCLC 59303598
  • Preston, Diana: A First Rate Tragedy: Captain Scott's Antarctic Expeditions Constable (pb edition), London, 1999 ISBN 0 09 479530 4 OCLC 59395617
  • Riffenburgh, Beau: Nimrod: Ernest Shackleton and the Extraordinary Story of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition Bloomsbury Publishing (pb edition), London, 2005 ISBN 0 7475 7553 4 OCLC 56659120
  • Solomon, Susan: The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition Yale University Press, London, 2001 ISBN 0300089678 OCLC 45661501
  • Spufford, Francis: I May Be Some Time: Ice and the English Imagination Faber & Faber (pb edition), London, 1997 ISBN 0 571 17951 7 OCLC 41314703

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Apsley George Benet Cherry-Garrard (January 2, 1886 – May 18, 1959) was an English explorer of Antarctica. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, 3rd Baronet OBE (born 7 March 1944), usually known simply as Ranulph (Ran) Fiennes, is a British adventurer and holder of several endurance records. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Roland Huntford is acknowledged as the pre-eminent author of Polar biographies. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

Further reading

  • Coleman, E C: The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration: From Franklin to Scott Tempus Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire (UK), 2007 ISBN 0752442074 OCLC 72868468
  • Huxley, Elspeth: Scott of the Antarctic Wiedenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1977 ISBN 0297774376 OCLC 3618208
  • Pound, Reginald: Scott of the Antarctic World books, London, 1966 OCLC 4960723

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Robert Falcon Scott
  • Dennis Rawlins (2002), "Scott's Navigational Math", DIO, volume 2, number 2, pages 74ff. (Refutes charges that Scott's navigation was inferior to or essentially differed from Amundsen's.)
  • The Voyages of Captain Scott, available at Project Gutenberg.
Persondata
NAME Scott, Robert Falcon
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Antarctic Explorer
DATE OF BIRTH June 6, 1868
PLACE OF BIRTH Devonshire, England
DATE OF DEATH March 29, 1912
PLACE OF DEATH Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica
Dennis Rawlins (1937 Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. –) is an American astronomer, historian, and publisher, known [1] for his intellect and acerbic wit. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This page is about the English county, for alternative meanings see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - History - Robert Falcon Scott (1868 - 1912) (394 words)
Robert Scott was born in Devonport into a navy family and became a cadet at the age of 13.
Scott wrote, 'It is a terrible disappointment, and I am very sorry for my loyal companions.' They started the 1,500 km journey back.
Scott wrote: 'One morning he said, 'I am just going outside and may be some time'.
Robert Falcon Scott Summary (4896 words)
Scott's widow, Kathleen, was granted the rank (but not the style) of a widow of a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, but (despite popular belief) this did not amount to Scott being posthumously knighted, there being no such provision in the English law.
Scott's brother-in-law, the Reverend Lloyd Harvey Bruce, was the rector of the tiny Warwickshire village of Binton, and he commissioned a large stained glass memorial window, showing scenes from Scott's expedition, which still exists today.
Scott had explored the interior of Antarctica previously and had already determined in his mind that the Beardmore Glacier was the route to the central plateau and the South Pole.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m