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Encyclopedia > Robert E. Howard
Robert Ervin Howard

Born: January 22, 1906
Peaster, Texas, U.S.
Died: June 11, 1936
Cross Plains, Texas, U.S.
Occupation(s): short story writer, poet, novelist, epistolean
Genre(s): Sword and Sorcery, Westerns, Boxing stories, Historical fiction, Horror
Influences: Thomas Bulfinch, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, H. Rider Haggard, Alexandre Dumas, Clark Ashton Smith, H.P. Lovecraft
Influenced: Fritz Leiber, Michael Moorcock, Karl Edward Wagner, Harry Turtledove, L. Sprague de Camp

Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. Howard wrote "over three-hundred stories and seven-hundred poems of raw power and unbridled emotion”[2] and is especially noted for his memorable depictions of “a sombre universe of swashbuckling adventure and darkling horror.”[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (696x900, 222 KB) This is a very well-known photograph of Robert E. Howard taken in 1934. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Peaster is on Farm Road 920 nine miles northwest of Weatherford in northwestern Parker County. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cross Plains is a town located in Callahan County, Texas. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or subject matter (content). ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Western fiction is a genre of literature that is typically set in any of the American states west of the Mississippi River and between the years of approximately 1860 and 1900. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... Thomas Bulfinch (July 15, 1796 - May 27, 1867) was an American writer, born in Newton, Massachusetts to a highly-educated but not rich Bostonian merchant family. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 - May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was a British author and poet, born in India, and best known today for his childrens books, including The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), Just So Stories (1902), and Puck of Pooks Hill (1906... Jack London, probably born John Griffith Chaney (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916)[4][5][6] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and over fifty other books. ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Clark Ashton Smith (January 13, 1893-August 14, 1961) was a poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939) is a prolific British writer of both science fiction and science fantasy. ... Karl Edward Wagner (4 December 1945 – 13 October 1994) was an American writer, editor and publisher of horror, science fiction, and heroic fantasy, who was born in Knoxville, Tennessee and originally trained as a psychiatrist. ... Harry Turtledove at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949), is a historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... L. Sprague de Camp from the cover of Time and Chance: an Autobiography, Donald M. Grant, 1996 Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907, New York City – November 6, 2000, Plano, Texas) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz Boxing, also called Western Boxing, pugilism, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with... Look up West in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ...


He is most famous for having created — in the pages of the legendary Depression-era pulp magazine Weird Tales — the character Conan the Cimmerian AKA Conan the Barbarian, a literary icon whose instantly recognizable pop-culture imprint is rivaled by only a handful of other literary characters, such as Tarzan of the Apes, Sherlock Holmes, and James Bond.[4] The Great Depression an economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... James H. Pierce and Joan Burroughs Pierce starred in the 1932-34 Tarzan radio series Tarzan, a character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first appeared in the 1914 novel Tarzan of the Apes, and then in twenty-three sequels. ... Sherlock Holmes as imagined by the seminal Holmesian artist, Sidney Paget, in The Strand magazine. ... The James Bond 007 gun logo James Bond, codenamed 007, is a fictional British agent (the Bond character is usually referred to as a spy, but was actually a counter-agent and a professional assassin) created by writer Ian Fleming in 1952. ...


Between Conan and his other heroes Howard single-handedly created the genre now known as sword-and-sorcery in the late 1920s and early 1930s,[5][6] spawning a wide swath of imitators[7] and giving him an influence in the fantasy field rivaled only by J.R.R. Tolkien and Tolkien's similarly inspired creation of the modern genre of High Fantasy.[8] This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ...


A full century after his birth, Howard remains a seminal figure,[9] with his best work endlessly reprinted.[10] He has been compared to other American masters of the weird, gloomy, and spectral, such as Nathaniel Hawthorne,[11] Herman Melville,[12] and Jack London.[13] Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 4, 1804 - May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, essayist and poet. ... Jack London, probably born John Griffith Chaney (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916)[4][5][6] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and over fifty other books. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

Robert E. Howard was born in Peaster, Texas, the only son of a wandering country physician, Dr. Isaac Mordecai Howard, and his tubercular wife, Hester Jane Ervin Howard. Both sides of the family had longstanding roots throughout the American South, with various ancestors owning plantations and fighting for the Confederacy in the Civil War. Thus a postbellum mindset of loss, anger, and pride would dominate Howard’s later fictional works. Peaster is on Farm Road 920 nine miles northwest of Weatherford in northwestern Parker County. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery (until 29 May 1861) Richmond (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Confederate Republic President Jefferson... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action...


The author’s early life was spent wandering through a variety of dusty Texas cowtowns and boomtowns: Dark Valley (1906), Seminole (1908), Bronte (1909), Poteet (1910), Oran (1912), Wichita Falls (1913), Bagwell (1913), Cross Cut (1915), and Burkett (1918). Talking to aging Civil War veterans and Texas Rangers, listening to grisly ghost stories told by his grandmother and various ex-slaves, and visiting old forts and historical sites all had a strong influence on his personality. By the time he reached his teens, Howard had soaked in the dying of the Frontier, the bloody history and legendry of the American Southwest, and the art of the tall tale. Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Seminole is a city located in Gaines County, Texas. ... Bronte is a town located in Coke County, Texas. ... Poteet is a city in Atascosa County, Texas. ... Nickname: The City that Faith Built Location within the state of Texas County Wichita County Mayor Lanham Lyne Area    - City 70. ... Texas Rangers American League AAA Oklahoma RedHawks AA Frisco RoughRiders A Bakersfield Blaze Clinton LumberKings Spokane Indians R Arizona Rangers The Texas Rangers are a Major League Baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, a suburb in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... // United States In the United States, the frontier was the term applied to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of Americans. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... A tall tale is a story that claims to explain the reason for some natural phenomenon, or sometimes illustrates how skilled/intelligent/powerful the subject of the tale was. ...


During Howard’s youth his mother Hester had a particularly strong influence on his intellectual growth. Known throughout her family as a kind and giving woman — she had selflessly spent her early years helping a variety of sick relatives, contracting tuberculosis in the process — it was she who instilled in her son a deep love of poetry and literature, filling his ears daily with recited verse, and who supported him unceasingly in his efforts to write. Howard never forgot her many kindnesses both to himself and his extended family, and her growing sickness and invalidity did much to cement his view of existence as heartless, unfair, and ultimately futile.


Other themes began to appear at this time which would later seep into his prose. Howard loved reading and learning, but found that school, jobs, and most bastions of authority were to him hated prisons filled with stultifying rules and endless boredom. Experiences watching and confronting bullies revealed the omnipresence of evil and enemies in the world, and taught him the value of brute physical strength and violence. Firsthand tales of gunfights, lynchings, feuds, and Indian raids developed his distinctly Texan, hardboiled outlook on the world. Categories: Stock characters | Stub ... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... Hardboiled crime fiction is a uniquely American style pioneered by Dashiell Hammett, refined by Raymond Chandler, and endlessly imitated since by writers such as Mickey Spillane. ...


Sports, especially boxing, became a passionate preoccupation. At the time, boxing was the most popular sport in the country, with a cultural influence far in excess of what it is today. Jim Jeffries, Jack Johnson, Bob Fitzsimmons, and later Jack Dempsey were the names that dominated Howard’s dreams during those years, and he grew up a lover of all contests of violent, masculine struggle. Specifically, he focused in on a type of boxer he called Iron Men, tough battlers who had little skill but made up for it in the sheer ability to take punishment that would kill a lesser man. Inspired by these heroes, Howard lifted weights, practiced boxing and wrestling with friends, and read everything he could find on the subject — most notably in exciting, somewhat lurid magazines such as The Ring and The Police Gazette. Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz Boxing, also called Western Boxing, pugilism, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with... James Jackson Jeffries (born April 15, 1875 in Carroll, Ohio, United States – died March 3, 1953 in Burbank, California) was a world heavyweight boxing champion. ... The following persons have the name Jack Johnson: Jack Johnson (boxer), first African-American world heavyweight champion boxer Jack Johnson (musician), a Hawaiian surfer, blues musician, and documentary filmmaker Big Jack Johnson, a blues musician Turkey Creek Jack Johnson (gunfighter), a Wild-West gunfighter Jack B. Johnson, county executive for... Robert James Bob Fitzsimmons (May 26, 1863 - October 22, 1917) was a Cornish native and moved to New Zealand in his childhood. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Weightlifting is a sport where competitors attempt to lift heavy weights mounted on steel bars. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Grappling. ... The Ring is a 2002 American film, a remake of the Japanese horror mystery Ring (1998). ... The Police Gazette has been the title of several publications. ...


In 1919, when Howard was thirteen, Dr. Howard moved his family to the Central Texas hamlet of Cross Plains, and there the family would stay for the rest of Howard’s life. That same year, sitting in a library in New Orleans while his father took medical courses at a nearby college, Howard discovered a book concerned with the scant fact and abundant legendry surrounding an ancient group of barbaric tribesmen in ancient Scotland called the Picts. Named for the tattoos they decorated themselves with and bitter enemies of encroaching Roman legions, the Picts fired Howard’s imagination and crystallized in him a love for barbarians and outsiders from civilization who lived lives of great hardship and struggle but also great freedom and verve. From then on, the Picts became a muse of sorts, appearing in various guises throughout all the many genres Howard wrote in, and helping to thematically tie his work together. Central Texas (a part of which is Texas Hill Country), is a region in the U.S. state of Texas. ... Cross Plains is a town located in Callahan County, Texas. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ...


First writings

Voracious reading, along with a natural talent for prose writing and the encouragement of teachers, conspired to create in Howard an interest in becoming a professional writer. From the age of nine he began writing stories, mostly tales of historical fiction centering on Vikings, Arabs, battles, and bloodshed. One by one he discovered the authors that would influence his later work: Jack London and his stories of reincarnation and past lives, most notably The Star Rover (1915); Rudyard Kipling’s tales of subcontinent adventure and his chanting, shamanic verse; the classic mythological tales collected by Thomas Bulfinch. Howard was considered by friends to be eidetic (i.e. had a photographic memory), and astounded them with his ability to memorize lengthy reams of poetry with ease after one or two readings. The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Battles is an American instrumental rock band. ... Jack London, probably born John Griffith Chaney (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916)[4][5][6] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and over fifty other books. ... According to Hinduism, every living being is an eternally existing spirit (the soul or the self). ... The Star Rover is a novel by American writer Jack London published in 1915 (published in England as The Jacket). ... Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was a British author and poet, born in India, and best known today for his childrens books, including The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), Just So Stories (1902), and Puck of Pooks Hill (1906... Thomas Bulfinch (July 15, 1796 - May 27, 1867) was an American writer, born in Newton, Massachusetts to a highly-educated but not rich Bostonian merchant family. ... Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ...


At fifteen Howard first sampled the popular world of pulp magazines, especially Adventure and its star authors Talbot Mundy and Harold Lamb. Like a lightning bolt striking, his fate was sealed — come hell or high water, he was going to be an adventure writer. The next few years saw him creating a variety of series characters: El Borak (a Texan cross between John Rambo and T. E. Lawrence), a cowboy hero named The Sonora Kid, the puritan avenger Solomon Kane, and the last king of the Picts, Bran Mak Morn. Soon the fifteen-year-old was submitting stories to pulps such as Adventure and Argosy. Rejections piled up, and with no mentors or instructions of any kind to aid him, Howard became a writing autodidact, methodically studying the markets and tailoring his stories and style to each. Pulp magazines, often called simply the pulps, were inexpensive text fiction magazines widely published in the 1920s through the 1950s. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Talbot Mundy was a British-born writer of adventure stories during the early twentieth century. ... Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... Rambo is a trilogy of popular action films based on the characters created by David Morrell in his novel First Blood. ... T.E. Lawrence. ... Solomon Kane is a fictional character created by the pulp-era writer Robert E. Howard. ... Bran Mak Morn is a hero of several pulp fiction short stories by Robert E. Howard. ... Argosy (originally meaning a large cargo ship) may refer to: American pulp magazine Argosy Magazine a 1920s British airliner, the Armstrong Whitworth Argosy a 1960s British military transport aircraft, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy the Space Navy of the Systems Commonwealth from the science fiction television series Andromeda. ... Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ...


In the fall of 1922, when Howard was sixteen, he temporarily moved to a boarding house in the nearby city of Brownwood to complete his senior year of high school, and it was in Brownwood that he first met friends his own age who shared his interest not only for sports and history but also writing and poetry. The two most important of these, Tevis Clyde Smith and Truett Vinson, shared his Bohemian and literary outlook on life, and together they wrote amateur papers and magazines, exchanged long letters filled with poetry and existential thoughts on Life and Philosophy, and encouraged each other’s writing endeavors. Brownwood is a city located in Brown County, Texas. ... The term Bohemian describes artists, writers, and disenchanted people of all sorts who wished to live non-traditional lifestyles. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Howard also spent his late school years engaging in a self-created regimen of exercise and sparring, eventually building himself into a muscled, burly specimen. He began boxing locally in seedy drinking and gambling venues such as the local Cross Plains icehouse, gaining a reputation for toughness and seldom if ever losing a fight. All of this real-life experience with physical struggle began factoring heavily in his stories, giving them a frighteningly realistic aura and power seldom seen in literature.


Depression and suicidal tendencies

It’s clear from Howard’s earliest writings and the recollections of his friends that Howard suffered from severe depression from an early age. Confidants such as Tevis Clyde Smith and Novalyne Price Ellis found Howard to be an agreeable companion most of the time, full of life and good humor — but always with an underlying melancholy simmering within. Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Novalyne P. Ellis Novalyne Price Ellis (born Novalyne Price) (March 9, 1908 - March 30, 1999) was a Texas-born schoolteacher who became close friends with and occasionally dated famed pulp fiction writer, Robert E. Howard. ...


In later years, Howard and others would attribute this to a variety of reasons: the inherited gloomy disposition of the Irish; his poor treatment at the hands of locals who derided him for staying at home as a writer rather than getting a respectable blue-collar job; the natural lonely, somewhat outcast existence of writers; a shyness and lack of self-confidence exasperated by the frequent moves during his youth; the mental and emotional pressures of caring for his increasingly sick mother. These bouts of depression haunted him throughout his life, and by adulthood he had formed a grim, bitter worldview in which life, for all its glory and pageantry, was in the end a ceaseless struggle against the encroachment of old age and the pathetic helplessness of looming death.


Spurred on by the suicides of several schoolmates and by his increasing belief in reincarnation, Howard conspired to go out while young and in the prime of health. Friends recall him defending the act of suicide as a valid alternative as early as eighteen years old, while many of his stories and poems have a suicidal gloom and intensity that in hindsight seem eerily prescient, describing such an end not as a tragedy but as a sweet, soothing release from hell on earth. At his lowest times he insinuated to friends that the only thing keeping him from attempting suicide was the effect it would have on his ailing, tubercular mother, who by now was mostly bedridden and increasingly relied on her husband and son to get through daily life. Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... According to Hinduism, every living being is an eternally existing spirit (the soul or the self). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


Howard spent his late teens working a variety of hated odd jobs around Cross Plains: picking cotton, branding yearlings, hauling garbage, working in grocery stores, office work, jerking soda, public stenography, packing rods for a surveyor, and writing oil-field news, all while taking courses at Howard Payne Academy in Brownwood (an adjunct of the college) and trying mightily to break into the pulp markets. After years of rejection slips and near acceptances, he finally broke through with a short caveman tale titled "Spear and Fang", which netted him the princely sum of $16 and introduced him to the readers of a struggling niche pulp started a few years earlier called Weird Tales. Nicknamed “The Unique Magazine” due to its strange and macabre content, it was destined to become one of the classic, best-remembered pulps, largely due to the influence of Howard and his two contemporaries, H. P. Lovecraft and Clark Ashton Smith. Further story sales to Weird Tales were sporadic but encouraging, and soon Howard was a regular in the magazine. His first cover story was for "Wolfshead", a werewolf yarn published when he was only twenty. This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Clark Ashton Smith (January 13, 1893-August 14, 1961) was a poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories. ... A German woodcut from 1722 A werewolf (also lycanthrope or wolfman) in folklore and mythology is a person who shapeshifts into a wolf, either purposely, by using magic, or after being placed under a curse. ...


Professional writer

As he found his footing in the market, Howard became increasingly attracted to the concept of series characters. A gloomy, action-packed story rejected by the more popular pulp Adventure was salvaged and submitted to Weird Tales, and the result was “Red Shadows,” the first of many stories featuring the vengeful Puritan swashbuckler Solomon Kane. Appearing in the August 1928 issue of WT, the character was a big hit with readers, as was Howard’s increasingly grim and intense worldview — a bloody, dark, fatalistic outlook fueled by suicidally intense depressive tendencies and wide-ranging studies in history, warfare, philosophy, and poetry. Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DArtagnan and the three musketeers For other uses, see Swashbuckler (disambiguation). ... Solomon Kane is a fictional character created by the pulp-era writer Robert E. Howard. ...


Six more Kane stories followed over the next four years, but Howard was already expanding his horizons. In conjunction with his friend Tevis Clyde Smith he dabbled heavily in verse, writing hundreds of poems and getting dozens published in Weird Tales and assorted poetry journals. The best of these efforts remain classics, conjuring up the same blood-splattered, dark, mythic visions of war and rapine that his best stories do. Efforts to get a book of poems accepted by a mainstream publisher failed, however, with several editors recoiling at the brutal imagery and macabre subject matter.


Ultimately Howard judged the writing of poetry to be a luxury he couldn’t afford, and after 1930 he wrote little verse, instead dedicating his time to short stories and higher-paying markets. Nevertheless, as a result of this apprenticeship, his stories increasingly took on the aura of “prose-poems” filled with hypnotic, dreamy imagery and a fantastic power lacking in most other pulp efforts of the time.


During the same period, Howard took his first stab at writing a novel, a loosely autobiographical book modeled on Jack London’s Martin Eden and titled Post Oaks and Sand Roughs. Of interest to Howard scholars for the personal information it contains, the book was otherwise of middling quality and was never published in the author’s lifetime. Stymied by the poetry and novel fields, Howard kept plugging away at Weird Tales, filling its pages with Kane stories and verse. He also did his best to expand his markets, submitting a bewildering array of tales to a variety of pulps. Jack London, probably born John Griffith Chaney (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916)[4][5][6] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and over fifty other books. ... Martin Eden (1909) is a novel by American author Jack London, about a writer who bears an extremely strong resemblance to Jack London. ...


After several minor successes and false starts, he struck gold again with a new series based on one of his favorite passions: boxing. July 1929 saw the debut of Sailor Steve Costigan in the pages of Fight Stories. A tough-as-nails, two-fisted mariner with a head of rocks and occasionally a heart of gold, Costigan began boxing his way through a variety of exotic seaports and adventure locales, becoming so popular in Fight Stories that the same editors began using additional Costigan episodes in their sister magazine Action Stories. The series was Howard’s first foray into humor and first-person narration, and has been compared to the humorous work of such writers as Damon Runyon and P. G. Wodehouse. With three solid markets now all buying up his stories regularly, Howard quit taking college classes, and indeed would never again work a regular job. At twenty-three years of age, from the middle of nowhere in Texas, he had become a full-time writer. Sailor Steve Costigan is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Damon Runyon Damon Runyon (October 4, 1884 – December 10, 1946) was a newspaperman and writer. ... P. G. Wodehouse, pictured in 1904, became famous for his complex plots, ingenious wordplay, and prolific output Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse KBE (October 15, 1881 – February 14, 1975) (pronounced WOOD-house) was an English comic writer who enjoyed enormous popular success for more than seventy years. ...


The birth of Sword and Sorcery

As Kane and Costigan stories were rattling off his typewriter, Howard began audacious experiments with the entire concept of the weird tale as defined by practitioners such as Edgar Allan Poe, A. Merritt, and H. P. Lovecraft, mixing elements of fantasy, horror, mythology, and swordplay into thematic vehicles never before seen. After two years of successive drafts, rewrites, and world creation, he finished “The Shadow Kingdom,” which for the first time richly blended elements of horror, history, barbaric adventure, high fantasy, and philosophy into a new style of tale which ultimately became known as Sword and Sorcery. Featuring King Kull, a barbarian precursor to later Howard heroes such as Conan, the tale hit Weird Tales in August 1929 and received much fanfare from readers. Several more Kull stories followed, but enough of them were rejected by Weird Tales editor Farnsworth Wright to convince Howard not to continue the series. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Abraham Merritt (January 20, 1884-August 21, 1943) was an American editor and author of works of fantastic fiction. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... Russian Ivan Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Olympic Mens Individual Épée event at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on Aug. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... History is the study of human affairs through time. ... // Barbarian is a perjorative term for an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behaviour is unacceptable in the purportedly civilized... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... Farnsworth Wright was a British ] who published the book Britain in the Age of Economic Management. ...


With his own interest in Solomon Kane dwindling and his Kull stories not catching on, Howard applied his new Sword-and-Sorcery template to one of his first loves: the Picts. His story “Kings of the Night” depicted King Kull conjured into pre-Christian Britain to aid the Picts in their struggle against the invading Romans, and introduced readers to Howard’s king of the Picts, Bran Mak Morn. Howard followed up this tale with the now-classic revenge nightmare “Worms of the Earth” and several other tales, creating horrific adventures tinged with a Cthulhu-esque gloss and notable for their memorable use of metaphor and symbolism. A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Bran Mak Morn is a hero of several pulp fiction short stories by Robert E. Howard. ... Worms of the Earth is a short story by American fantasy fiction writer Robert Ervin Howard. ... Cthulhu and Rlyeh Cthulhu (other spellings: Kutulu, Cthulu, Kthulhut, Thu Thu, Tulu[1], and many others) is a fictional entity created by horror author H.P. Lovecraft. ...


The Lovecraft Circle

In August 1930 Howard wrote a letter into Weird Tales praising a recent reprint of H. P. Lovecraft’s “The Rats in the Walls” and discussing some of the obscure Gaelic references used within. Wright forwarded the letter to Lovecraft, who responded warmly to Howard, and soon the two Weird Tales veterans were engaged in a vigorous correspondence that would last for the rest of Howard’s life. By virtue of this, Howard quickly became a member of “The Lovecraft Circle,” a group of writers and friends all linked via the immense correspondence of HPL, who made it a point to introduce his many like-minded friends to each other and encourage them to share stories, utilize each other’s invented fictional trappings, and help each other succeed in the pulp field. In time this circle of correspondents has developed a legendary patina about it rivaling similar literary conclaves such as The Inklings, the Bloomsbury Group, and the Beats. Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ... The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of... The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: This is...


Howard was given the affectionate nickname “Two-Gun Bob” by virtue of his long explications to Lovecraft about the history of his beloved Southwest, and during the ensuing years he contributed several notable elements to Lovecraft’s Cthulhu Mythos of horror stories. He also corresponded with other weird tale writers such as Clark Ashton Smith, August Derleth, and E. Hoffmann Price. Cthulhu Mythos is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated writers. ... Clark Ashton Smith (January 13, 1893-August 14, 1961) was a poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edgar Hoffmann Trooper Price, (1898-1988), (July 3, 1898, Fowler, California – June 18, 1988, Redwood City, California) was a writer of popular fiction for the pulp magazine marketplace. ...


Oriental Stories

With the onset of the Great Depression, many pulp markets reduced their schedules or went out of business entirely. Howard saw market after market falter and vanish — Fight Stories, Action Stories — and his savings was wiped out when the local Cross Plains banks failed. Yet even during the worst of these times, he kept plugging away at the writing game and breaking new markets. The Great Depression an economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ...


When Farnsworth Wright started a new pulp called Oriental Stories, Howard was overjoyed — here was a venue where he could run riot through favorite themes of history and battle and exotic mysticism. During the four years of the magazine’s existence, he crafted some of his very best tales, gloomy vignettes of war and rapine in the Middle and Far East during the Middle Ages, tales that rival even his best Conan stories for their historical sweep and jewelled splendor. In addition to series characters such as Turlogh dubh O’Brien and Cormac FitzGeoffrey, Howard sold a variety of tales depicting various times and periods through the Middle Ages. Farnsworth Wright was a British ] who published the book Britain in the Age of Economic Management. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ...


Conan

Early 1932 saw Howard taking one of his frequent trips around Texas. In Fredericksburg, while overlooking sullen hills through a misty rain, he conceived of the fantasy land of Cimmeria, a bitter hard northern region home to fearsome barbarians. Going back home he developed the idea, fleshing out a new invented world — his Hyborian Age — and populating it with all manner of countries, peoples, monsters, and magic. His Cimmerian hero, Conan, derived from a host of influences, including the previous Kull and a character also named Conan from a reincarnation story he wrote earlier called “People of the Dark”. Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Fredericksburg is the name of some places in the United States of America: Fredericksburg, Iowa Fredericksburg, Ohio Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania Fredericksburg, Texas Fredericksburg, Virginia, the site of the Battle of Fredericksburg This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine and Russia in the 8th and 7th century BC. Cimmeria was an ancient continental plate comprising present-day Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... An illustration of The Hyborian Age primarily based upon a map hand-drawn by Robert E. Howard in March 1932. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... This article is about monsters as a kind of legendary creature. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical or paranormal means. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... A complete edition of Kulls stories from 1995 Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ...


Conan first appeared in Weird Tales in December 1932's "The Phoenix on the Sword", and was such a hit that Howard was able to place seventeen more Conan stories in the magazine between 1933 – 36. The character had a wide and enduring influence among other WT writers, including C. L. Moore and Fritz Leiber, and over the ensuing decades the genre of Sword and Sorcery grew up around Howard’s masterwork, with dozens of practitioners evoking Howard’s creation to one degree or another. This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... The Phoenix on the Sword is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard about Conan the Cimmerian, first published in Weird Tales in 1932. ... Catherine Lucille Moore (January 24, 1911 – April 4, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ...


New markets

Ever on the search for new markets, in late 1934 Howard took a character conceived in his youth, El Borak, and began writing mature, professional tales that landed in Top Notch, Complete Stories, and Thrilling Adventures. As with Kull/Conan, he also created other characters in the same vein such as Kirby O’Donnell. Howard also dabbled in a variety of new genres: “Strange Detective” stories, reincarnation stories, Cthulhu-themed horror tales, pirate stories, and much more. By the end of his life he had contributed to pulps as varied as Action Stories, Argosy, Complete Stories, Cowboy Stories, Dime Sport Magazine, Fight Stories, Ghost Stories, Jack Dempsey’s Fight Magazine, Marvel Tales, Oriental Stories, Spicy-Adventure Stories, Sport Story Magazine, Strange Detective Stories, Strange Tales, Super Detective Stories, Thrilling Adventures, Thrilling Mystery, and Top-Notch. A complete edition of Kulls stories from 1995 Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... According to Hinduism, every living being is an eternally existing spirit (the soul or the self). ... Cthulhu and Rlyeh Cthulhu (other spellings: Kutulu, Cthulu, Kthulhut, Thu Thu, Tulu[1], and many others) is a fictional entity created by horror author H.P. Lovecraft. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Argosy (originally meaning a large cargo ship) may refer to: American pulp magazine Argosy Magazine a 1920s British airliner, the Armstrong Whitworth Argosy a 1960s British military transport aircraft, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy the Space Navy of the Systems Commonwealth from the science fiction television series Andromeda. ... Ghost Stories (Japanese: 学校の怪談, Gakkō no Kaidan, School Ghost Stories) is a twenty-one-episode anime series created in 2000 by animation studio Aniplex for Fuji Television, based on a manga series by Yosuke Takahashi. ... Marvel Tales is the title of three American comic-book series published by Marvel Comics, the first of them from the companys 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics. ... Strange Tales was the name of several comic book anthology series that have been published by Marvel Comics. ...


Novalyne Price

In 1934 Howard met Novalyne Price, a local schoolteacher who was interested in becoming a writer. Through much of the next two years they dated on and off, spending much time discussing everything from writing and philosophy to religion, reincarnation and much else. In an effort to improve her memory and writing, Novalyne began recording all her daily conversations into a journal, in the process preserving an intimate record of her time with Howard. Novalyne P. Ellis Novalyne Price Ellis (born Novalyne Price) (March 9, 1908 - March 30, 1999) was a Texas-born schoolteacher who became close friends with and occasionally dated famed pulp fiction writer, Robert E. Howard. ...


Their relationship was a series of on-again, off-again encounters, with one falling in love while the other one stepped back. When Novalyne began dating other people behind Howard’s back (notably Howard’s close friend Truett Vinson), their friendship was irrevocably scarred, but they continued visiting with each other until May 1936, when Novalyne left Cross Plains for LSU to get a graduate degree. Cross Plains is a town located in Callahan County, Texas. ... Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, or simply Louisiana State University or LSU is a public university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ...


Western Writing

In the years since Conan had been created, Howard found himself increasingly fascinated with the history and lore of Texas and the American Southwest. Many of his letters to H. P. Lovecraft ran for a dozen pages or more, filled with stories he had picked up from elderly Civil War vets, Texas Rangers, and pioneers. His Conan stories began featuring western elements, most notably in “Beyond the Black River,” “The Black Stranger,” and the unfinished “Wolves Beyond the Border.” By 1934 some of the markets killed off by the Depression had come back, and Weird Tales was over $1500 behind on payments to Howard. The author therefore stopped writing weird fiction and turned his attentions to this steadily growing passion. History is the study of human affairs through time. ... Look up lore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... Texas Rangers American League AAA Oklahoma RedHawks AA Frisco RoughRiders A Bakersfield Blaze Clinton LumberKings Spokane Indians R Arizona Rangers The Texas Rangers are a Major League Baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, a suburb in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... A pioneer is someone who is first at doing something, or someone who is among a group of such people. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... Beyond the Black River is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard about Conan the Cimmerian, first published in Weird Tales in 1935. ... The Black Stranger is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard about Conan the Cimmerian, written in the 1930s but not published in his lifetime. ... Wolves Beyond the Border is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard about Conan the Cimmerian, a fragment begun in the 1930s but not finished or published in Howards lifetime. ... The Great Depression an economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ...


Howard began appearing once again in Action Stories (which the Depression had killed off a few years earlier, but which had now started republishing) in March 1934, this time using a new humorous character in the place of Sailor Steve Costigan, a nineteenth-century hillbilly woodsman named Breckinridge Elkins. Written as tall tales in the vein of Paul Bunyan and Bret Harte, the series became immensely popular in the magazine, which published a new Breck story every month without fail until well after Howard’s death. Sailor Steve Costigan is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Hillbilly is a term referring to people who dwell in remote, rural, mountainous areas. ... Paul and Babe in Bemidji, Minnesota Paul Bunyan is a mythical lumberjack in tall tales, whose origin originates either with an American newspaperman or with French Canadians. ... Francis Bret Harte (August 25, 1836–May 6, 1902) was an American author and poet, best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California. ...


Other magazines asked Howard for similar characters, and soon the author had three different western series in play, as well as penning other more serious westerns for other pulps. By 1936 almost all of his fiction writing was being devoted to westerns, a book of Breck stories titled A Gent from Bear Creek was due to be published by Herbert Jenkins in England, and by all accounts it looked as if Howard was finally breaking out of the pulps and into the more prestigious book market. Herbert T. Jenkins (d. ...


Death

But throughout all of this time, Howard continued to be dogged by fits of increasingly unbearable melancholy and depression, and he maintained his belief in the validity of suicide as an escape from the nightmarish pain. All of his close friends had become married and were immersed in their careers, Novalyne Price had left Cross Plains for graduate school, and his most reliable market, Weird Tales, had grown far behind on payments. Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... Novalyne P. Ellis Novalyne Price Ellis (born Novalyne Price) (March 9, 1908 - March 30, 1999) was a Texas-born schoolteacher who became close friends with and occasionally dated famed pulp fiction writer, Robert E. Howard. ...


Most importantly, his home life was falling apart — after decades of struggle, his mother was finally nearing death, and the constant interruptions of care workers at home combined with frequent trips to various sanatoriums for her care made it nearly impossible to write. Several times in 1935 – 36, whenever his mother’ health precipitously threatened to give out, he made veiled allusions to his father about planning suicide, something both parents made efforts to talk him out of. In June 1936, as Hester Howard slipped into her final coma, her son maintained a death vigil with his father and friends of the family, getting little sleep, drinking huge amounts of coffee, and growing more despondent — perhaps, given his exhaustion, deliriously so.


On the morning of June 11, 1936, told by a nurse that his mother would never again regain consciousness, he walked out to his car in the driveway, took a borrowed .38 automatic from the glove box, and shot himself in the head. His father and another doctor rushed out, but the wound was too grievous for anything to be done. Howard lived for another eight hours, dying at 4 p.m.; his mother died the following day. They were both buried on June 14, 1936 in a double funeral in Greenleaf Cemetery in Brownwood, Texas. A semi-automatic firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired, unlike a single-action revolver, a pump-action firearm, a bolt-action firearm, or a lever-action firearm, which require the shooter to manually chamber each successive round. ... Brownwood is a city located in Brown County, Texas. ...


Howard’s death sent shockwaves of grief through the weird fiction community, vividly documented in the pulps and fanzines of the era, and marked the beginning of the end of the magazine’s Golden Age. H. P. Lovecraft was severely affected by the death of his friend, and within a year would die himself of intestinal cancer. Clark Ashton Smith (the third member of the great triumvirate of Weird Tales ), was stricken by the deaths of Howard and Lovecraft as well as those of his own parents, and soon stopped writing fiction himself, fading from the scene. The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Clark Ashton Smith (January 13, 1893-August 14, 1961) was a poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ...


Writing

Howard wrote stories in many genres, but his most famous were sword and sorcery, a genre of fantasy based on war, fighting and magic. Indeed, many consider him the father of the genre in the same way that J.R.R. Tolkien is considered the father of epic fantasy. Howard created one of the most popular of all fantasy characters in the barbarian warrior Conan, whom he based on a Celtic warrior, drawing inspiration from his own Scottish Gaelic descent. Conan first appeared in December 1932. To add realism and depth to his new character, Howard developed the fictional Hyborian Age. His other characters include the Atlantean King Kull, the Puritan adventurer Solomon Kane, the Pict Bran Mak Morn, drawn from the pre-Celtic people that inhabited Scotland till the early medieval period, and the female warriors Dark Agnes de la Fere and Red Sonya of Rogatino, the latter the prototype for the better known Red Sonja of Marvel Comics fame. Another barbarian hero, an Irishman named Cormac Mac Art, was descended from Kull and had a Dane friend called Wulfhere the Skull-Splitter. This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Fantasy literature is fantasy in written form. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... // Barbarian is a perjorative term for an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behaviour is unacceptable in the purportedly civilized... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... A Celtic cross. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... An illustration of The Hyborian Age primarily based upon a map hand-drawn by Robert E. Howard in March 1932. ... Atlantis (Greek: , Island of Atlas) is the name of an island first mentioned and described by the classical Greek philosopher Plato. ... Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject. ... Solomon Kane is a fictional character created by the pulp-era writer Robert E. Howard. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Bran Mak Morn is a hero of several pulp fiction short stories by Robert E. Howard. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... Red Sonja as drawn by Esteban Maroto and Neal Adams for her first solo story in The Savage Sword of Conan #1. ... Red Sonja as drawn by Esteban Maroto and Neal Adams for her first solo story in The Savage Sword of Conan #1. ... Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Entertainment, Inc. ... The Irish are a northwest European ethnic group who originated in Ireland. ... A complete edition of Kulls stories from 1995 Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ...


Another field in which Howard was successful was supernatural horror, where he influenced and was in turn influenced by his peer and correspondent H. P. Lovecraft, adding his own trademarks of quickly paced action and strong characterization. His original creations, like the forbidden tome Nameless Cults by Friedrich von Junzt, are now considered to be integral parts of the Cthulhu Mythos. Howard and Lovecraft shared a love of the same "weird" writers, chief among them Ambrose Bierce and Arthur Machen, the latter being very important to both authors in the construction of their Cthulhu Mythos tales. Howard's true source of inspiration came from folklore and tall tales that he absorbed from various storytellers at an early age. Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Unaussprechlichen Kulten (the name was supposed to mean nameless cults in German, but really translates as unspeakable/unutterable cults) is a fictitious book, said to be written by Friedrich von Junzt. ... The following fictitious biographies showcase the most important characters in the Cthulhu Mythos. ... Cthulhu Mythos is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated writers. ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842–1914?) was an American satirist, critic, social commentator, poet, short story writer, editor, and journalist. ... Arthur Machen (March 3, 1863 – December 15th, 1947) was a leading Welsh-born author of the 1890s. ...


Howard also wrote in other genres:

  • Fantasy/horror based in the American South and South-West. For example, "Pigeons from Hell", and other stories featuring sheriff Kirby Buckner.
  • Historical fiction. For example, his story "Gates of Empire" involves a fictional character in the struggles between Shirkuh, Shawar, and Amalric for the control of Egypt, the story culminating in one of Saladin's famous early battles in the spring of 1167 AD. His El Borak stories concern a former Texas gunfighter now adventuring in the Middle East during World War I.
  • Boxing stories. Especially the tales of Sailor Steve Costigan (sometimes known as Sailor Dennis Dorgan).
  • Westerns. Especially the humorous yarns featuring Breckinridge Elkins.
  • Howard also wrote a John Carter-esque science fantasy story called "Almuric", detailing the struggles of a boxer from Earth being teleported through space and time to the far-off world of Almuric, where the people are barbaric and savage and the women goddesslike in their beauty.

Howard envisioned almost all of his sword-and-sorcery stories to take place in the same literary "universe", starting with the prehistoric adventures of James Allison's pre-incarnations, evolving in the Valusian saga of Kull, then moving forward to the times of Atlantis and Lemuria (from where Kathulos/Skull Face comes), onward to the Hyborian Age of Conan and then to known history. Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, where the time the action takes place in predates the time of the first publication -- distinguish and contrast the genre of alternate history. ... Asad ad-Din Shirkuh bin Shadhi (also Shirguh or Sherko) (died 1169) was an important Muslim military commander, and uncle of Saladin. ... Amalric I (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. ... Artistic representation of Saladin (1137 - March 4, 1193), Kurdish: Selahedîn Ayûbî; ; Saladin or Salah el Din, (Arabic: صلاح الدين الأيوبي, Kurdish: صلاح الدین ایوبی) (c. ... Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz Boxing, also called Western Boxing, pugilism, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with... Sailor Steve Costigan is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... John Carter may refer to: John Carter, Tennessee statesman and Chairman of the Watauga Petition. ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ... Valusia is a fictional country in the Kull stories of Robert E. Howard. ... A complete edition of Kulls stories from 1995 Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Atlantis (Greek: , Island of Atlas) is the name of an island first mentioned and described by the classical Greek philosopher Plato. ... In Roman religion Lemuria is the Feast of the Lemures, during which the unwholesome and malevolent spectres of the restless dead (lemures) were propitiated. ... An illustration of The Hyborian Age primarily based upon a map hand-drawn by Robert E. Howard in March 1932. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ...


Howard engineered his tales so that a great cataclysm always came to seal and divide each era from the next one, so each civilization was barely conscious of the ones that came before, and even then only in myths and legends (for example, Allison's slaying of the "Great Worm" provided us with the myths of Siegfried and Beowulf). The cataclysm is the Greek expression for the Biblical Great Flood of Noah, from the Greek kataklysmos, to wash down. ... Siegfried could refer to: The opera by Richard Wagner; see Siegfried (opera). ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ...


In one of the most memorable Howardian tales ever ("Kings of the Night"), a cross-over between different sagas is presented as the Pictish chieftain Bran Mak Morn magically conjures Kull the Valusian from his time to aid him in battle against the Romans and their allies. Bran Mak Morn is a hero of several pulp fiction short stories by Robert E. Howard. ... A complete edition of Kulls stories from 1995 Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Valusia is a fictional country in the Kull stories of Robert E. Howard. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Contemporary readers may take issue with what could be seen as a distinctly anti-modernist and racialist (or even racist) worldview in much of Howard's ideology and literature: Development criticism refers to far-reaching criticisms of modernization and its central aspects: modern technology, industrialization, capitalism and economic globalization. ... Racialism is an emphasis on race or racial considerations[1]. Sometimes racialism refers merely to the somewhat less controversial belief in the existence and significance of racial categories. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

The ancient empires fall, the dark-skinned peoples fade and even the demons of antiquity gasp their last, but over all stands the Aryan barbarian, white-skinned, cold-eyed, dominant, the supreme fighting man of the earth.[14]

Howard's prose is straightforward, colorful, and exciting more than subtle and literary, and it attempts to entertain rather than instruct, but it is not without sophistication. Howard tells of worlds where violence is usually the best solution to problems, and where gold, jewels, and beautiful women are often the hero's reward; yet, distancing himself from his inferior imitators, Howard's works have a shade of macabre, even malignant humour in contrasting his square-jawed heroes' efforts with their ultimate futility in the greater picture of things. And yet, as true Nietzschean heroes, they accept their toil of suffering, bloodshed, passion, and pain without even lamenting or complaining about it, thus achieving ultimate freedom from it. In the television series Andromeda, the Nietzscheans are a race of genetically engineered humans who quite religiously follow the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Social Darwinism and Dawkinite genetic competitiveness. ...

Although he had his faults as a writer, Howard was a natural storyteller, whose narratives are unmatched for vivid, gripping, headlong action. His heroes...are larger than life: men of mighty thews, hot passions, and indomitable will, who easily dominate the stories through which they stride. In fiction, the difference between a writer who is a natural storyteller and one who is not is like the difference between a boat that will float and one that will not. If the writer has this quality, we can forgive many other faults; if not, no other virtue can make up for the lack, any more than gleaming paint and sparkling brass on a boat make up for the fact that it will not float. -- L. Sprague de Camp

L. Sprague de Camp from the cover of Time and Chance: an Autobiography, Donald M. Grant, 1996 Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907, New York City – November 6, 2000, Plano, Texas) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ...

Legacy

In the decades following Howard’s death, he often suffered at the hands of genre critics disdainful of Sword-and-Sorcery, such as Damon Knight, but nevertheless his fame has grown exponentially, fuelled largely by the character of Conan. Arkham House, a revered fantasy publisher started by Weird Tales regulars August Derleth and Donald Wandrei, started the trend by publishing Skull-Face and Others (1946), one of only four deluxe omnibus volumes in the company’s history. Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Donald Wandrei (1908 - 1987) was an American science fiction, fantasy and weird fiction writer, poet and editor. ...


Glenn Lord

In the 1950s, a young fan named Glenn Lord began methodically scouring the country for hundreds of lost Howard stories and poems, and as he found them began doing what he could to publish and popularize them. Arkham House printed Lord’s book of Howard’s poetry Always Comes Evening, and from 1961 – 1973 Lord published a journal called The Howard Collector that today fetches high prices and is much revered by fans and scholars. In the early sixties, Lord became agent for the Howard heirs, and used his incredible collection of original Howard typescripts to help publishers expose readers to a mountain of unknown Howardiana, bringing much of it into print for the first time.


L. Sprague de Camp and the Howard Boom

Also in the fifties the prominent science-fiction and fantasy writer L. Sprague de Camp, who had become a fan of Howard on reading the Gnome Press edition of Conan the Conqueror (The Hour of the Dragon) was commissioned to edit a few Conan tales for publication in the Gnome Press series. He subsequently converted unpublished non-Conan stories by Howard into Conans and edited the first outright Conan pastiche, by Swedish Howard fan Björn Nyberg. L. Sprague de Camp from the cover of Time and Chance: an Autobiography, Donald M. Grant, 1996 Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907, New York City – November 6, 2000, Plano, Texas) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Gnome Press was a US small-press publishing company primarily known for being the first to publish Isaac Asimovs Foundation Trilogy, and for bringing Robert E. Howards Conan the Barbarian stories back from pulp obscurity. ... The Hour of the Dragon is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard and his only full length novel about Conan the Cimmerian. ... The Return of Conan by Björn Nyberg and L. Sprague de Camp, Gnome Press, 1957 Björn Emil Oscar Nyberg, born September 11, 1929, is an Swedish fantasy author best known for his additions to the series of Conan stories begun by Robert E. Howard. ...


In 1966, de Camp made a deal with struggling Lancer Books to publish the existing Howard and non-Howard Conan corpus in paperback, along with additional material contributed by himself and his colleague and collaborator Lin Carter. Together they completed recently discovered Conan fragments by Howard wrote several pastiches to fill out the picture of Conan's career. The Lancer Conan series became a publishing phenomenon, selling millions of copies and spawning a host of imitators. Sporting a set of now-classic covers painted by Frank Frazetta, the success of the Lancers created a decade-long "Howard boom" in the 1970s which saw not only the birth of popular Conan comics (Conan the Barbarian, The Savage Sword of Conan, et al.) and movies (Conan the Barbarian, which made Arnold Schwarzenegger a star), but also the reprinting of virtually every word Howard ever wrote in a bewildering variety of hardcovers, paperbacks, chapbooks, and fanzines. Lancer Books was an American publisher of paperback books, most noted for its fantasy titles published in the 1960s, particularly its Conan the Barbarian series, which marked the first appearance of all Robert E. Howards stories about his sword and sorcery hero in paperback. ... Linwood Vrooman Carter (June 9, 1930 - February 7, 1988) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy, as well as an editor and critic. ... Frank Frazetta (born February 9, 1928) is one of the worlds most influential fantasy and science fiction artists. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... Conan is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard in the 1930s. ... Conan The Barbarian is a 1982 film by director John Milius and is recognized as the acting breakthrough of bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born on July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ...


During this same period de Camp popularized Conan, Howard, and fantasy in general in a number of books (The Spell of Conan, The Blade of Conan, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers, et al.) and magazines such as Amra, culminating in his writing of the first full biography of the Texan, Dark Valley Destiny: the Life of Robert E. Howard (1983). His success in making Howard a subject of serious scholarship led to the erosion of his own reputation, as fans who had been happy to see anything by or about Howard began to give way to Howard "purists." As a result de Camp has become a divisive figure in Howard studies, with proponents praising his decades of service to the Howardian cause and detractors accusing him of promoting his own interests on the back of Howard's work and denigrating what they consider his infelicities with the facts and lore surrounding Howard’s life and writings. The Spell of Conan edited by L. Sprague de Camp, Ace Books, 1980 The Spell of Conan is a 1980 collection of essays, poems and fiction edited by L. Sprague de Camp, published in paperback by Ace Books. ... The Blade of Conan edited by L. Sprague de Camp, Ace Books, 1979 The Blade of Conan is a 1979 collection of essays edited by L. Sprague de Camp, published in paperback by Ace Books. ... Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers by L. Sprague de Camp, Arkham House, 1976 Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: the Makers of Heroic Fantasy is a 1976 work of collective biography on the formative authors of the heroic fantasy genre by L. Sprague de Camp, published by Arkham House. ...


Critical appreciation

Early appreciation for Howard's work came more from fellow writers than from critics. In his book Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, de Camp describes an interview with J. R. R. Tolkien in which he "indicated that he rather liked Howard's Conan stories." John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer and university professor who is best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ...


The 1980s saw critical respect begin to come to Howard, in the form of The Dark Barbarian (1984), edited by noted critic Don Herron, who earlier had penned a seminal essay, “Conan vs. Conantics”, which took de Camp to task for what he regarded as the pollution of Howard’s reputation with substandard stories by himself and Lin Carter. The Dark Barbarian was the first critical volume on Howard to appear by an academic press, and has since been followed by a 2004 sequel titled The Barbaric Triumph. Linwood Vrooman Carter (June 9, 1930 - February 7, 1988) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy, as well as an editor and critic. ...


In 1987, Robert E. Howard, by Marc Cerasini and Charles Hoffman, was published. Mr. Hoffman was the author of the seminal essay, "Conan the Existentialist," published in the 1970s in the Journal of Popular Culture. Robert E. Howard was the first book-length critical study of the author's entire literary output. Now out of print, a revised and updated version of this groundbreaking work will be released in 2007.


Another academic press, Bison Books (University of Nebraska), has recently released five hardcover volumes of Howard’s work featuring introductions and textual restoration by Howard scholars. University of Nebraska Press has been a publisher of exemplary scholarly and popular books for more than sixty years, and is a member of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln community. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical...


A host of journals and magazines have also contained much criticism. In 1972 The Robert E. Howard United Press Association (REHupa) was born, and for thirty years its members have contributed new scholarship in the field. In recent years Howard’s stories have been meticulously restored and republished by various editors and presses such as Wandering Star, and a journal called The Cimmerian has become the first paying market for Howard criticism, publishing twenty issues in three years. A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...


Novalyne Price Ellis

Fifty years after Howard’s death, a now-retired Novalyne Price Ellis, upset by Howard's portrayal in de Camp’s Dark Valley Destiny, wrote One Who Walked Alone (1986) to counteract its influence. Ten years later, the book was made into a critically acclaimed film called The Whole Wide World, starring Rene Zellweger and Vincent D'Onofrio. Novalyne P. Ellis Novalyne Price Ellis (born Novalyne Price) (March 9, 1908 - March 30, 1999) was a Texas-born schoolteacher who became close friends with and occasionally dated famed pulp fiction writer, Robert E. Howard. ... The Whole Wide World is a 1996 film depicting the relationship between pulp fiction writer Robert E. Howard (played by Vincent DOnofrio) and schoolteacher Novalyne Price Ellis (played by Renée Zellweger). ... Renée Zellweger Renée Kathleen Zellweger (born April 25, 1969 in Katy, Texas) is an Academy Award-winning movie actress. ... Vincent Phillip DOnofrio (born June 30, 1959) is an American actor and producer. ...


Howard Days

Howard's hometown of Cross Plains, Texas, has restored his home and converted it into a museum that has been added to the National Register of Historic Places. Cross Plains celebrates Robert E. Howard Days annually on the second weekend in June, hosted by a local civic organization known as Project Pride. This mini-convention attracts over a hundred fans yearly; events include tours of Howard's home and special postal cancellations, and the Cross Plains Library displays a selection of original Howard manuscripts. Cross Plains is a town located in Callahan County, Texas. ... The National Register of Historic Places is the USAs official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. ...


2006 World Fantasy Convention

The theme of the 2006 World Fantasy Convention in Austin, Texas was celebrating the centennial of Howard's birth. Two books published to correspond with the convention were Cross Plains Universe: Texans Celebrate Robert E. Howard, edited by Joe R. Lansdale and Scott A. Cupp, and Blood and Thunder: The Life of Robert E. Howard by Mark Finn. The World Fantasy Convention is an annual gathering of professionals, collectors, and others interested in the field of fantasy. ... Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas County Travis County Mayor Will Wynn Area    - City 669. ... A centennial is a 100-year anniversary of an event, or the celebrations pertaining thereto. ... Joe R. Lansdale is an author from Texas. ... Mark Finn (born October 1969 in Abilene, Texas) is the pseudonym of Mark Farr-Nash, a science fiction and fantasy writer, essayist, and playwright. ...


In popular culture

  • Four movies have been based on Howard's works: Conan the Barbarian, Conan the Destroyer, Red Sonja, and Kull the Conqueror.
  • Several further movies are in development: Conan: Red Nails, an animated version of "Red Nails" (which appears to have run into funding difficulties); a revisioning of Conan the Babarian written by Boaz Yakin; Solomon Kane, written & directed by Michael J. Bassett; and Vultures, based on the novella The Vultures of Wahpeton.
  • In 2003, a short film adaptation of Howard's short story "Casonetto's Last Song", directed by Brenda Dau and Derek M. Koch, was featured as an official selection of the H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival.
  • Howard's story "Pigeons from Hell", along with some imagery of Ambrose Bierce, seems to have inspired the horror film Dead Pigeons, starring Henry Thomas.
  • The metal band Bal-Sagoth is named after Howard's story "The Gods of Bal-Sagoth."

Conan The Barbarian is a 1982 film by director John Milius and is recognized as the acting breakthrough of bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger. ... Conan the Destroyer, directed by action/fantasy veteran Richard Fleischer (20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, The Vikings) as a sequel to Conan The Barbarian, was released worldwide in 1984. ... Red Sonja as drawn by Esteban Maroto and Neal Adams for her first solo story in The Savage Sword of Conan #1. ... Kull of Atlantis or Kull the Conqueror is a fictional character created by Robert E. Howard. ... Red Nails is one of the original stories by Robert E. Howard about Conan the Cimmerian, first published in Weird Tales in 1936. ... A writer and film director with a gift for dealing with controversial issues on personal, human terms, Boaz Yakin was born in New York City in 1966. ... Michael J. Bassett is a British born screenwriter and director. ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842–1914?) was an American satirist, critic, social commentator, poet, short story writer, editor, and journalist. ... Henry Thomas Henry Jackson Thomas was born September 9, 1971 in San Antonio, Texas, USA, the son of a hydraulics mechanic. ... Bal-Sagoth are a battle metal band from Yorkshire, England. ...

References

Sources

Blosser, Fred (1997). "The Star Rover and 'The People of the Night'". The Dark Man #4: 16-18.


Clareson, Thomas D. (1990). Understanding Contemporary American Science Fiction. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0872498700.


Clute, John and Grant, John, ed. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312198698.


Grin, Leo (January 2006). "Birth and Death". The Cimmerian V3n1: 13-18. ISSN 1548-3398.


Grin, Leo (2004). "The Reign of Blood". The Barbaric Triumph, (Don Herron, ed.) 141-160, Wildside Press. ISBN 0-8095-1566-0.


Herron, Don, ed. (2004). The Barbaric Triumph. Wildside Press. ISBN 0-8095-1566-0.


Herron, Don, ed. (1984). The Dark Barbarian. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-23281-4.


Herman, Paul. Howardworks. Retrieved on 2006-09-13. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ...


Joshi, S. T. and Dziemianowicz, Stefan, ed. (2005). Supernatural Literature of the World: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313327742.


Knight, George (2004). "Lands of Dreams and Nightmares". The Barbaric Triumph, (Don Herron, ed.) 129-140, Wildside Press. ISBN 0-8095-1566-0.


Tompkins, Steve (2002). "". The Black Stranger typescript, cover flap essay, Wandering Star.


Tompkins, Steve (June 2005). "letter in The Lion's Den". The Cimmerian V2n3: 37-38. ISSN 1548-3398.


Westfahl, Gary, ed. (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Press. ISBN 40313329508.

Notes

  1. ^ Grin (January 2006) contains facsimile reproductions of both Howard's birth certificate and death record.
  2. ^ Grin (2004) p. 141
  3. ^ Herron (1984). p. xvi
  4. ^ Herron (1984). p. 149: "Robert E. Howard of Cross Plains, Texas, created one of the great mythic figures in modern popular culture, the Dark Barbarian... [which] put Howard in the select ranks of the literary legend-makers: Ned Buntline, Alexandre Dumas, père, Mary Shelley, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Bram Stoker, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Dashiell Hammett, H. P. Lovecraft, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Ian Fleming."
  5. ^ Joshi and Dziemianowicz (2005) (entry written by Don Herron) Vol. 3, p. 1095: "Critical consensus, however, unfailingly places the birth of sword-and-sorcery with the publication of 'The Shadow Kingdom' (August 1929), in which Howard introduced the brooding figure of King Kull, ruling over the fading land of Valusia in a Pre-Cataclysmic Age when Atlantis is but newly risen from the waves."
  6. ^ Westfahl (2005) (entry written by Charles Gramlich) Vol. 3, p. 780: "The term 'sword and sorcery' was coined by Fritz Leiber but the genre was pioneered by Robert E. Howard, a Texas pulp writer who combined fantasy, history, horror, and the Gothic to create the Hyborian Age and such characters as Conan the Conqueror and Kull."
  7. ^ Tompkins (June 2005). p. 38: "True, the era during which drugstore racks were a Muscle Beach of Kandars, Kothars, Thongors, Wandors, Odans, and Orons is long gone, but is S&S in trouble?" Tompkins then presents a series of quotes from modern fantasy writers who claim a strong Howardian influence, including David Gemmell, Matthew Woodring Stover, Charles R. Saunders, Karl Edward Wagner, Paul Kearney, Steven Erikson and William King.
  8. ^ Clute and Grant (1999). p.483: "[REH] remains of central interest in the field of fantasy for his sword and sorcery; the templates he established for that mode have remained influential for most of the 20th century."; p. 39: "The combined success of Howard's Conan books and J.R.R. Tolkien's LotR in paperback had resulted in unprecedented interest in heroic and high fantasy."
  9. ^ Clareson (1990). p. 14: "Between 1932 and 1936 Weird Tales also provided Robert E. Howard an outlet where he could create the Hyborian world of Conan the Barbarian, thereby begetting the "Sword-and-Sorcery" motif which not only dominates much of contemporary heroic fantasy but has remained a principal ingredient of science fiction itself."
  10. ^ See Herman (2006) for a comprehensive listing of past and present Howard volumes.
  11. ^ Tompkins (2002) cover flap: essay discusses the influence of The Scarlet Letter on Howard's "The Black Stranger" and touches on many similarities of style, characters, and tone.
  12. ^ Knight (2004) p. 129: "In his portrayal of the natural world Robert E. Howard follows in the illustrious footsteps of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Mark Twain. He designed a thematically resonant geography over the course of his career, worlds worthy of scarlet letters and white whales and great dark rivers — mythic talismans glittering under a velvet night sky. At his best, Howard transforms nature into a brilliant illuminating dreamscape deserving of a place among the great mise en scenes of classic American literature."
  13. ^ Blosser (1997). p. 16: "'The Children of the Night' and 'People of the Dark' also display the influence of another author whose robust, adventurous personality forms a striking contrast to the introverted, reclusive personae of Lovecraft and Machen. This progenitor was Jack London." The article goes on to describe how REH "skillfully blended the very elements of primitive action and supernatural horror" that London also specialized in. Also see Grin (2004) pp. 144-146.
  14. ^ Howard, Robert E. (1932). Wings in the Night. Weird Tales.

Ned Buntline (March 20, 1823 - 1886), was the pseudonym of Edward Zane Carroll Judson (E.Z.C.) Judson, was a American publisher, journalist writer and publicist best known for his dime novels and the Colt Buntline Special he commisioned from Colts Manufacturing Company. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) is the British author most famously known for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847–April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer and university professor who is best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Ian Fleming Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was an English author and journalist, best remembered for writing the James Bond series of novels as well as the childrens story, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Gemmel be merged into this article or section. ... Matthew Woodring Stover is a fiction author best known for his three Star Wars novels, including the novelization of the third film in the series, Revenge of the Sith, as well as his fantasy novels Iron Dawn and Jericho Moon, and his science-fiction Caine novels, Heroes Die and Blade... Charles R. Saunders also credited as Charles Saunders (born 1946[1]) is an African American author and journalist currently living in Canada. ... Karl Edward Wagner (4 December 1945 – 13 October 1994) was an American writer, editor and publisher of horror, science fiction, and heroic fantasy, who was born in Knoxville, Tennessee and originally trained as a psychiatrist. ... Paul Kearney is a fantasy author. ... Steven Erikson (born October 7, 1959) is a pseudonym of Steve Rune Lundin, Canadian archaeologist, anthropologist and author. ... William King (b. ... The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English academic J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... Salem Custom House The Scarlet Letter, published in 1850, is an American romance novel written by Nathaniel Hawthorne; generally considered to be his masterpiece. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Arthur Machen (March 3, 1863 – December 15th, 1947) was a leading Welsh-born author of the 1890s. ...

External links

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Biography

The Handbook of Texas (ISBN 0-87611-151-7) is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published jointly by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) and the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin. ...

Bibliography

Scholarly Sources

Online Texts

Conan

See Also


 
 

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