FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert Curthose
Robert Curthose's monument at Gloucester Cathedral
Robert Curthose's monument at Gloucester Cathedral
English Royalty
House of Normandy

William I
Children
   Robert Curthose
   William Rufus
   Adela of Blois
   Henry Beauclerc
William II
Henry I
Children
   Empress Matilda
   William Adelin
   Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
Stephen
Children
   Eustace IV of Boulogne
   William of Blois
   Marie of Boulogne

Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. 1054February 10, 1134) was a Duke of Normandy. He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of England, and a participant in the First Crusade. His reign as Duke is noted for the discord with his brothers in England, eventually leading to the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB)Monument to Robert Curthose at Gloucestershire Cathedral. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB)Monument to Robert Curthose at Gloucestershire Cathedral. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ... Image File history File links This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... William of Normandy (French: Guillaume de Normandie; 1028?–September 9, 1087) ruled as the Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ... Adela of Blois (c. ... Henry I of England (c. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ... Henry I of England (c. ... Empress Maud (1102 – September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda – daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. ... William Adelin (1103 – November 25, 1120) was the only legitimate son of Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland. ... Robert of Gloucester also frequently refers to the historian Robert_of_Gloucester Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (~1090 - October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the English Anarchy period. ... Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... Eustace IV (c. ... William of Blois (c. ... Marie of Boulogne was the Countess of Boulogne from 1159 to 1170. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... The Duke of Normandy is a title held (or claimed) by various Norman, English, French and British rulers from the 10th century. ... William of Normandy (French: Guillaume de Normandie; 1028?–September 9, 1087) ruled as the Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Flag of Normandy Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ...


His nickname, Curthose, seems to have been a reference to his height; William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis report that Robert's father, King William, called him brevis-ocrea (short-boot) in derision. William of Malmesbury (c. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


His birthdate is usually given as 1054, but may have been in 1051. As a child he was betrothed to Margaret, the heiress of Maine, but she died before they could be wed, and Robert didn't marry until his late forties. In his youth, he was reported to be courageous and skillful in military exercises. He was, however, also prone to a laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William. He was unsatisfied with the share of power alloted to him, and quarreled with his father and brothers fiercely.


In 1077, he instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had dumped fetid water on him. Robert was enraged, and urged on by his companions, started a brawl with his brothers that was only interrupted by the incession of their father. Feeling that his dignity was wounded, Robert was further angered when King William failed to punish his brothers. The next day Robert and his followers attempted to seize the castle of Rouen. The siege failed, but when King William ordered their arrest, Robert and his companions took refuge with Hugh of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. They were forced to flee again when King William attacked their base at Rémalard. Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ... Henry I of England (c. ... Location within France Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


Robert fled to his uncle's court in Flanders before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son. Relations were not helped when King William discovered that Robert's mother, Queen Matilda, was secretly sending her son money. At a battle in January 1079 Robert unhorsed King William in combat and succeeded in wounding him, stopping his attack only when he recognized his father's voice. Humiliated, King William cursed his son, then raised the siege and returned to Rouen. The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin (Vexin normand) and the French Vexin (Vexin français). ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ...


At Easter 1080 father and son were reunited by the efforts of Queen Matilda, and a truce lasted until 1083. Robert seems to have left court soon after the death of his mother, Queen Matilda, and spent several years traveling throughout France, Germany and Flanders. He visited Italy seeking the hand of the great heiress Matilda of Tuscany (b. 1046), but was unsuccessful. Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ... // Events First contact between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks. ...


During this period as a wandering knight, Robert sired several illegitimate children. His illegitimate son, Richard, seems to have spent much of his life at the royal court of his uncle, William Rufus. Like his namesake uncle, this Richard was killed in a hunting accident in the New Forest in 1099. An illegitimate daughter was later married to Helias of Saint-Saens. William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... Bucklers Hard on the Beaulieu River For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for--among other things--independent contractors. ...


In 1087, the Conqueror died of wounds suffered during a riding accident during a siege of Rouen. At his death, he reportedly wanted to disinherit his eldest son, but was persuaded to divide the Norman dominions between his two eldest sons. To Robert, he granted the Duchy of Normandy and to William Rufus he granted the Kingdom of England. The youngest son Henry was given money to buy land. Of the two elder sons, Robert was considered to be much the weaker and was generally preferred by the nobles who held lands on both sides of the English Channel, since they could more easily circumvent his authority. At the time of their father's death, the two brothers made an agreement to be each other's heir. However, this peace lasted less than a year when barons joined with Robert to displace Rufus in the Rebellion of 1088. It was not a success, in part because Robert never showed up to support the English rebels. Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche, IPA: , the sleeve), also for some time known in England as the British Sea, is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the... The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in England and Normandy between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. ...


Robert took as his close advisor Ranulf Flambard, who had been previously a close advisor to his father. Flambard later became an astute but much-disliked financial advisor to William Rufus until the latter's death 1100. Ranulf Flambard, or Ralph (died September 5, 1128) was Bishop of Durham and a government minister of William Rufus. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ...


In 1096, Robert left for the Holy Land on the First Crusade. At the time of his departure he was reportedly so poor that he often had to stay in bed for lack of clothes. In order to raise money for the crusade, he mortaged his duchy to his brother William for the sum of 10,000 marks. Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ...


Robert had agreed with William II to name each other the Heir Presumptive of England and Normandy respectively. When William II died on August 2, 1100, Robert should have inherited the throne of England. But he was on his return journey from the Crusade, marrying a wealthy young bride to raise funds to buy back his duchy. His dilatoriness in returning from the First Crusade, coupled with luck (or murder) on Henry's part, allowed the youngest brother Henry to seize the crown of England for himself. An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ...


Upon his return, Robert, urged by Flambard and several Anglo-Norman barons, led an invasion of England to retake the crown from his brother Henry. In 1101, Robert landed at Portsmouth with his army, but his lack of popular support among the English as well as Robert's own mishandling of the invasion tactics enabled Henry to resist the invasion. Robert was forced by diplomacy to renounce his claim to the English throne in the Treaty of Alton. It is said that Robert was a brilliant field commander, but a terrible general in the First Crusade. His government (or misgovernment) of Normandy as well as his failed invasion of England proves that his military skills were better than his political skills. Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... View over Portsmouth from Portsdown Hill. ... The Treaty of Alton was an agreement signed in 1101 between Henry I of England and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agreed to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions. ...


In 1105, however, Robert's continual stirring of discord with his brother in England, as well as civil disorder in Normandy itself, prompted Henry to invade Normandy. Orderic reports on an incident at Easter 1105, when Robert was supposed to hear a sermon by the venerable Serlo, Bishop of Sées. Robert spent the night before sporting with harlots and jesters, and while he lay in bed, sleeping off his drunkenness, his unworthy friends stole his clothes. He awoke to find himself naked, and had to remain in bed and missed the sermon. Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ...


In 1106, Henry defeated Robert's army decisively at the Battle of Tinchebray and claimed Normandy as a possession of the English crown, a situation that endured for almost a century. Captured after the battle, Robert was imprisoned in Devizes castle for 20 years, before being moved to Cardiff. Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... The battle of Tinchebray (or Tinchebrai) was fought September 28, 1106, in the town of Tinchebray, Normandy, between an invading force led by Henry I of England, and his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. ... Arms of Devizes Devizes is a town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire. ... The Norman Keep, Cardiff Castle. ...


In 1134, he died while imprisoned in Cardiff Castle in his early eighties. Robert Curthose, sometime Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror, was buried in the abbey church of St. Peter in Gloucester, where an elaborate sepulchre was later built. The church subsequently has become Gloucester Cathedral. Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... The Norman keep Burgess summer smoking room Cardiff Castle in Wales was founded by the Normans in 1091, on the site of a Roman fort whose remains can still be seen. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in south-west England, close to the Welsh border. ... A sepulchre (also spelled sepulcher) is a burial chamber. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ...


The name 'Curthose' can still be seen today, in France as Courtoise and in Britain as Curthoys. The Curthoys name is thought to originate from Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror. ...


Family

Robert married Sybilla, daughter of Geoffrey of Brindisi, Count of Conversano (and a grandniece of Robert Guiscard) on the way back from Crusade. Their son, William Clito, was born October 25, 1102 and became heir to the Duchy of Normandy. Sybilla, who was admired and often praised by the chroniclers of the time, died shortly after the birth. William of Malmesbury claims she died as a result of binding her breasts too tightly; both Robert of Torigny and Orderic Vitalis suggest she was murdered by a cabal of noblewomen led by her husband's mistress, Agnes Giffard. William Clito was unlucky all his life; his attempts to invade Normandy failed twice (1119) and (1125), his first marriage to a daughter of the count of Anjou was annulled by his uncle's machinations, and even his late inheritance of the county of Flanders was mishandled. William Clito died in 1128 leaving no issue, thus leaving the field clear in the Norman succession (at least until Henry I died). Conversano is an ancient town and comune of Bari province in the Italian region of Puglia. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... William Clito (October 25, 1102 – July 28, 1128) was the son of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, by his marriage with Sibylla of Conversano. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


Robert also had at least two illegitimate children - Richard who died hunting in the New Forest in 1099 (like his uncle a year later), and an unnamed daughter who married Helias of Saint-Saens (a worthy and loyal protector of his young brother-in-law in 1112).

Preceded by:
William I of England
Duke of Normandy
1087–1105
Succeeded by:
Henry I of England

William of Normandy (French: Guillaume de Normandie; 1028?–September 9, 1087) ruled as the Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... The Duke of Normandy is a title held (or claimed) by various Norman, English, French and British rulers from the 10th century. ... Henry I of England (c. ...

References

  • Barlow, Frank. William Rufus, 2000
  • David, Charles Wendell. Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University, 1920.
  • Green, Judith. "Robert Curthose Reassessed". Anglo-Norman Studies, 22 (1999).
  • Mooers, Stephanie L. " 'Backers and Stabbers' : Problems of Loyalty in Robert Curthose's Entourage". Journal of British Studies, 21.1 (1981): 1-17.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Curthose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1464 words)
Robert fled to his uncle's court in Flanders before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son.
Robert was forced by diplomacy to renounce his claim to the English throne in the Treaty of Alton.
Robert Curthose, sometime Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror, was buried in the abbey church of St.
Robert Curthose (571 words)
Of the two sons, Robert was considered to be much the weaker and was generally preferred by the nobles who held lands on both sides of the English Channel, since they could more easily circumvent his authority.
Robert married Sybil, daughter of Geoffrey of Brindisi, Count of Conversano (and a grandniece of Robert Guiscard) and had one son, William Clito, heir to the Duchy of Normandy.
In 1106, Henry defeated Robert's army decisively at the Battle of Tinchebray and claimed Normandy as a possession of the English crown, a situation that endured for over a century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m