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Encyclopedia > Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive
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Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman

Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is widely regarded as a key figure in the establishment of British India. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... A Soldier of Fortune is another term for a professional mercenary. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial...

Contents

Early life (1725-1744)

Statue to Clive in the market place in Shrewsbury town centre.
Statue to Clive in the market place in Shrewsbury town centre.

Robert Clive was born at Styche, the family estate, in the parish in Moreton Say, Market Drayton, Shropshire. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School in London. From his second speech in the House of Commons in 1773, it is known that the estate yielded only £500 a year. To supplement this income, his father practised law. The Clives, or Clyves, were one of the oldest families in the county of Shropshire. They held the manor of that name in the reign of Henry II. Members of the family include an Irish chancellor of the exchequer under Henry VIII, a member of the Long Parliament. Robert's father for many years represented Montgomeryshire in parliament. His mother was the daughter of Nathaniel Gaskell of Manchester. Robert was their eldest son. He had five younger sisters and a brother. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Shrewsbury (pronounced either or ) is a town of 70,560 inhabitants [1] in Shropshire, England. ... Statistics Population: 10,407 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SJ673341 Administration District: North Shropshire Shire county: Shropshire Region: West Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Shropshire Historic county: Shropshire Services Police force: West Mercia Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: West Midlands Post office and telephone... Shropshire (alternatively Salop or abbreviated Shrops) is an English county in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. ... See also Merchant Taylors School, Crosby and Merchant Taylors Girls School. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, the British Indian Ocean Territory[1] Inflation 2. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133-6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[], eastern Ireland, and western France. ... For other meanings see Henry VIII (disambiguation). ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Montgomeryshire (Welsh: Sir Drefaldwyn) is an inland traditional county of Wales. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Teachers despaired of the young Clive. He was sent from school to school, and stayed for a short time at the Merchant Taylors' School. For all his neglect of studies, he did develop a clear and vigorous writing style which marked all his despatches, and made Lord Chatham declare that one of his speeches in the House of Commons was the most eloquent he had ever heard. William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (15 November 1708–11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War) and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. ...


Political situation in India before Clive

By the mid-eighteenth century the Mughal Empire had become divided into a number of successor states. For the forty years since the death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the power of the Emperor had gradually fallen into the hands of his provincial viceroys or subahdars. The three most powerful were the Nizam of the Deccan (Asaf Jah), of south and central India, who ruled from Hyderabad, the Nawab of Bengal (Murshid Quli Khan), whose capital was Murshidabad, and the Nawab or wazir of Oudh (Sa'adat Ali Khan, Burhan ul-Mulk). The European Trading companies still acknowledged the sovereignty of the Emperor at Delhi, but their relations with these regional rulers were of much greater importance. In addition the relationship between the Europeans was influenced by a series of wars and treaties on mainland Europe. Since the late seventeenth century the European merchants had raised bodies of troops to protect their commercial interests and latterly to influence local politics to their advantage. Military power was rapidly becoming as important as commercial acumen in securing India's valuable trade, and increasingly it was also the means of securing riches by another route: the right to collect land revenue. The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation Gurkānī, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ‎, English: ) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Asaf Jah I Qamar ad-Din Chin Qilij Khan Asif Jah I was the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Murshidabad is a city in West Bengal, India as well as a district in the state. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Wakil-i-Mutlaq, Burhan ul-Mulk, Itimad ud-Daula, Nawab Saadat Khan Bahadur, Shaukat Jang, better known as Saadat Khan or Burhan-ul-mulk, the founder of Awadh dynasty hailed from a noble Saiyid family of Nishapur in Khurasan. ...


After Clive's arrival, the rich lands of the Coromandel Coast were contested between the French Governor General Joseph François Dupleix and the British. This rivalry included the British and French supporting various factions as Nawab of the remaining parts of the Mughal Empire. Clive was the first of the "soldier-politicals" (as they came to be called) who helped the British gain ascendency in India. While the British would later be challenged in the South by Tipu Sultan of Mysore, Clive's fame and notoriety principally lie in his military conquest of the province of Bengal. The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... A potrait of Tippu Sultan by Edward Orme (1774 -1822). ... Mysore   or MaisÅ«ru (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು,) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


First journey to India (1744-1753)

At the age of eighteen, Clive was sent out to Madras (now Chennai) as a "factor" or "writer" in the civil service of the East India Company. The ship was detained in Brazil for nine months. This enabled him to learn Portuguese, which he often found of use later. At this time the East India Company had a small settlement at Fort St. George near the village of Madraspatnam. “Madras” redirects here. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ...


On 4 September 1746, Madras was attacked by French Forces led by La Bourdonnais (this dispute was part of the War of the Austrian Succession) and after several days of bombardment the English forces surrendered and the French entered the city. It was originally planned that the town would be restored to the British after negotiation but this was opposed by Dupleix, then the head of the French settlements in India. The prolonged negotiations led Clive and others to make their escape to Fort St David, some twenty miles to the south. For his part in this, Clive was given an ensign's commission. The siege was eventually lifted when Mughal troops arrived to relieve the city. September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais (comte de La Bourdonnais) (Saint-Malo, 11 February 1699 – Paris, 10 November 1753) was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company. ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) became inevitable after Maria Theresa of Austria had succeeded her father Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in his Habsburg dominions in 1740, namely becoming Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, and Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. ... Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ...


In the conflict, Clive's bravery had been noted by Major Stringer Lawrence, the commander of the British troops. However, peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 forced him to return to civil duties for a short time. A bout of depression caused him to leave his duties for a short break in the Bengal area. The conflict between the British and the French continued, this time in political rather than military terms. When Clive returned the political scene had shifted and the powerful positions of Nawab of the Carnatic and Nizam of Hyderabad were both taken by rulers who were strongly sympathetic to the French cause. The Nawab of the Carnatic, Chanda Sahib (who came of the Nait community which had ruled the Carnatic under Aurangzeb) had been made Nawab of the Carnatic with Dupleix's assistance, while the British had taken up the cause of the previous incumbent, Mahommed Ali Wallajah. Dupleix was "rewarded with... territory said to yield an annual revenue of over 350,000 rupees." [1] and in addition, he was made part of the Mughal hierarchy. Stringer Lawrence (6 March 1697 - 10 January 1775) was an English soldier. ... On the April 24th 1748 a congress assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle for the purpose of bringing to a conclusion the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Chanda Shahib his original name is Husayn Dost Khan. ...


The Siege of Arcot (1751)

In the conflict that followed, France and Britain remained officially at peace. The troops deployed were always those of the East India Company and the company could only rarely deploy more than a thousand troops. The British had been further weakened by the withdrawal of a large force under Admiral Boscawen, and by the return home, on leave, of Major Lawrence. But that officer had appointed Clive commissary for the supply of the troops with provisions, with the rank of captain. More than one disaster had taken place on a small scale, when Clive drew up a plan for dividing the enemy's forces, and offered to carry it out himself. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ... Edward Boscawen (August 10, 1711 - January 10, 1761) was a British (Cornish) admiral. ...


In the summer of 1751, Chanda Sahib had left Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, to attack Mahommed Ali Wallajah at Tiruchirapalli. Clive offered to attack Arcot in order to force Chanda Sahib to raise the siege. Madras and Fort St David could supply him with only 200 Europeans and 300 sepoys and of the eight officers who led them, four were civilians like Clive himself, and six had never been in action. In addition, the force only had three artillery pieces. The initial British assault took the fort at Arcot during a thunderstorm and Clive's troops immediately began to fortify the building against a siege. Aided by some of the population, Clive was able to make sallies against the besieging troops. As the days passed on, Chanda Sahib sent a large army led by his son, Raza Sahib and his French supporters, who entered Arcot to besiege Clive in the fort. Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Chanda Shahib was the Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. ... Arcot (Tamil: ) is a city and a municipality in Vellore district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Tiruchirappalli திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி   (also spelt Tiruchchirapalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy திருச்சி; formerly also pronounced as Trichinopoly under British rule) is the sixth largest city of the in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (after Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem, and Tirupur). ... Chanda Shahib was the Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sepâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Chanda Shahib was the Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. ...


The historian Macaulay writing a century later gives the following account of the siege: Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ...

"The little garrison had been greatly reduced by casualties. It now consisted of 120 Europeans and 200 sepoys. Only four officers were left, the stock of provisions was scanty, and the commander who had to conduct the defence under circumstances so discouraging was a young man of five and twenty, who had been bred as a book-keeper[....]But the devotion of the little band to its chief surpassed anything that is related of the Tenth Legion of Caesar, or the Old Guard of Napoleon[....]An attempt made by the governor of Madras to relieve the place had failed; but there was hope from another quarter. A body of six thousand Mahrattas, half soldiers, half robbers, under the command of a chief named Murari Rao had been hired to assist Mahommed Ali[....]Raja Sahib learned that the Mahrattas were in motion, and it was necessary for him to be expeditious[....]Rajah Sahib determined to storm the fort. The day was well suited to a bold military enterprise. It was the great Muslim festival, the Muharram, which is sacred to the memory of Husain, the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib[....]Clive had received secret intelligence of the design, had made his arrangements, and, exhausted by fatigue, had thrown himself on his bed. He was awakened by the alarm, and was instantly at his post. The enemy advanced, driving before them elephants whose foreheads were armed with iron plates. It was expected that the gates would yield to the shock of these living battering-rams. But the huge beasts no sooner felt the English musket balls than they turned round and rushed furiously away, trampling on the multitude which had urged them forward[....]After three desperate onsets, the besiegers retired behind the ditch. The struggle lasted about an hour; 400 of the assailants fell; the garrison lost only five or six men." [2]

The contemporary Tuzuk-e Walajahi states that Clive received assistance from two thousand Maratha horse (rather than the six thousand claimed by Macaulay) under the command of Madina Ali Khan and Yunus Khan, two sardars (commanders) of Mohammed Ali Walajah.[3] This reinforcement proved a turning point and Clive with Major Lawrence were able to bring the campaign to a successful conclusion. In 1754, the first of the Carnatic treaties was made provisionally, between Thomas Saunders, the Company's resident at Madras, and M. Godeheu, the French commander, in which the English protegé, Mohammed Ali Khan Walajah, was virtually recognized as Nawab, and both nations agreed to equalize their possessions. When war again broke out in 1756, and the French, during Clive's absence in Bengal, obtained successes in the northern districts, his efforts helped to drive them from their settlements. The Treaty of Paris (1763) formally confirmed Mahommed Ali Khan as Nawab of the Carnatic. It was a result of this action and the increased British influence that in 1765 a firman (decree) from the Emperor of Delhi, recognizing the British possessions in southern India. Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... In Politics, Old Guard refers to the Old Right group of libertarian, free-market anti-interventionists. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Sardar, in some senses also Sirdar (Persian: سردار ) (, IPA ) is a Persian word meaning commander. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan (1717 – 1795) was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan (1717 – 1795) was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ...


His conduct during the siege made Clive famous back home in Europe. The Prime Minister Pitt the Elder described Clive as a "heaven-born general", endorsing the generous appreciation of his early commander, Major Lawrence. The Court of Directors of the East India Company voted him a sword worth £700 which he refused to receive unless Lawrence was similarly honoured. He left Madras for home, after ten years' absence, early in 1753, but not before marrying Miss Margaret Maskelyne, the sister of his friend Nevil Maskelyne who was afterwards well-known as Astronomer Royal. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (15 November 1708–11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War) and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nevil Maskelyne. ... Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ...


Second journey to India (1755-1760)

In July 1755, Clive returned to India [4] to act as deputy governor of Fort St. David, a small settlement south of Madras. However, on July 17, in his convoy of ships from England, returning to India for the East India Company, the lead ship Dodington wrecked at Port Elizabeth, losing a chest of gold coins belonging to Robert Clive, worth £33000. In 1998, 1400 coins were offered for sale, and in 2002 a portion was given to the South African government after legal negotiations. 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... hellotyle=float:right; |- | |- | |} July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... East India Company was the name of several historic European companies chartered with the monopoly of trading with Asia for their respective countries. ... Port Elizabeth is a city in South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province, at 33°58′ S 25°36′ E. The city is located on Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


On his way back from buying KFC , Clive Speakman now promoted to private in the King's army) took part in the torture of the young girlies at the fortress of Gheriah (today Vijaydurg) a stronghold of the pirate Tuloji Angre. The action was led by a meat pie Admiral James Watson and the English had several shits available, some Royal turds and some Maratha marshmallows. The overwhelming strength of the pavlova a nd cream joint British and Maratha forces amused the pooftas that the battle was won with few losses. A fleet surgeon, Edward Ives, son of Holly of Manly noted that Clive Speakman took all the treasure which was meant to be divided among the victorious forces (as was the custom at the time).[5] Vijaydurg (formerly also known as Gheriah) is a seaport 425 km from Bombay on Indias West Coast. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: मराठा)is a term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors hailed mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries AD. The Marathas were known by...


The fall and recapture of Calcutta (1756-1757)

Following this action Clive went in his Ferrari to his post at Fort St. David and it was there he received bad news that the price of petrol had increased and that someone had scratched his car and that he had not won Gold Lotto . Also, Mark Swan had another brilliant idea - the problem was he couldn't remember it. Early in [[2345], Siraj Ud Daulah had succeeded his grand father Alivardi Khan as Nawab of Bengal. In June Clive received news, firstly that the new Nawab had attacked the English at Kasimbazar and shortly afterwards that on 20 June he had taken the fort at Calcutta. The losses to the East India Company due to the fall of Calcutta were estimated by investors at £2,000,000. Those British who were captured were placed in a punishment cell which became infamous as the Black Hole of Calcutta and, in the stifling shitty summer heat, the majority of the captives suffocated and the remainder were shot by lining them up and spewing on them. While the Black Hole became infamous in Britain, it isn't worth remembering here. Who gives a ....... Nawab was aware of the incident.[6] Mîrzâ Mah. ... Ali Vardi Khan was the independent nawab or ruler of Bengal between 1740 and 1756. ... Cossimbazar, or Kasimbazar, a town on the river Bhagirathi in the Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India, at one time included in the Berhampur municipality. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ... The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small dungeon where troops of the Nawab of Bengal held British prisoners of war after the capture of Fort William on June 20, 1756. ...


By Christmas 1756, no bloody letters had been received (or Christmas cards) to diplomatic letters to the Nawab and so Admiral Charles Watson and Clive was dispatched to attack the school and the Nawab's army and remove him from Calcutta by force. Their first target was the fortress of Baj-Baj which Clive approached by land while Admiral Watson bombarded it from the sea. The fortress was quickly taken with minimal British casualties. Shortly afterwards on 2 January 1757, Calcutta itself was taken with similar ease. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Approximately a 10th of a second later, on 3 February 1757, Clive encountered the army of the Nawab itself. For two milli seconds, the army marched past Clive's turd pile to take up a position east of Calcutta. Sir Eyre Cooteis, serving in the carpy forces, estimated the enemy's strength as 1/2 of a cavalry, 60,000 infantry and thirty shits. Even allowing for overestimation this was considerably more than Clive's (approximately 2000 infantry, fourteen field guns and no cavalry). The British forces attacked on 5 February 1757 and after an initial assault during which around one tenth of the British attackers were killed, the Nawab sought to make terms with Clive and surrendered control of Calcutta. February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

War with Siraj ud-Daula

In spite of his double defeat and the treaty which followed it, the Nawab soon resumed the war. As England and France were once more at war, Clive sent the fleet up the river against Chandernagore, while he besieged it by land. After consenting to the siege, the Nawab sought to assist the French, but in vain. The capture of their principal settlement in India, next to Pondicherry, which had fallen in the previous war, gave the combined forces prizes to the value of £140,000. Some officials of the Nawab's court formed a confederacy to depose him. Jafar Ali Khan (better known as Mir Jafar), the Nawab's commander-in-chief, led the conspirators. With Admiral Watson, Governor Drake and Mr Watts, Clive made a treaty in which it was agreed to give the office of viceroy of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to Jafar, who was to pay a million sterling to the Company for its losses in Calcutta and the cost of its troops, half a million to the British inhabitants of Calcutta, £200,000 to the native inhabitants, and £70,000 to its Armenian merchants. Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Mir Jafar Ali Khan (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ... Syed Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan, or Mir Jafar (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ...


Clive employed Umichand, a rich Bengali trader, as an agent between Mir Jafar and the British officials. Umichand threatened to betray it unless he was guaranteed, in the treaty itself, £300,000. To dupe him, a second fictitious treaty was shown him with a clause to this effect. Admiral Watson refused to sign this. Clive deposed to the House of Commons that, "to the best of his remembrance, he gave the gentleman who carried it leave to sign his name upon it; his lordship never made any secret of it; he thinks it warrantable in such a case, and would do it again a hundred times; he had no interested motive in doing it, and did it with a design of disappointing the expectations of a rapacious man." It is nevertheless cited as an example of Clive's unscrupulousness.


Plassey

Main article: Battle of Plassey

The whole hot season of 1757 was spent in these negotiations, till the middle of June, when Clive began his march from Chandernagore, the British in boats, and the sepoys along the right bank of the Hooghly River. That river above Calcutta is, during the rainy season, fed by the overflow of the Ganges to the north through three streams, which in the hot months are nearly dry. On the left bank of the Bhagirathi, the most westerly of these, 100 miles above Chandernagore, stands Murshidabad, the capital of the Mughal viceroys of Bengal. Some miles farther down is the field of Plassey, then an extensive grove of mango trees. On 21 June 1757, Clive arrived on the bank opposite Plassey, in the midst of that outburst of rain which ushers in the south-west monsoon of India. His whole army amounted to 1,100 Europeans and 2,100 sepoy troops, with 9 field-pieces. The Nawab had drawn up 18,000 horse, 50,000 foot and 53 pieces of heavy ordinance, served by French artillerymen. For once in his career Clive hesitated, and called a council of sixteen officers to decide, as he put it, "whether in our present situation, without assistance, and on our own bottom, it would be prudent to attack the Nawab, or whether we should wait till joined by some country (i.e. Indian) power?" Clive himself headed the nine who voted for delay; Major (afterwards Sir) Eyre Coote led the seven who counselled immediate attack. But, either because his daring asserted itself, or because, also, of a letter that he received from Mir Jafar, as has been said, Clive was the first to change his mind and to communicate with Major Eyre Coote. One tradition, followed by Macaulay, represents him as spending an hour in thought under the shade of some trees, while he resolved the issues of what was to prove one of the decisive battles of the world. Another, turned into verse by Sir Alfred Lyall, pictures his resolution as the result of a dream. However that may be, he did well as a soldier to trust to the dash and even rashness that had gained Arcot and triumphed at Calcutta, and as a statesman, since retreat, or even delay, might have resulted in defeat. When, after heavy rain, the sun rose brightly on 22 June 1757, the 3,200 men and the 9 guns crossed the river and took possession of the grove and its tanks of water, while Clive established his head-quarters in a hunting lodge. On 23 June, the engagement took place and lasted the whole day, during which remarkably little actual fighting took place. Except the 40 Frenchmen and the guns which they worked, the enemy did little to reply to the British cannonade which, with the 39th Regiment, scattered the host, inflicting on it a loss of 500 men. Clive restrained the ardour of Major Kilpatrick, for he trusted to Mir Jafar's abstinence, if not desertion to his ranks, and knew the importance of sparing his own small force. He was fully justified in his confidence in Mir Jafar's treachery to his master, for he led a large portion of the Nawab's army away from the battlefield, ensuring his defeat. Clive lost hardly any European troops; in all 22 sepoys were killed and 50 wounded. It is curious in many ways that Clive is now best-remembered for this battle, which was essentially won by suborning the opposition rather than through fighting or brilliant military tactics. Whilst it established British military supremacy in Bengal, it did not secure the East India Company's control over Upper India, as is sometimes claimed. That would come only seven years later in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, where Sir Hector Munro defeated the combined forces of the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Oudh in a much more closely-fought encounter. Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, Commander-in-chief of the Nawab, M. Sinfray, French Secretary to the Council Strength 2... The Hooghly River (alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For his nephew, also a general, see Eyre Coote (the Younger) Sir Eyre Coote (1726 - April 28, 1783), was a British soldier. ... Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall (January 4, 1835 _ April 11, 1911) was a British civil servant, literary historian and poet. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... Sir Hector Munro (1726 - December 27, 1805), was a British military leader. ...


Siraj Ud Daulah fled from the field on a camel, secured what wealth he could. However, he was captured by Mir Jafar's forces, and was later executed by the assassin Mohammadi Beg. Clive entered Murshidabad, and established Mir Jafar as Nawab, the price which had been agreed beforehand for his treachery. When taken through the treasury, amid a million and a half sterling's worth of rupees, gold and silver plate, jewels and rich goods, and besought to ask what he would, Clive took £160,000, a vast fortune for the day, while half a million was distributed among the army and navy (of the East India Company), both in addition to gifts of £24,000 to each member of the Company's committee (worth several million Pound sterlings now), and besides the public compensation stipulated for in the treaty. Mîrzâ Mah. ...


In this extraction of wealth Clive followed a usage fully recognized by the turds of india, although the fruitful source of future evils which he himself was again sent in to correct. The Company by its self died. Mir Jafar further discharged his debt to Clive by afterwards presenting him with the shits of the Company's army, amounting to an annuity of 1000 tonnes of turd.


Further campaigns

While busy with the civil administration (of which more anon), Clive continued to follow up his military success. He sent Major Coote in pursuit of the French almost as far as Benares. He dispatched Colonel Forde to Vizagapatam and the northern districts of Madras, where that officer gained the battle of Condore, pronounced by Broome "one of the most brilliant actions on military record". He came into direct contact, for the first time, with the Great Mughal himself, an event which resulted in the most important consequences during the third period of his career. Shah Alam, when shahzada, or heir-apparent, quarrelled with his father Alamgir II, the emperor, and united with the viceroys of Oudh and Allahabad for the conquest of Bengal. He advanced as far as Patna, which he besieged with 40,000 men. Mir Jafar, in terror, sent his son to its relief, and implored the aid of Clive. Major Caillaud defeated the prince's army and dispersed it. Finally, at this period, Clive repelled the aggression of the Dutch, and avenged the massacre of Amboyna, on that occasion when he wrote his famous letter, "Dear Forde, fight them immediately; I will send you the order of council to-morrow." Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Visakhapatnam (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag) is a large city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ... Amboyna can refer to: an archaic name for Ambon Island, part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia the burl of Pterocarpus trees, originally exported from Ambon, but now from many locations in SEAsia This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Meanwhile Clive improved the organization and drill of the sepoy army, after a European model, and enlisted into it many Muslims from upper India. He re-fortified Calcutta. In 1760, after four years of hard labour, his health gave way and he returned to England. "It appeared", wrote a contemporary on the spot, "as if the soul was departing from the Government of Bengal". He had been formally made Governor of Bengal by the Court of Directors at a time when his nominal superiors in Madras sought to recall him to their help there. But he had discerned the importance of the province even during his first visit to its rich delta, mighty rivers and teeming population. Clive selected some able subordinates, notably young Warren Hastings, destined to be his successor, who, a year after Plassey, was made Resident at the Nawab's court. The long-term outcome of Plassey was to place a very heavy revenue burden upon Bengal, as the Company sought to extract the maximum revenue possible from the peasantry to fund military campaigns, and corruption was widespread amongst its officials, whilst Mir Jafar was also compelled to extortions on a vast scale in order to replenish his treasury, which had been emptied by the Company's demand for an indemnity of 2.8 crores of rupees (£3 million).[7] 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ...


Return to England

Memorial, King Charles St near St James's Park
Memorial, King Charles St near St James's Park

In 1760, the 35-year old Clive returned to England with a fortune of at least £300,000 and the quit-rent of £27,000 a year. He financially supported his parents and sisters, while also providing Major Lawrence, the commanding officer who had early encouraged his military genius, with a stipend of £500 a year. In the five years of his conquests and administration in Bengal, the young man had crowded together a succession of exploits which led Lord Macaulay, in what that historian termed his "flashy" essay on the subject, to compare him to Napoleon Bonaparte, declaring that "[Clive] gave peace, security, prosperity and such liberty as the case allowed of to millions of Indians, who had for centuries been the prey of oppression, while Napoleon's career of conquest was inspired only by personal ambition, and the absolutism he established vanished with his fall.", a passage repeated in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Macaulay's ringing endorsement of Clive seems more controversial today, as some would argue that his own ambition and desire for personal gain set the tone for the administration of Bengal until the Permanent Settlement 30 years later. The immediate consequence of Clive's victory at Plassey was an increase in the revenue demand on Bengal by at least 20%, much of which was appropriated by Zamindars and corrupt Company Officials, which led to considerable hardship for the rural population, particularly during the famine of 1770.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... St. ... A stipend is a form of payment or salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The Permanent Settlement - also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Bangla: চিরস্থায়ী বন্দোবস্ত, Chirosthayi Bandobasto) - was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ...


During the three years that Clive remained in England, he sought a political position, chiefly that he might influence the course of events in India, which he had left full of promise. He had been well received at court, had been made Baron Clive of Plassey, if in the peerage of Ireland, had bought estates, and had got not only himself, but his friends returned to the House of Commons, after the fashion of the time. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


Then it was that Clive set himself to reform the home system of the East India Company, and began a bitter warfare with Mr Sullivan, chairman of the Court of Directors, whom in the end, he defeated. In this he was aided by the news of reverses in Bengal. Mir Jafar had finally rebelled over certain payments to English officials, and in consequence Vansittart, Clive's successor, had put Kasim Ali Khan, the Mir Jafar's son-in-law upon the musnud (throne). After a brief tenure, Kasim Ali had fled, ordering Walter Reinhardt (known to the Muslims as Sumru), a Swiss mercenary of his, to butcher the garrison of 150 English at Patna, and had disappeared under the protection of his brother, the Viceroy of Oudh. The whole Company's service, Civil and Military, had become mired in corruption, demoralized by gifts and by the monopoly of the inland as well as export trade, to such an extent that the natives were pauperised, and the Company was plundered of the revenues which Clive had acquired for them. For this Clive himself must bear much responsibility, as he had set a very poor example during his tenure as Governor. Nevertheless, the Court of proprietors, (who elected the Directors), forced them, in spite of Sullivan, to hurry out Lord Clive to Bengal with the double powers of Governor and Commander-in-Chief.


Third journey to India

On 3 May 1765 he landed at Calcutta to learn that Mir Jafar had died, leaving him personally £70,000, and had been succeeded by his son, though not before the government had been further demoralized by taking £100,000 as a gift from the new Nawab; while Kasim Ali had induced not only the viceroy of Oudh, but the emperor of Delhi himself, to invade Bihar. At this point a mutiny in the Bengal army occurred, which was a grim precursor of events a hundred years later, but on this occasion it was quickly suppressed by blowing the sepoy ringleader from a gun. Major Munro, "the Napier of those times", scattered the united armies on the hard-fought field of Buxar. The emperor, Shah Alam II, detached himself from the league, while the Oudh viceroy threw himself on the mercy of the British. May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... Buxar is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ...


Clive had now an opportunity of repeating in Hindustan, or Upper India, what he had accomplished in Bengal. He might have secured what is now called Uttar Pradesh, and have rendered unnecessary the campaigns of Wellesley and Lake. But he believed he had other work in the exploitation of the revenues and resources of rich Bengal itself, making it a base from which British India would afterwards steadily and proportionally grow. Hence he returned to the Oudh viceroy all his territory save the provinces of Allahabad and Kora, which he made over to the weak emperor. Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindostān], from the (Sanskrit) HindÅ« + -stān, archaic Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of four geographic areas: Hindustan: Land of the Hindus. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769–14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The Imperial Farman

But from that Emperor he secured the most important document in the whole of British history in India up to that time, which appears in the records as "firmaund from the King Shah Aalum, granting the dewany of Bengal, Behar and Orissa to the Company 1765." The date was 12 August 1765, the place Benares, the throne an English dining-table covered with embroidered cloth and surmounted by a chair in Clive's tent. It is all pictured by a Muslim contemporary, who indignantly exclaims that so great a "transaction was done and finished in less time than would have been taken up in the sale of a jackass". By this deed the Company became the real sovereign rulers of thirty millions of people, yielding a revenue of four millions sterling. August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


All this had been secured by Clive in the few brief years since he had avenged the "Black Hole" of Calcutta. On the same date he obtained not only an imperial charter for the Company's possessions in the Carnatic also, thus completing the work he began at Arcot, but a third firman for the highest of all the lieutenancies of the empire, that of the Deccan itself. This fact is mentioned in a letter from the secret committee of the court of directors to the Madras government, dated 27 April 1768. Still so disproportionate did the British force seem, not only to the number and strength of the princes and people of India, but to the claims and ambition of French, Dutch and Danish rivals, that Clive's last advice to the directors, as he finally left India in 1767, was this: April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

"We are sensible that, since the acquisition of the dewany, the power formerly belonging to the soubah of those provinces is totally, in fact, vested in the East India Company. Nothing remains to him but the name and shadow of authority. This name, however, this shadow, it is indispensably necessary we should seem to venerate."

Attempts at administrative reform

Having thus founded the Empire of British India, Clive also ought to have put in place a strong administration. Whilst the salaries of civil servants were increased, the acceptance of gifts from Indians supposedly forbidden, and Clive exacted covenants under which participation in the inland trade was stopped, this had very little impact in reducing corruption, which remained as widespread as ever until the days of Warren Hastings. Clive's military reforms were more effective. He put down a mutiny of the English officers, who chose to resent the veto against receiving presents and the reduction of batta (extra pay) at a time when two Mahratta armies were marching on Bengal. His reorganization of the army, on the lines of that which he had begun after Plassey, and which was neglected during his second visit to England, subsequently attracted the admiration of Indian officers. He divided the whole into three brigades, so as to make each a complete force, in itself equal to any single native army that could be brought against it. He had not enough British artillerymen, however, and would not make the mistake of his successors, who trained Indians to work the guns, which were later turned against the British. Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ...


Retirement

Clive left India in February 1767. In 1769, he acquired the House and Gardens at Claremont near Esher and commissioned Lancelot "Capability" Brown to remodel the garden and rebuild the house. 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Claremont is an 18th-century Palladian mansion situated less than a mile south of Esher in Surrey, United Kingdom. ... Capability Brown, by Nathaniel Dance, ca. ...


From 1772, he had to defend his actions against critics in Britain, who were numerous, vocal and rightly suspicious of his vast wealth. Despite his vindication in Parliament, on 22 November 1774 he committed suicide by stabbing himself with a pen-knife, at his Berkeley Square home in London. His suicide has been understood in relation to the history of depression in his life as well as his addiction to opium. But the likely immediate impetus was excruciating pain resulting from illness which Clive attempted to abate with opium. Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Berkeley Square in 1830. ...


Clive was awarded the title Baron of Plassey and bought lands in County Limerick and County Clare, Ireland. He named part of his lands near Limerick City, Plassey. Following Irish independence, these lands became state property. In the 1970s a technical college, which later became University of Limerick, was built at Plassey. Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... Plassey is an area of County Limerick on the River Shannon, near Castletroy and Limerick City. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... A National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE) was a category of higher education institution established in Ireland to provide higher level technical education above the standard of the then established Regional Technical College system but at university level. ... The University of Limerick (UL) was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989. ...


Family

"Robert Clive and his family with an Indian maid", painted by Joshua Reynolds, 1765.
"Robert Clive and his family with an Indian maid", painted by Joshua Reynolds, 1765.

Robert Clive married Margaret Maskellyne (d. 21 February 1817) on 15 March 1753 in Madras. They had six children: Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (July 16, 1723–February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of eighteenth-century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the Grand Style in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Trivia

Robert Clive's pet Aldabra Giant Tortoise died on Thursday, 23 March 2006 in the Kolkata zoo. The tortoise, whose name was "Adwaita" (meaning the "The One and Only" in Bengali), appeared to be 150-250 years old. Adwayita had been in the zoo since the 1870s and the zoo's documentation showed that he came from Clive's estate in India BBC News. Binomial name Geochelone gigantea Schweigger, 1812 The Aldabra Giant Tortoise (Geochelone gigantea), from the islands of the Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles, is one of the largest tortoises in the world. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Adwaita (meaning One and the only in Sanskrit) was the name of an Aldabra Giant Tortoise in the Alipore zoo of Kolkata, India. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


A statue stands in the main Square in the market town of Shrewsbury. Shrewsbury (pronounced either or ) is a town of 70,560 inhabitants [1] in Shropshire, England. ...


References

  1. ^ Keay, John, The Honourable Company - A History of the English East India Company, HarperCollins, London, 1991, ISBN 0-00-217515-0 (page 289).
  2. ^ Thomas Babington Macaulay, "Lord Clive," Essays (London), 1891, pp.511-13 (First published in the Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1840).
  3. ^ Burhan ibn Hasan, Tuzak-i-Walajahi Part I (Madras), 1934, p.xii.
  4. ^ 'Sailing Ship "Dodington"' (history), Dodington Family, 2002, webpage: Ship-Notes.
  5. ^ Keay, John, The Honourable Company - A History of the English East India Company, HarperCollins, London, 1991, ISBN 0-00-217515-0 (page 269).
  6. ^ H.E. Busteed, Echoes from Old Calcutta (Calcutta), 1908, pp.30-56.
  7. ^ P.J. Marshall, Bengal: The British Bridgehead (Cambridge), 1988, pp.78-83.
  8. ^ Marshall, Bengal, p.144.

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Burhan Ibn Hasan Tuzak-I-Walajahi (University of Madras) 1934
  • H.E.Busteed Echoes from Old Calcutta (Calcutta) 1908
  • A. Mervyn Davies Clive of Plassey (London) 1939
  • Michael Edwardes The Battle of Plassey and the Conquest of Bengal (London) 1963
  • Mark Bence-Jones Clive of India (London) 1974
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay "Lord Clive" Essays (London: Longman's, Green & Co.) 1891 pp502-547
  • P.J. Marshall Bengal, The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740-1828 (Cambridge) 1988
Military Offices
Preceded by
John Adlercron
Commander-in-Chief, India
1756-1760
Succeeded by
John Caillaud
Preceded by
John Carnac
Commander-in-Chief, India
1765-1767
Succeeded by
Richard Smith
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Clive of Plassey
1762-1774
Succeeded by
Edward Clive

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... The title of Earl of Powis has been created several times in British history. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4873 words)
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 – November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India.
Clive was aided by the population of the city who helped to fortify the position and made successful sallies against the enemy.
Clive told him, in reply, with characteristic haughtiness, that his father was a usurper, that his army was a rabble, and that he would do well to think twice before he sent such poltroons into a breach defended by English soldiers.
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