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Encyclopedia > Robert Chambers

Robert Chambers (10 July 180217 March 1871), Scottish author and publisher, was born in Peebles. July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... --69. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Old Parish Church, Peebles Location within the British Isles Peebles 55°39′ N 3°11′ W is a burgh in the traditional county of Peeblesshire (of which it is the county town), in the Scottish Borders, lying on the River Tweed. ...


He was sent to the local schools, and gave evidence of unusual literary taste and ability. A small circulating library in the town, and a copy of the Encyclopædia Britannica which his father had purchased, furnished him with stores of reading of which he eagerly availed himself. Long afterwards he wrote of his early years--"Books, not playthings, filled my hands in childhood. At twelve I was deep, not only in poetry and fiction, but in encyclopaedias." Robert had been destined for the church, but this design had to be abandoned for lack of means. The family moved to Edinburgh in 1813, and in 1818 Robert began business as a bookstall-keeper in Leith Walk. He was then only sixteen, and his whole stock consisted of a few old books belonging to his father. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Contents


W. & R. Chambers, publishers

In 1819 his elder brother William had begun a similar business, and the two eventually united as partners in the publishing firm of W. & R. Chambers. Robert Chambers showed an enthusiastic interest in the history and antiquities of Edinburgh, and found a most congenial task in his Traditions of Edinburgh (2 vols., 1824), which secured for him the approval and the personal friendship of Sir Walter Scott. A History of the Rebellions in Scotland from 1638 to 1745 (5 vols., 1828) and numerous other works followed. 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Chambers (April 16, 1800 - May 20, 1883) was a Scottish publisher, the brother of Robert Chambers. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In the beginning of 1832 William Chambers started a weekly publication under the title of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal (known since 1854 as Chambers's Journal of Literature, Science and Arts), which speedily attained a large circulation. Robert was at first only a contributor. After fourteen numbers had appeared, however, he was associated with his brother as joint editor, and his collaboration contributed more perhaps than anything else to the success of the Journal. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Among the other numerous works of which Robert was in whole or in part the author, the Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (4 vols., Glasgow, 18321835), the Cyclopaedia of English Literature (1844), the Life and Works of Robert Burns (4 vols., 1851), Ancient Sea Margins (1848), the Domestic Annals of Scotland (18591861) and the Book of Days (2 vols., 18621864) were the most important. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Robert Burns Robert Burns, preeminent Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a pioneer of the Romantic movement and after his death became an important source of inspiration to the founders of both liberalism and socialism. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Chambers's Encyclopaedia (18591868), with Dr Andrew Findlater as editor, was carried out under the superintendence of the brothers. The Cyclopaedia of English Literature contains a series of admirably selected extracts from the best authors of every period, "set in a biographical and critical history of the literature itself." For the Life of Burns he made diligent and laborious original investigations, gathering many hitherto unrecorded facts from the poet's sister, Mrs Begg, to whose benefit the whole profits of the work were generously devoted. 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Vestiges

Robert Chambers was a scientific geologist, and availed himself of tours in Scandinavia and Canada for the purpose of geological exploration. The results of his travels were embodied in Tracings of the North of Europe (1851) and Tracings in Iceland and the Faroe Islands (1856). His knowledge of geology was one of the principal grounds on which the authorship of the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (2 vols., 18431846), was eventually assigned to him. The book was published anonymously, and daringly set out ideas of Lamarckian evolution. Robert Chambers was aware of the storm that would probably be raised at the time by a rational treatment of the subject, and did not wish to involve his firm in the discredit that a charge of heterodoxy would bring with it. The arrangements for publication were made through Alexander Ireland of Manchester, and the secret was so well kept that such different names as those of Prince Albert and Sir Charles Lyell were coupled with the book. A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth. ... See also the Nordic countries. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Racial memory be merged into this article or section. ... // Definition Heterodoxy includes any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position.  As an adjective, heterodox is used to describe a subject as characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards (status quo). ... Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), British lawyer, geologist, and popularizer of uniformitarianism. ...


The book was a sensation, quickly becoming a best-seller and going into new editions. Charles Darwin admired its prose, but wrote that the "geology strikes me as bad, & his zoology far worse". By implying that God might not actively sustain the natural and social hierarchies, it threatened the social order and could provide ammunition to Chartists and revolutionaries. Anglican clergymen / naturalists attacked the book, with the geologist Adam Sedgwick predicting "ruin and confusion in such a creed" which if taken up by the working classes "will undermine the whole moral and social fabric" bringing "discord and deadly mischief in its train." The book was liked by many Quakers and Unitarians. The Unitarian physiologist William Carpenter called it "a very beautiful and a very interesting book", and helped Chambers with correcting later editions. Critics thanked God that the author began "in ignorance and presumption", for the revised versions "would have been much more dangerous". Vestiges brought widespread discussion of evolution which had previously been seen as a dangerous doctrine of street radicals, and hence paved the way for the publication of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection more than a decade later. In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics. ... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Adam Sedgwick Adam Sedgwick (March 22, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers or Friends) was founded in England in the 17th century by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... William Carpenter may refer to: William Benjamin Carpenter (1813-1885), English physiologist and naturalist; William Henry Carpenter (philologist) (1853-1936), American philologist; William Carpenter (Australian politician) (1863–1930), Australian politician. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ... The publication of Darwins theory followed on from the development of Darwins theory of evolution and culminated in the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. ... Charles Darwin in 1859 in his book The Origin of Species defined Natural selection as the principle, by which each slight variation [of a trait], if useful, is preserved. ...


Chambers gave a talk on ancient beaches at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting at Oxford in May 1847. An observer at the meeting reported that Chambers "pushed his conclusions to a most unwarrantable length and got roughly handled on account of it by Buckland, De la Beche, Sedgwick, Murchison, and Lyell. The last told me afterwards that he did so purposely that [Chambers] might see that reasonings in the style of the author of the Vestiges would not be tolerated among scientific men." On the Sunday Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, used his sermon at St. Mary's Church on "the wrong way of doing science" to deliver a stinging attack obviously aimed at Chambers. The church "crowded to suffocation" with geologists, astronomers and zoologists heard jibes about the "half-learned" seduced by the "foul temptation" of speculation looking for a self-sustaining universe in a "mocking spirit of unbelief", showing a failure to understand the "modes of the Creator's acting" or to meet the responsibilities of a gentleman. Chambers denounced this as an attempt to stifle progressive opinion, but others thought he must have gone home "with the feeling of a martyr". The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A photo of Samuel Wilberforce by Lewis Carroll Samuel Wilberforce (September 7, 1805 - July 19, 1873), English bishop, third son of William Wilberforce, was born at Clapham Common, London. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ...


In 1851 Chambers was one of a group of writers who joined the publisher John Chapman in reinvigorating the Westminster Review as a flagship of freethought and reform, spreading the ideas of evolutionism. 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John Chapman may be: Johnny Appleseed - Ecologist John Herbert Chapman - Space Researcher John Chapman (footballer) - Association Football manager John Chapman (evangelist) John T Chapman (writer) - British TV writer John Chapman OSB – 4th Abbot of Downside Abbey, Somerset This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share... The Westminster Review was founded in 1823 by John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham as a journal for philosophical radicals, and was published from 1824 to 1914. ... Evolutionism, from the Latin evolutio, unrolling, refers to theories that certain things develop or change as natural (unplanned) outgrowths of those that existed before, in contrast to beliefs that these things are fixed and immutable. ...


Ireland in 1884 issued a 12th edition of Vestiges, with a preface giving an account of its authorship, which there was no longer any reason for concealing. 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Book of Days

The Book of Days was Chambers's last publication, and perhaps his most elaborate. It was a miscellany of popular antiquities in connection with the calendar, and it is supposed that his excessive labour in connexion with this book hastened his death. Two years before, the university of St Andrews had conferred upon him the degree of doctor of laws, and he was elected a member of the Athenaeum club in London. It is his highest claim to distinction that he did so much to give a healthy tone to the cheap popular literature which has become so important a factor in modern civilization. The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410 and 1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland (and third oldest in the English speaking world). ...


External links

  • The Book of Days. A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography, & History, Curiosities of Literature, and Oddities of Human Life and Character Online edition, searchable and with indexes
  • Works by Robert Chambers at Project Gutenberg

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Chambers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1060 words)
Robert Chambers showed an enthusiastic interest in the history and antiquities of Edinburgh, and found a most congenial task in his Traditions of Edinburgh (2 vols., 1824), which secured for him the approval and the personal friendship of Sir Walter Scott.
Robert Chambers was a scientific geologist, and availed himself of tours in Scandinavia and Canada for the purpose of geological exploration.
Robert Chambers was aware of the storm that would probably be raised at the time by a rational treatment of the subject, and did not wish to involve his firm in the discredit that a charge of heterodoxy would bring with it.
Robert W. Chambers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (435 words)
He was born in Brooklyn, New York, to William P. Chambers (1827 - 1911), a famous lawyer, and Caroline Chambers (née Boughton), a direct descendant of Roger Williams, the founder of Providence, Rhode Island.
Robert entered the Art Students' League at around the age of twenty, where the artist Charles Dana Gibson was his fellow student.
Chambers studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, and at Académie Julian, in Paris from 1886 to 1893, and his work was displayed at the Salon as early as 1889.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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