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Encyclopedia > Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury

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The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 156324 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the one who tore down most of the old palace of Hatfield House and built the new one. The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt. ... The Garter is the most recognizable insignia of the Order of the Garter. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Thomas Cecil (May 5, 1546-February 8, 1623), eldest son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, was created 1st Earl of Exeter on May 4, 1605, the same day his half-brother Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cranborne was created 1st Earl of Salisbury. ... Elizabeth I, (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (Charles James) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... Hatfield House, is a stately home and surrounding park located to the east of Hatfield, Hertfordshire , UK. The present Jacobean house was built in 1611 by Robert Cecil, First Earl of Sailsbury and Chief Minister to King James I and has been the home of the Cecil family ever since. ...


He was vilified by some of his contemporaries and, as is still common today, some of his less attractive physical features were exaggerated to make an ideological point. His appearance in 1588 is described in Motley's History of the Netherlands this way: "A slight, crooked, hump-backed young gentleman, dwarfish in stature, but with a face not irregular in feature, and thoughtful and subtle in expression, with reddish hair, a thin tawny beard, and large, pathetic, greenish-coloured eyes, with a mind and manners already trained to courts and cabinets, and with a disposition almost ingenuous, as compared to the massive dissimulation with which it was to be contrasted, and with what was, in aftertimes, to constitute a portion of his own character..." John Lothrop Motley (April 15, 1814 - May 29, 1877), was an American historian. ...


Queen Elizabeth is said to have referred to him as "my elf" or "my pygmy", the latter term not to his liking.


Salisbury was made Secretary of State following the death of Sir Francis Walsingham in 1590, and he became the leading minister after the death of his father in 1598, serving both Queen Elizabeth and King James as Secretary of State. He fell into dispute with Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and only prevailed upon the latter's poor campaign against the Irish rebels during the Nine Years war in 1599 (see main article: Essex in Ireland). He was then in a position to orchestrate the succession to the throne, which he achieved with aplomb following Elizabeth's death in 1603. In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e. ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 - 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. He was born at Netherwood in 1566, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and... The Nine Years War in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ... During the Nine Years War, Queen Elizabeth I of England was troubled by the need to appoint a new commander for a military campaign in Ireland. ...


James I raised him to the Peerage on 20 August 1603 as Baron Cecil, of Essendon in the County of Rutland, before creating him Viscount Cranborne in 1604 and then Earl of Salisbury in 1605. For the Peerage in France, see French peerage. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ...


Lord Salisbury was extensively involved in matters of state security. The son of Lord Burghley (Queen Elizabeth's principal minister) and a protege of Sir Francis Walsingham (Elizabeth's principal spymaster), he was trained by them in matters of spycraft as a matter of course.


In 1603 his brother-in-law Lord Cobham was implicated in both the Bye Plot and also the Main Plot, which were an attempt to remove James from the throne and replace him with Lady Arbella Stuart. King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Henry Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham (November 22, 1564 – January 24, 1618 (Old Style)/February 3, 1619 (New Style)) was a English peer and traitor who was implicated in the Main Plot against the rule of James I of England. ... The Bye Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics to kidnap King James I of England and force him to repeal anti-Catholic legislation. ... The Main Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics, allegedly led by lay Catholic Lord Cobham, to remove King James I of England from the English throne, replacing him by aid of Spain with his cousin Arabella (or Arbella) Stuart. ... Arbella Stuart (or Arabella and/or Stewart) (1575 - 27 September 1615), Duchess of Somerset, was the only child of Elizabeth Cavendish (daughter of Bess of Hardwick) and Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox (younger brother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots). ...


Lord Salisbury and the Gunpowder Plot

In 1605 Salisbury was extensively involved in events surrounding the Gunpowder Plot, as naturally would be the case with someone in his position. There are some who argue that he was in point of fact the éminence grise behind the plot itself. On the one hand, if King James lived through it, it would perhaps be a mechanism to move the King's position from one of relative tolerance of the Catholics to one of repression. On the other hand, if the King was assassinated, then his heir, Henry, Prince of Wales, would be made Sovereign, someone more closely associated with the 'Rosicrucianist' networks spreading through Europe, and likely a more pliable sovereign for the English parliamentary state's interests. A number of these arguments are interesting but ultimately inconclusive. Certainly it would not be the only occasion when the agenda of the British secret service was somewhat less desirable than would appear to be for the greater public good. Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... A contemporaneous sketch of the conspirators The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a desperate but failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during... An éminence grise (French for grey eminence), is a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or otherwise unofficially. ... Four people called Henry have held the title Prince of Wales. ...


One of the arguments used to attempt to inculpate Salisbury in the plot are the death-bed allegations of Robert Catesby's servant stating that Salisbury and Catesby, one of the principal Gunpowder Plotters, met on three separate occasions in the period leading up to the events of the night of 5 November 1605. This allegation may of course be entirely unfounded given that the witness may well have been attempting to smear Lord Salisbury. Robert Catesby (1573- November 8, 1605), was the leader of a group of Catholic conspirators (the most notable of whom was Guy Fawkes) who endeavoured to blow up the Houses of Parliament in England in 1605. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ...


More interesting however, are the circumstances of the death of another person arrested in connection with the Plot, Francis Tresham, who some argue may well have been an agent working for Salisbury. His death was officially listed as one of natural causes, although some have argued that he was poisoned in order to prevent him from making revelations which would not have been in either Salisbury or Lord Monteagle's interests. Francis Tresham (c. ... This article is about the baron. ...

Preceded by:
Sir Francis Walsingham
Secretary of State
1590–1612
Succeeded by:
Sir Ralph Winwood
Preceded by:
In Commission
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1597–1599
Succeeded by:
In Commission
Preceded by:
The Lord Burghley
Lord Privy Seal
1598–1608
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Northampton
Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire
1605–1612
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Salisbury
Preceded by:
The Earl of Dorset
Lord High Treasurer
1608–1612
Succeeded by:
In Commission
(First Lord: The Earl of Northampton)
Preceded by:
The Viscount Howard of Bindon
Lord Lieutenant of Dorset
jointly with The Earl of Suffolk

1611–1612
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Suffolk
Preceded by:
New Creation
Earl of Salisbury
1605–1612
Succeeded by:
William Cecil

']]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]']]]]]]]]</nowiki></math></math> Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e. ... Sir Ralph Winwood (c. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (1540 - June 15, 1614), was the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet, and of his wife, the former Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford, and was the younger brother of the 4th Duke of Norfolk. ... This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire. ... William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury KG (28 March 1591–3 December 1668) was the son of the 1st Earl of Salisbury. ... Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536 - 19 April 1608) was an English statesman and poet. ... The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ... Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (1540 - June 15, 1614), was the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet, and of his wife, the former Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford, and was the younger brother of the 4th Duke of Norfolk. ... This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Dorset. ... Admiral Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk (24 August 1561-28 May 1626) was a son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk by his second wife Hon. ... Admiral Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk (24 August 1561-28 May 1626) was a son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk by his second wife Hon. ... The title Marquess of Salisbury is a British title of Peerage, created in 1789 for James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury. ... William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury KG (28 March 1591–3 December 1668) was the son of the 1st Earl of Salisbury. ...


 
 

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