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Encyclopedia > Robert Capa

Robert Capa (Budapest, October 22, 1913May 25, 1954) was a famous war photographer during the 20th century. He covered five different wars: the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II across Europe, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and the First Indochina War. Capa documented the course of World War II in London, North Africa, Italy, the Battle of Normandy on Omaha Beach and the liberation of Paris. Capa's younger brother Cornell Capa is also a photographer. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of notable photographers in the art, documentary and fashion traditions. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish Nationalists With the support of: Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola Casualties 500,000 – 1,000,000 The Spanish Civil War, which... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Jewish militias: (Haganah, Irgun, Lehi) Druze militias Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5... Combatants French Colonialists Việt Minh Strength 500,000  ? Casualties 94,581 dead 78,127 wounded 40,000 captured 300,000+ dead 500,000+ wounded 100,000 captured The First Indochina War (also called the French Indochina War, the French War or the Franco-Vietnamese War) was fought in Indochina... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Norman Cota Clarence R. Huebner U.S. 1st Infantry Division U.S. 29th Infantry Division Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 34,000  ? Casualties 3,000 1,200 The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Cornell Capas photo book Cornell Capa (April 14, 1918) is a (Hungarian-born), American photographer, member of Magnum Photos, photo curator, and younger brother of war photographer Robert Capa. ...

Contents

Career

Born in Hungary as Endre Ernő Friedmann, Capa left the country at an early age because of his political involvements with protestors against the fascist government. He was arrested once, and his parents suggested he try to settle elsewhere.


Capa originally wanted to be a writer. However, he first found work in photography in Berlin and grew to love the art. In 1933, he moved from Germany to France because of the rise of Nazism (Capa was Jewish), but found it difficult to find work there as a freelance journalist. He adopted the name Robert Capa around this time, because he felt it would be recognisable and familiar, as it was close to the filmmaker Frank Capra's name and sounded American. (In fact, "cápa" is a Hungarian word meaning shark.) Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film director. ...

Death of a loyalist soldier, 1936.
D-Day landings, 1944.
D-Day landings, 1944

Image File history File links Capa,_Death_of_a_Loyalist_Soldier. ... Image File history File links Capa,_Death_of_a_Loyalist_Soldier. ... Image File history File links Capa,_D-Day2. ... Image File history File links Capa,_D-Day2. ... Image File history File links Capa,_D-Day1. ... Image File history File links Capa,_D-Day1. ...

Spanish Civil War

From 1936 to 1939, he was in Spain, photographing the horrors the Spanish Civil War. In 1936, he became known across the globe for a photo he took on the Cordoba Front of a Loyalist Militiaman who had just been shot and was in the act of falling to his death. Because of his proximity to the victim and the timing of the capture, there was a long controversy about the authenticity of this photograph. Historians eventually succeeded in identifying the dead soldier as Federico Borrell García, from Alcoi (Valencia) and proved it authentic. This is the best-known picture of the Spanish civil war and it is quite obvious why; it is rare to photograph at close range the instant of someone's death in war. [1] Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish Nationalists With the support of: Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola Casualties 500,000 – 1,000,000 The Spanish Civil War, which... Location Coordinates : 37° 53’N , 4°46′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


World War II

At the start of World War II, Capa was in New York City. He had moved there from Paris to look for new work and to escape Nazi persecutions. The war took Capa to various parts of the European Theatre on photography assignments. He first photographed for Collier's Weekly, before switching to Life after he was fired by the former. When first hired, he was a citizen of Greater Nazi Germany, but he was also Jewish, which allowed him to negotiate visas to Europe. He was the only "enemy alien" photographer for the Allies. On October 7, 1943, Robert Capa was in Naples with Life reporter Will Lang Jr. and photographed the Naples post office bombing. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events Main article: Events preceding World War II in Europe Main article: Causes of World War II Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a... November 24, 1917 cover Colliers Weekly was an American magazine that was published between 1888 and 1957. ... Edward Steichens portrait of Greta Garbo. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Will Lang Jr. ... On October 1, 1943, the Fifth Army of the United States captured Naples and reached the Volturno River on October 6. ...


His most famous work occurred on June 6, 1944 (D-Day) when he swam ashore with the first assault wave on Omaha Beach. He was armed with two Contax II cameras mounted with 50 mm lenses and several rolls of spare film. Capa took 108 pictures in the first couple of hours of the invasion. However, a staff member at Life made a mistake in the darkroom; he set the dryer too high and melted the negatives. Only eleven frames in total were recovered. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Norman Cota Clarence R. Huebner U.S. 1st Infantry Division U.S. 29th Infantry Division Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 34,000  ? Casualties 3,000 1,200 The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland. ... Contax is a camera brand noted for its unique, and sometimes odd, technical innovation and a wide range of Carl Zeiss lenses. ...


Although 15-year-old lab assistant named Dennis Banks was responsible for the accident[citation needed], an apocryphal account (which, despite being accepted as untrue[citation needed], has gained widespread currency) blames Larry Burrows, who worked in the lab not as a technician but as a "tea-boy" [citation needed]. Life magazine printed 10 of the frames in its June 19, 1944 issue with captions that described the footage as "slightly out of focus", explaining that Capa's hands were shaking in the excitement of the moment (something which he denied)[citation needed]. Capa used this phrase as the title of his alternately hilarious and sad autobiographical account of the war, Slightly Out of Focus. Larry Burrows (May 29, 1926 to February 10, 1971) was a photographer who became famous for his pictures of the American involvement in the Vietnam War. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


In 1947, Capa founded Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson, David Seymour, Bill Vandivert and George Rodger. In 1951, he became the president. Magnum Photos is a world-renowned photographic agency, with offices located in New York, Paris, London and Tokyo. ... Portrait of Henri Cartier-Bresson taken by George Platt Lynes. ... Chim (pronounced shim) was the pseudonym of David Seymour (November 20, 1911 - November 10, 1956), an American photographer and photojournalist. ... George Rodger (1908-1995) was a British photographer noted for his work in Africa. ...


First Indochina War

Capa photo of Chinese soldier
Capa photo of Chinese soldier

In the early 1950s, Capa traveled to Japan for an exhibition associated with Magnum Photos. While there, Life magazine asked him to go on assignment to Southeast Asia, where the French had been fighting for eight years in the First Indochina War. Despite the fact he had sworn not to photograph another war a few years earlier, Capa accepted and accompanied a French regiment with two other Time-Life journalists, John Mecklin and Jim Lucas. On May 25, 1954 at 2:55PM, the regiment was passing through a dangerous area under fire when Capa decided to leave his jeep and go up the road to photograph some of the advance. About five minutes later, Mecklin and Lucas heard a loud explosion. Capa had stepped on a landmine. When they arrived on the scene he was still alive, but his left leg had been blown to pieces and he had a serious wound in his chest. Mecklin screamed for a medic and Capa's body was taken to a small field hospital where he was pronounced dead on arrival. He had died with his camera in his hand. After his death the Vietnamese Lieutenant said "Le photographe est mort." ("The photographer is dead") Image File history File linksMetadata RobertCapaLife05161938. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RobertCapaLife05161938. ... Combatants French Colonialists Việt Minh Strength 500,000  ? Casualties 94,581 dead 78,127 wounded 40,000 captured 300,000+ dead 500,000+ wounded 100,000 captured The First Indochina War (also called the French Indochina War, the French War or the Franco-Vietnamese War) was fought in Indochina... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ...


Legacy

In order to preserve the photographic heritage of Robert Capa and other photographers, Cornell Capa, his brother, founded the International Fund for Concerned Photography in 1966. To give this collection a permanent home he founded the International Center of Photography in New York City in 1974. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


The Overseas Press Club created an award in his honor, the Robert Capa Gold Medal. It is given annually to the photographer who provides the "best published photographic reporting from abroad, requiring exceptional courage and enterprise".[2]-1...


Quotes

  • "If your pictures aren't good enough, you're not close enough."
  • "It's not enough to have talent, you also have to be Hungarian."
  • "The truth is the best picture, the best propaganda."
  • "This war is like an actress who is getting old. It is less and less photogenic and more and more dangerous." (Speaking of WWII)
  • "The desire of any war photographer is to be put out of business."

Trivia

Janusz Zygmunt Kamiński (born June 27, 1959) is an Oscar winning cinematographer and film director who has photographed all of Steven Spielbergs movies since 1993s Schindlers List. ... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy Award winning film, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat, set in World War II. This film is particularly notable for the intensity of the scenes in its first 25 minutes, which depict the Omaha beachhead assault of June 6, 1944. ... Johann (Hans) Hölzel (February 19, 1957 – February 6, 1998), better known by his stage name Falco, was a classical music prodigy turned Austrian hip hop-pop and rock star. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Much like American popular music, American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... John Ernst Steinbeck (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) is one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... Howard Hawks Howard Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor of legendary fame who retained his legacy after death. ...

Bibliography

  • Death in the Making, 1938
  • The Battle of Waterloo Road, 1941
  • Invasion!, 1944
  • Slightly Out of Focus, 1947
  • Robert Capa: Photographs,1996
  • Heart of Spain, 1999
  • Robert Capa: The Definitive Collection, 2001
  • Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, 2002

References

  • Whelan, Richard (1985) Robert Capa: a biography Knopf, New York, ISBN 0-394-52488-8 ;

See also

Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Robert Capa

  Results from FactBites:
 
ROBERT CAPA (1913-1954) (1071 words)
Robert Capa was somewhat careless as a photographer but was carefully dedicated as a man. He participated with courage in almost every great tragedy of his time, and never lost heart nor faith.
Robert Capa was born Andrei Friedmann in Budapest in 1913.
Leaving Africa, Capa jumped into Sicily with the paratroops and went on to the attack on "the soft under belly of the Axis" in the cold grim winter campaign of 1943-44.
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