FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert Byrd
Robert C. Byrd
Robert Byrd

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 3, 1959
Serving with Jay Rockefeller
Preceded by W. Chapman Revercomb
Succeeded by Incumbent (2013)

In office
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Mike Mansfield
Succeeded by Howard Baker

In office
January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1989
Preceded by Bob Dole
Succeeded by George J. Mitchell

In office
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1987
Preceded by Howard Baker
Succeeded by Bob Dole

In office
January 3, 1971 – January 3, 1977
Preceded by Ted Kennedy
Succeeded by Alan Cranston

In office
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1995
January 3, 2001 - January 20, 2001
June 6, 2001 - January 3, 2003
January 3, 2007 -
Preceded by John C. Stennis (1989)
Strom Thurmond (2001)
Ted Stevens (2007)
Succeeded by Strom Thurmond (1995 & 2001)
Ted Stevens (2003)

In office
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1995
January 3, 2001 - January 20, 2001
June 6, 2001 - January 3, 2003
January 3, 2007 -
Preceded by John C. Stennis (1989)
Ted Stevens (2001)
Thad Cochran (2007)
Succeeded by Mark O. Hatfield (1995
Ted Stevens (2001 & 2003)

In office
January 3, 1953 – January 3, 1959
Preceded by E. H. Hedrick
Succeeded by John Slack, Jr.

Born November 20, 1917 (1917-11-20) (age 89)
Flag of the United States Flag of North Carolina North Wilkesboro, North Carolina, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse Erma Ora Byrd (deceased)
Religion Southern Baptist

Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. Byrd has held the office since January 3, 1959; he is the longest-serving member in the history of the Senate. He is also the longest-serving, and oldest, current member of the United States Congress. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1448x1812, 457 KB) http://byrd. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For the ecclesiastical office, see Incumbent (ecclesiastical). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937), generally known as Jay Rockefeller, has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... Image:Chapman Revercomb. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... Howard Henry Baker, Jr. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... For other persons with a similar name, see George Mitchell George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933) is a former Democratic Party politician and United States Senator from the state of Maine, and currently serves as Chairman of the global law firm DLA Piper US LLP and also as... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Howard Henry Baker, Jr. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... The Assistant Majority and Minority Leaders of the United States Senate (commonly called Senate Majority and Minority Whips) are the second-ranking members of their parties in the United States Senate. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Alan MacGregor Cranston (June 19, 1914 – December 31, 2000) was a U.S. journalist and politician. ... A President Pro Tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of the United States Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the President of the Senate. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... This article is about the senator. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... This article is about the senator. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the senator. ... William Thad Cochran (born December 7, 1937) is the senior United States Senator from Mississippi. ... Mark Odom Hatfield (born July 12, 1922) is an American politician from Oregon. ... This article is about the senator. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from West Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Erland Harold Hedrick, better know as E. H. Hedrick (born August 9, 1894, died September 20, 1954) was an American Democratic politician from West Virginia. ... John Mark Slack, Jr. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Carolina. ... North Wilkesboro is a town located in Wilkes County, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Byrd is President pro tempore of the United States Senate of the 110th United States Congress, a position that puts him third in line to the presidency, behind Vice President Dick Cheney and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. He held this post also in 1989–1995, briefly in January 2001, and in June 2001 – January 2003. Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... United States Capitol (2002) // The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS)[1] is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Previously he held many leadership positions: Senate Conference Secretary, Majority Whip and twice Majority Leader. He and Republican Trent Lott are the only former majority leaders currently in the Senate. In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... The majority leader is a term used in congressional systems for the chamber leader of the party in control of a legislature. ... Chester Trent Lott, Sr. ...

Contents

Early life

Byrd was born Cornelius Calvin Sale, Jr., in North Wilkesboro, North Carolina, in 1917. When he was one year old, his mother, Ada Mae Kirby, died in the 1918 Flu Pandemic. In accordance with his mother's wishes, his father, Cornelius Calvin Sale,[1] dispersed the family children among relatives. Sale Jr. was given to the custody of an aunt and an uncle, Vlurma and Titus Byrd, who renamed him Robert Byrd and raised him in the coal-mining region of southern West Virginia. North Wilkesboro is a town in Wilkes County, North Carolina, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... Southern West Virginia is a culturally and geographically distinct region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ...


Byrd graduated as valedictorian of his high-school class and, in 1937, married his high-school sweetheart, Erma Ora James. It was twelve years before he could afford a college education.[citation needed] He eventually attended Beckley College (now Mountain State University), Concord College (now Concord University), Morris Harvey College (now the University of Charleston), and Marshall College (now Marshall University), all in West Virginia. He worked as a gas-station attendant, grocery-store clerk, shipyard welder during World War II, and butcher, before, in 1946, he won a seat in the West Virginia House of Delegates, representing Raleigh County in 1947–1950. In 1950, he was elected to the West Virginia Senate, where he served in 1951–1952. After taking a decade of night classes while in Congress, he graduated from American University's Washington College of Law in 1963. In the United States and Canada, the title of valedictorian (an anglicized derivation from the Latin vale dicere, to say farewell) is given to the top graduate of the graduating class (the Australia/New Zealand equivalent being dux, although some Australian universities use the American term) of an educational institution. ... Mountain State University [MSU] is an independent, nonsectarian, coeducational, not-for-profit university based in Beckley, West Virginia. ... Concord University is a comprehensive, public, liberal arts institution located in Athens, West Virginia founded on February 28, 1872, when the West Virginia Legislature passed an Act to locate a Branch State Normal School, in Concord Church, in the County of Mercer. Founded by veterans of both the Union and... The University of Charleston is a private college in Charleston, West Virginia of approximately 1,000 students. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The West Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... Raleigh County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... The West Virginia Senate is the upper house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... The American University Washington College of Law (WCL) was founded in 1896 as the culmination of the pioneering efforts of two women, Ellen Spencer Mussey and Emma Gillett, who wished to open the field of law to women. ...


Then–State Delegate Robert Byrd was among official witnesses during the execution of Harry Burdette and Fred Painter in 1951, which was the first use of the electric chair in West Virginia[2]. Capital punishment in that state was abolished in 1965, the last execution having occurred in 1959. In a 2007 speech, Byrd recalled this event by stating that (electrocution) is not a beautiful thing[3]. The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ...


Participation in the Ku Klux Klan

In 1942, 24-year-old Byrd joined the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), whose parades in Matoaka, West Virginia, he had witnessed in his childhood. He was unanimously elected Exalted Cyclops, or leader, of his local chapter.[4] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Matoaka is a town located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ... Exalted Cyclops was an officer title and rank used by the Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacist hate group based in the United States, at its peak in the early to mid 20th century. ...


Byrd, in his autobiography, attributed the beginnings of his political career to this incident, although he lamented that they involved the Klan. According to Byrd's recollection, KKK official Joel L. Baskin told him "You have a talent for leadership, Bob ... The country needs young men like you in the leadership of the nation." Byrd recalls that "suddenly lights flashed in my mind! Someone important had recognized my abilities. I was only 23 or 24, and the thought of a political career had never struck me. But strike me that night, it did."[4] He participated in the KKK during World War II, holding the titles Kleagle (recruiter) and Exalted Cyclops. He did not serve in the military during the war, working instead as a welder in a Baltimore, Maryland shipyard, where he helped build warships.[citation needed] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kleagle is the title held by a form of Ku Klux Klan officer whose role is to recruit new members. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29...


Byrd commented on the 1945 controversy about racially integrating the military. Byrd, when he was 28 years old, wrote to segregationist Senator Theodore Bilbo, of Mississippi, vowing never to serve in such a military: A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Theodore Gilmore Bilbo (October 13, 1877–August 21, 1947) was an American politician. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Rather I should die a thousand times, and see Old Glory trampled in the dirt never to rise again, than to see this beloved land of ours become degraded by race mongrels, a throwback to the blackest specimen from the wilds.[5]

He had earlier written Bilbo "I shall never fight in the armed forces with a Negro by my side".[6][7]


When running for the United States House of Representatives in 1952, he announced "After about a year, I became disinterested, quit paying my dues, and dropped my membership in the organization. During the nine years that have followed, I have never been interested in the Klan." During this campaign, "Byrd went on the radio to acknowledge that he belonged to the Klan from 'mid-1942 to early 1943,' according to newspaper accounts. He explained that he had joined 'because it offered excitement and because it was strongly opposed to communism.'"[4] However, as late as 1946 or 1947, when he was 29 years old, he was still at least somewhat involved in promoting the KKK, as evidenced by a letter that he wrote to a Grand Wizard stating "The Klan is needed today as never before and I am anxious to see its rebirth here in West Virginia" and "in every state in the nation."[8] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


In 1997, he told an interviewer he would encourage young people to become involved in politics, but to "Be sure you avoid the Ku Klux Klan. Don't get that albatross around your neck. Once you've made that mistake, you inhibit your operations in the political arena."[9] In his latest autobiography, Byrd explained that he was a member because he "was sorely afflicted with tunnel vision—a jejune and immature outlook—seeing only what I wanted to see because I thought the Klan could provide an outlet for my talents and ambitions."[10] Byrd also said, in 2005, "I know now I was wrong. Intolerance had no place in America. I apologized a thousand times ... and I don't mind apologizing over and over again. I can't erase what happened."[4]


Congressional service

In 1952, Byrd was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives for West Virginia's 6th Congressional District, succeeding E.H. Hedrick, who had decided to step down to run for Governor of West Virginia. He was reelected to the House twice. In 1958, he was elected to the United States Senate, defeating Republican incumbent W. Chapman Revercomb. He has been reelected nine times. For his first four terms, Byrd was West Virginia's junior senator. This was because his colleague from 1959 to 1985, Jennings Randolph, had been elected on the same day in a special election to fill the seat of the late Senator Matthew Neely. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... list of West Virginia Governors Arthur I. Boreman Republican 1863-1869 Daniel D. T. Farnsworth Republican 1869-1869 William E. Stevenson Republican 1869-1871 John J. Jacob Democratic 1871-1877 Henry M. Mathews Democratic 1877-1881 Jacob B. Jackson Democratic 1881-1885 Emanuel W. Wilson Democratic 1885-1890 Aretas B... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Image:Chapman Revercomb. ... Jennings Randolph (March 8, 1902–May 8, 1998) was an American politician from West Virginia. ... Matthew Mansfield Neely (November 9, 1874 – January 18, 1958) was a Democratic politician from West Virginia. ...


While Byrd faced some vigorous Republican opposition in the past, he has not faced truly serious opposition since freshman congressman Cleve Benedict took a run at him in 1982. He has since won by comfortable margins. Despite his tremendous popularity in the state, he has only run unopposed once, in 1976. On two other occasions — in 1994 and 2000 — he carried all 55 of West Virginia's counties. In his reelection bid in 2000, he won all but seven of West Virginia's precincts. Shelley Moore Capito, a Congresswoman and the daughter of one of Byrd's longtime foes—former governor Arch Moore, Jr.—briefly weighed a challenge to Byrd in 2006, but decided against it. Coincidentally, Capito's 2nd District includes most of the territory that Byrd represented in the House. [citation needed] Cleveland Keith Benedict, better known as Cleve Benedict, is a Republican politician in West Virginia. ... Shelley Moore Capito (born Shelley Wellons Moore on November 26, 1953) is an American politician. ... Arch Alfred Moore, Jr. ...


In the 1960 Presidential election primaries, Byrd, a close Senate ally of Lyndon B. Johnson, tried and failed to derail the Democratic front-runner and ultimately successful candidate John F. Kennedy in the crucial West Virginia primary by endorsing and vigorously campaigning for Hubert Humphrey.[citation needed] However, Kennedy went to win both critical WV's primary and, eventually, the general election. “LBJ” redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ...


The record of public service longevity

An earlier portrait of Robert Byrd
An earlier portrait of Robert Byrd

On November 7, 2006, Byrd was elected to an unprecedented ninth consecutive term in the Senate. He became the longest-serving senator in American history on June 12, 2006, surpassing Strom Thurmond of South Carolina with 17,327 days of service.[11] Previously, he already held the record for the longest unbroken tenure in the Senate (Thurmond served 48 years in total, but vacated the office between April and November of 1956). Counting his tenure as a West Virginia state legislator from 1947 to 1953, Byrd has served as an elected official for almost 60 years and has never lost an election. Byrd has cast a total of 18,000 votes as of June 21, 2007 — the most of any senator in history [12]. Upon the death of Senator George Smathers of Florida on January 20, 2007, Byrd became the last living United States Senator from the 1950s.[13] This means that not only has Byrd outlived every other Senator who had seniority over him, but he is the only person to ever have remained in the Senate the entire time while doing it. He is on pace to pass Carl Hayden of Arizona as the longest-serving member of Congress (House and Senate tenure combined) in American history sometime in early 2010. Byrd is the last remaining Senator to have voted on a statehood bill and has served longer in the Senate than eight of his colleagues have been alive (those being Bob Casey, Jr., Amy Klobuchar, Blanche Lincoln, John Thune, David Vitter, Barack Obama, Mark Pryor, and John E. Sununu). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years, from 1951 until 1969, as a member of the Democratic Party. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Carl Trumbull Hayden (February 10, 1877 – January 25, 1972) was an American politician and the first United States Senator to serve seven terms. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ... Amy Jean Klobuchar (pronounced KLOH-buh-shar) (born May 25, 1960) is the junior United States Senator from Minnesota. ... Blanche Lambert Lincoln (born September 30, 1960) is a Democratic United States Senator from the State of Arkansas. ... John Randolph Thune (born January 7, 1961) is the junior U.S. Senator from the state of South Dakota. ... David Bruce Vitter (born May 3, 1961), American politician, is a Senator from Louisiana. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... Mark Lunsford Pryor (born January 10, 1963) is a politician in Arkansas. ... John Edward Sununu (born September 10, 1964) is a Republican United States Senator from New Hampshire. ...


Committee Assignments

Byrd is currently the chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Appropriations, a committee to which he was first appointed by then-Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson when he first entered the Senate in 1959. Since 1989, he has been the committee's highest ranking Democrat and has, as a result, chaired the committee when the Democrats have control of the Senate. Byrd is also a member of the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Rules and Administration and the Committee on the Budget. Unlike most members of the Senate, Byrd always goes to his desk before voting, and will chide the other Senators for not doing so.[citation needed] The U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other... The United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration is responsible for dealing with the rules of the United States Senate, with administration of congressional buildings, and with credentials and qualifications of members of the Senate, including responsibility for dealing with contested elections. ... The United States Senate Committee on Budget was established in 1974 by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act. ...


Filibuster of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

A recent photo of Byrd speaking on the Senate floor

Byrd joined with other Southern and border state Democrats to filibuster the Civil Rights Act of 1964, personally filibustering the bill for 14 hours — a move he now says he regrets.[14] Despite an 83 day filibuster in the Senate, both parties in Congress voted overwhelmingly in favor of the Act, and President Johnson signed the bill into law.[15] He also opposed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968. In 2005, Byrd told the Washington Post that his membership in the Baptist church led to a change in his views. In the opinion of one reviewer, Byrd, along with other Southern and border state Democrats, came to realize that he would have to temper "his blatantly segregationist views" and move to the Democratic Party mainstream if he wanted to play a role nationally.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Historic Southern United States. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation...


Because of his opposition to desegregation, Byrd was often regarded as a Dixiecrat - a member of this Democratic Party wing, opposing desegregation and civil rights imposed by the Federal Government. However, despite his early career in the KKK, Byrd was linked to such "dixiecrat" Senators as John C. Stennis, J. William Fulbright or George Smathers, who based their segregationist positions on the theory of state's rights in contrast to, for example, James Eastland, who held a reputation as a committed racist. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905–February 9, 1995) was a well-known member of the United States Senate representing Arkansas. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years, from 1951 until 1969, as a member of the Democratic Party. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... For other uses, see James Eastland (disambiguation). ...


Leadership roles

Senate Majority Leader Robert Byrd on the TIME Cover
Byrd meeting with President Gerald Ford.
Byrd meeting with President Gerald Ford.

Byrd has been a member of the Senate Democratic leadership since 1967, when he was elected as secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference (caucus). He became Senate Majority Whip, or the second-ranking Democrat, in 1971. From 1977 to 1989 Byrd was the leader of the Senate Democrats, serving as Senate Majority Leader from 1977 to 1981 and 1987 to 1989 and as Senate Minority Leader from 1981 to 1987. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Byrd Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert Byrd Metadata This file contains... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Senate Majority Whip is the second ranking member of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two...


In 1976, Byrd was the "favorite son" candidate in West Virginia's primary. His easy victory gave him control of the delegation to the national convention. His real goal was to become Senate majority leader to succeed Mike Mansfield.[citation needed] Byrd had the inside track as majority whip. Byrd focused most of his time on campaigning for the office of majority leader, more so than for re-election to the Senate, as he was virtually unopposed for his fourth term. By the time the vote for majority leader was at hand, he had it so wrapped up that his lone rival, Minnesota's Hubert Humphrey, withdrew before the balloting took place. Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ...


Byrd is well known for steering federal dollars to West Virginia, one of the country's poorest states. In fact, he is called by some the "King of Pork."[16] After becoming chair of the Appropriations Committee in 1989, Byrd sought to steer, over time, a total of $1 billion for public works in the state.[citation needed] He passed that mark in 1991, and the steady stream of funds for highways, dams, educational institutions, and federal agency offices has continued unabated over the course of his membership. More than thirty pending or existing federal projects bear Byrd's name. He commented on his reputation for attaining funds for projects in West Virginia in August 2006 when he called himself "Big Daddy" at the dedication to the Robert C. Byrd Biotechnology Science Center.[17] He is close friends with Ted Stevens (R-AK), with whom he alternated as chairman of the committee from 1995 to 2001, and later as President pro tempore of the Senate. Stevens is also legendary for sending federal money back to his home state. Their relationship has been strained in recent years, however, over Byrd's recent stands on U.S. foreign policy.[citation needed] This article is about the senator. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ...

Byrd with farmers from West Virginia
Byrd with farmers from West Virginia

Byrd is also known for using his knowledge of parliamentary procedure: Before the "Reagan Revolution", Byrd frustrated Republicans with his encyclopedic knowledge of the inner workings of the Senate. From 1977 to 1979 he was described as "performing a procedural tap dance around the minority, outmaneuvering Republicans with his mastery of the Senate's arcane rules."[18] In 1988, while Majority Leader, he moved a call of the senate, which was adopted by the majority present, in order to have the Sergeant at Arms arrest members not in attendance. One member (Robert Packwood, R-OR) was escorted back to the chamber by the Sergeant-at-Arms in order to obtain a quorum.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Parliamentary procedure is the name given to the set of rules governing the decision-making process used by a deliberative assembly. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... A motion is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group. ... A call of the house is a motion which can be adopted by a deliberative assembly that has the authority to compel the attendance of its members in the absence of a quorum. ... The Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the Senate is the law enforcer for the United States Senate. ... Robert William Packwood Robert William Bob Packwood (born September 11, 1932) was a United States Senator from Oregon for the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

President pro tempore Byrd and House Speaker Dennis Hastert presided over a special joint session following the September 11, 2001 attacks. Here President Bush shakes hands with Byrd.
President pro tempore Byrd and House Speaker Dennis Hastert presided over a special joint session following the September 11, 2001 attacks. Here President Bush shakes hands with Byrd.

As the longest-serving Democratic Senator, Byrd has served as President pro Tempore of the Senate four times when his party has been in the majority: from 1989 until the Republicans won control of the Senate in 1995; for 17 days in early 2001, when the Senate was evenly split between parties and outgoing Vice President Al Gore broke the tie in favor of the Democrats; when the Democrats regained the majority in June 2001 after Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont left the Republican party to become an independent; and again in 2007, as a result of the 2006 Senate Elections. In this capacity, Byrd is third in the line of presidential succession, currently behind Vice President Dick Cheney and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... For other persons named Jim Jeffords, see Jim Jeffords (disambiguation). ...  Republican hold  Democratic hold  Democratic pickup  Independent hold Elections for the United States Senate were held on November 7, 2006, with 33 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate being contested. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Scholarships and TAH History Grants

In 1969, Byrd launched a Scholastic Recognition Award; he also began to present a savings bond to valedictorians from high schools, public and private, in West Virginia. In 1985 Congress approved the nation's only merit-based scholarship program funded through the U.S. Department of Education, which Congress later named in Byrd's honor. The Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program initially comprised a one-year, $1,500 award to students with "outstanding academic achievement" and who had been accepted for enrollment at an institution of higher learning. From 1993 onwards, the program began providing four-year scholarships; students who received the first-year scholarship then could apply for stipends for the next three years.[20] The Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program is a federally-funded and state-administered merit-based scholarship program in the United States. ...


In 2002 Byrd secured unanimous approval for a major national initiative to strengthen the teaching of "traditional American history" in the K12 public schools.[21] The Department of Education awards in competition $50 to $120 million a year to school districts (in sums of about $500,000 to $1 million). The money goes to teacher training programs, operated in conjunction with universities or museums, geared to improving the content skills of history teachers. Referred to as a "Byrd Grant," these awards come under the “Learning the Lessons of American History” initiative to strengthen and improve the teaching of American history in the schools.[22]


Senate historian

Byrd and Dr Richard Baker, a Senate historian
Byrd and Dr Richard Baker, a Senate historian

Television cameras were first introduced to the U.S. House of Representatives on March 19, 1979, with the launch of C-SPAN. Fearing that Americans only saw the Congress as the House of Representatives, Byrd believed that Senate proceedings should be televised to prevent the Senate from becoming the "invisible branch" of government. Thanks in part to Byrd's efforts, cameras came to the Senate floor in June 1986. To help introduce the public to the inner workings of the legislative process, Byrd launched a series of speeches based on his examination of the Roman Republic and the intent of the Framers. Byrd published a four volume series on Senate history: The Senate: 1789–1989. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


For that work, the American Historical Association, presented Byrd with the first Theodore Roosevelt–Woodrow Wilson Award for Civil Service on January 8, 2004. The honorific award is intended to recognize individuals outside the academy "who have made a significant contribution to history." During the 1980s, he delivered a hundred speeches on the floor dealing with various aspects of the Senate's history, which were published in four volumes as The Senate, 1789–1989: Addresses on the History of the Senate (Government Printing Office, 1989–94). The first volume of his series won the Henry Adams Prize of the Society for History in the Federal Government as "an outstanding contribution to research in the history of the Federal Government." He also published The Senate of the Roman Republic: Addresses on the History of Roman Constitutionalism (Government Printing Office, 1995). The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Byrd in music and cinema

Byrd was an avid fiddle player for most of his life, starting in his teens when he played in various square dance bands. Once he entered politics, he used his fiddling skills to attract attention and win votes. In 1978 when Byrd was Majority Leader, he recorded an album called U.S. Senator Robert Byrd: Mountain Fiddler (County, 1978). Byrd was accompanied by Country Gentlemen Doyle Lawson, James Bailey, and Spider Gilliam. Most of the LP consists of "old-timey" mountain music. Byrd covers "Don't Let Your Sweet Love Die," a Zeke Manners song, and "Will the Circle Be Unbroken." He has performed at the Kennedy Center and on Hee Haw. He can no longer play the fiddle due to the symptoms of a benign essential tremor that affects his hands.[23] Prior to that, he would occasionally take a break from Senate business to entertain audiences with his fiddle. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The Country Gentlemen are a bluegrass band originating in the area of Washington, DC, United States. ... Can the Circle Be Unbroken (Bye and Bye) (Cover versions usually title it Will the Circle be Unbroken) is a well-known country/folk song by Ada R. Habershon. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Senator Byrd also appeared in the Civil War movie Gods and Generals in 2003 along with former Virginia Senator George Allen as Confederate officers.[24] For other uses, see Gods and Generals (disambiguation). ... George Felix Allen (born March 8, 1952, in Whittier, California) is a Republican United States Senator from Virginia. ...


Political views

Voting record

Despite his long tenure as a member of the Senate Democratic leadership, Byrd is one of the more independent-minded Senate Democrats. He has a reputation for putting the interests of the Senate and West Virginia above the interests of his party.


On occasion, Byrd disagreed with President Bill Clinton's policies. Byrd initially said that the impeachment proceedings against Clinton should be taken seriously and conducted completely. Although he harshly criticized any attempt to make light of it, he made the motion to dismiss the charges against the president and effectively suspend proceedings. Even though he voted against both articles of impeachment, he was the sole Democrat to vote for the censure of Clinton.[25] He strongly opposed Clinton's 1993 efforts to allow gays to serve in the military and has also supported efforts to limit gay marriage. However, he opposed the Federal Marriage Amendment, arguing that it was unnecessary because the states already had the power to ban gay marriages.[26] However, when the amendment came to the Senate floor he was one of the two Democratic Senators who voted in favor of the cloture motion.[27] He also opposes affirmative action. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... While working as an intern at the White House, Monica Lewinsky had a short-term sexual relationship with President Bill Clinton. ... Distinguish from sensor, censer and censor. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... The United States Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ... This box:      Affirmative actionrefers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ...


He also voiced praise for George W. Bush's nomination of Judge John Roberts to fill the vacancy on the Supreme Court created by the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist. Likewise, Byrd supported the confirmation of Samuel Alito to replace retiring Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Like most Democrats, however, Byrd opposes Bush's tax cuts and his proposals to change the Social Security program. This article is about the Chief Justice of the United States. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ...


Byrd is opposed to the Flag Desecration Amendment, saying that, while he wants to protect the American flag, he believed that amending the constitution "is not the most expeditious way to protect this revered symbol of our Republic." In response to the amendment, Byrd has cosponsored S. 1370, a bill that prohibits destruction or desecration of the flag by anyone trying to incite violence or causing a breach of the peace. It also provides that anyone who steals, damages, or destroys a flag on federal property, whether a flag owned by the federal government or a private group or individual, can be imprisoned for up to two years, or can be fined up to $250,000, or both.[28] The Flag Desecration Amendment, often referred to as the flag burning amendment, is a controversial proposed constitutional amendment to the United States Constitution that would allow the United States Congress to statutorily prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars...


In 2004, Byrd offered an amendment that would limit the personnel in Plan Colombia, but was defeated in the Senate.[29] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ...


Byrd received a 65% vote rating from the League of Conservation Voters for his support of environmentally friendly legislation.[30] Additionally, he received a "liberal" rating of 65.5% by the National Journal — higher than six other Democratic senators.[31] National Journal is a weekly magazine that provides Insight for Insiders through nonpartisan reporting on the current political environment as well as emerging political and policy trends. ...


In 2006, Byrd received 67% rating from the ACLU for supporting rights-related legislation.[32] The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ...


Race and race relations

On March 4, 2001, Byrd said race relations: is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

"Are much, much better than they've ever been in my lifetime.... I think we talk about race too much. I think those problems are largely behind us ... I just think we talk so much about it that we help to create somewhat of an illusion. I think we try to have good will. My old mom told me, 'Robert, you can't go to heaven if you hate anybody.' We practice that. There are white niggers. I've seen a lot of white niggers in my time. I'm going to use that word. We just need to work together to make our country a better country, and I'd just as soon quit talking about it so much."[33]

Byrd's use of the term "nigger" created immediate controversy, When asked about it, Byrd apologized for the language: " 'I apologize for the characterization I used on this program,' he said. 'The phrase dates back to my boyhood and has no place in today's society. [...] 'In my attempt to articulate strongly held feelings, I may have offended people.' "[33] // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ...


Byrd has since explicitly renounced his earlier views on racial segregation. [34][35] Byrd said that he regrets filibustering and voting against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and would change it if he had the opportunity. In explanation of his vote he said, "We who were born in a southern environment...ought to get ahead of the curve and take down those [white only] signs ourselves. We shouldn't need a law to require us to do it."[citation needed] Byrd, however, said that he realized people were too set in their ways to integrate society on their own and therefore the Civil Rights Act became necessary.[citation needed] Byrd has also said that his views changed most dramatically after his teen-age grandson was killed in a 1982 traffic accident, which put him in a deep emotional valley." The death of my grandson caused me to stop and think," said Byrd, adding he came to realize that black people love their children as much as he does his.[36] President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


Byrd is the only Senator to have voted against the nominations of both Thurgood Marshall and Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court, the only two African Americans to have been nominated to the court. Marshall's confirmation vote came in 1967 when Byrd and other segregationist senators were opposed to the idea of a black integrationist being placed on the court[37] In order to gain evidence against Marshall's appointment, Byrd asked the FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, to look into what Byrd believed to be the possibility that Marshall had either connections to communists or a potential communist past.[38] Byrd opposed Thomas because Byrd stated that he was "offended" by Thomas using the phrase "high-tech lynching of uppity blacks" in his defense. Byrd stated that he was "offended by the injection of racism" into the hearing. He called Justice Thomas' comments a mere "diversionary tactic". Byrd commented upon the "racism" issue that Thomas raised by stating that "I (Byrd) thought we were past that stage." Byrd called Thomas' "high-tech lynching" reference an attempt by Thomas of "blatant intimidation" of members of the committee. Byrd dismissed Thomas' racism charges by stating that Thomas exhibited "arrogance" and Thomas' comments were, "nonsense, nonsense." Byrd also stated that even though there were no other witnesses to Anita Hill's charges against Thomas, Byrd believed Hill.[39] Byrd joined 45 other Democrats in their opposition to Thomas.[40] Byrd also opposed some of George W. Bush's judicial and cabinet nominees who were black, notably Federal Judge Janice Rogers Brown and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Niger Innis, a self-described conservative[41] and official with the civil rights organization Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) told NewsMax that Byrd's hold on Rice's nomination was "racist" and said that Byrd has "black colleagues in the House and the Senate who apologize for him."[42] Mychal Massie of Project 21, another prominent conservative African American commentator, has also hinted at an underlying racism as a possible motive for Byrd's opposition to the confirmation of these nominees.[43] Despite his opposition to Brown's appointment, Byrd would later ally himself with the Gang of 14 that would ensure that Brown's nomination would not be filibustered. Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an influential but controversial Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. ... The Honorable Janice Rogers Brown Janice Rogers Brown (born May 11, 1949 in Greenville, Alabama) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Niger Innis of the Congress of Racial Equality. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... NewsMax. ... Project 21 is a media public relations group that provides broadcasters with prominent African-American conservative commentators as guests. ... The Gang of 14 (sometimes called the Mod Squad, with mod standing for moderate) was a term coined to describe the bipartisan group of moderate Senators who successfully negotiated a compromise to avoid the deployment of the so-called nuclear option over the organized use of the filibuster by Senate...


In the NAACP's[44] Congressional Report Card for the 108th Congress (spanning the 2003–2004 congressional session), Byrd was awarded with an approval rating of 100% for favoring the NAACP's position in all 33 bills presented to the United States Senate regarding issues of their concern. Only 16 other Senators of the same session matched this approval rating. In June 2005, Byrd[45] proposed an additional $10 million in federal funding for the Martin Luther King memorial in Washington, DC, remarking that "With the passage of time, we have come to learn that his Dream was the American Dream, and few ever expressed it more eloquently." The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ...


War in Iraq

In the 107th Congress, Byrd suffered some legislative setbacks, particularly with respect to debates on homeland security. Byrd opposed the 2002 law creating the Homeland Security Department, saying it ceded too much authority to the executive branch. He led a filibuster against the resolution granting President George W. Bush broad power to wage a "preemptive" war against Iraq, but he could not get a majority of his own party to vote against cloture and against the resolution.[46] He also led the opposition to Bush's bid to win back the power to negotiate trade deals that Congress cannot amend, but lost overwhelmingly. But, in the 108th Congress, Byrd won his party's top seat on the new Homeland Security Appropriations Subcommittee. For the NBC TV Movie starring Tom Skeritt, see Homeland Security (film). ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


Byrd was one of the Senate's most outspoken critics of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


He appeared on March 7, 2003 on CNN's Larry King Live to discuss his U.S. Senate floor speeches against the Iraq War Resolution in 2002. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Larry King (born November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American writer, journalist and broadcaster. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq (H.J.Res. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


In a speech on March 13 he stated:

"If the United States leads the charge to war in the Persian Gulf, we may get lucky and achieve a rapid victory. But then we will face a second war: a war to win the peace in Iraq. This war will last many years and will surely cost hundreds of billions of dollars. In light of this enormous task, it would be a great mistake to expect that this will be a replay of the 1991 war. The stakes are much higher in this conflict."[3]

On March 19, 2003, when Bush ordered the invasion after receiving U.S. Congress approval, Byrd stated: is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...

"Today I weep for my country. I have watched the events of recent months with a heavy, heavy heart. No more is the image of America one of strong, yet benevolent peacekeeper. The image of America has changed. Around the globe, our friends mistrust us, our word is disputed, our intentions are questioned. Instead of reasoning with those with whom we disagree, we demand obedience or threaten recrimination."[47]

Byrd also criticized Bush for his speech declaring the "end of major combat operations" in Iraq, which Bush made on the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln. Byrd stated on the Senate floor: USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ...

"I do question the motives of a deskbound president who assumes the garb of a warrior for the purposes of a speech."[48]

On October 17, 2003, Byrd delivered a speech expressing his concerns about the future of the nation and his unequivocal antipathy to Bush's policies. Referencing the Hans Christian Andersen children's tale The Emperor's New Clothes, Byrd said of the president: "the emperor has no clothes." Byrd further lamented the "sheep-like" behavior of the "cowed Members of this Senate" and called on them to oppose the continuation of a "war based on falsehoods." is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans Christian Andersen or simply H.C. Andersen , (April 2, 1805 – August 4, 1875) was a Danish author and poet, most famous for his fairy tales. ... The emperor in procession by Edmund Dulac For other uses, see The Emperors New Clothes (disambiguation). ...


Byrd criticized what he saw as the stifling of dissent: "The right to ask questions, debate, and dissent is under attack. The drums of war are beaten ever louder in an attempt to drown out those who speak of our predicament in stark terms. Even in the Senate, our history and tradition of being the world's greatest deliberative body is being snubbed. This huge spending bill — $87 billion — has been rushed through this chamber in just one month. There were just three open hearings by the Senate Appropriations Committee on $87 billion — $87 for every minute since Jesus Christ was born — $87 billion without a single outside witness called to challenge the administration's line." Finally, Byrd quoted Nazi leader Hermann Göring who stated that rushing to war is easy if the proponent of war portrays opponents as unpatriotic.[49] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


In July 2004, Byrd released the book Losing America: Confronting a Reckless and Arrogant Presidency about the Bush presidency and the war in Iraq. There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ...


Of the more than 17,000 votes he has cast as a Senator, Byrd says he is proudest of his vote against the Iraq war resolution.[50] Byrd has also voted for funding the Iraq war with a timetable for troop withdrawal.


Gang of 14

On May 23, 2005, Byrd was one of fourteen Senators (who became known as the "Gang of 14") to forge a compromise on the use of the judicial filibuster, thus securing up and down votes for the judicial nominees and ending the need for a "nuclear option". Under the agreement, the senators would retain the power to filibuster a judicial nominee in only an "extraordinary circumstance". It ensured that the appellate court nominees (Janice Rogers Brown, Priscilla Owen and William Pryor) would receive a vote by the full Senate. is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gang of 14 (sometimes called the Mod Squad, with mod standing for moderate) was a term coined to describe the bipartisan group of moderate Senators who successfully negotiated a compromise to avoid the deployment of the so-called nuclear option over the organized use of the filibuster by Senate... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... The nuclear option, usually called the constitutional option, and sometimes the Byrd option, is a method by which changes can be made to the standard parliamentary procedure of the United States Senate by a simple majority vote, contrary to the requirements of the written rules. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Appeal. ... The Honorable Janice Rogers Brown Janice Rogers Brown (born May 11, 1949 in Greenville, Alabama) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. ... Priscilla Owen (born in Palacios, Texas, October 4, 1954) is a judge in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. ... William Holcombe Pryor, Jr. ...


Congressional election results

1952–2000 election results are from the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. [4] 2006 election results are from the West Virginia Secretary of State.[5]

Year Office Incumbent Party Votes Pct Challenger Party Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct
1952 U.S. House Robert C. Byrd Democratic 104,387 56% Latelle M. LaFollette Republican 83,429 44%
1954 U.S. House Robert C. Byrd Democratic 73,535 63% Pat B. Withrow, Jr. Republican 43,685 37%
1956 U.S. House Robert C. Byrd Democratic 99,854 57% Cleo S. Jones Republican 74,110 43%
1958 U.S. Senate W. Chapman Revercomb Republican 263,172 41% Robert C. Byrd Democratic 381,745 59%
1964 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 515,015 68% Cooper P. Benedict Republican 246,072 32%
1970 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 345,965 78% Elmer Dodson Republican 99,658 22%
1976 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 566,359 100% Unopposed
1982 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 387,170 68% Cleve Benedict Republican 173,910 31% William Hovland Socialist Workers 4,234 1%
1988 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 410,983 65% M. Jay Wolfe Republican 223,564 35%
1994 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 290,495 69% Stanley L. Klos Republican 130,441 31%
2000 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 469,215 78% David T. Gallaher Republican 121,635 20% Joe Whelan Libertarian 12,627 2%
2006 U.S. Senate Robert C. Byrd Democratic 296,276 64% John Raese Republican 155,043 34% Jesse Johnson Mountain Party 8,565 2%

Note: Representative E.H. Hedrick (D) did not seek re-election in 1952 for West Virginia's 6th Congressional District; thus the seat did not have an incumbent. Therefore, Byrd was placed under the incumbent column because he had the same political affiliation as Hedrick. The U.S. House election, 1952 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1952 which coincided with the election of President Dwight Eisenhower. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The U.S. House election, 1954 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1954 which occurred in the middle of President Dwight Eisenhowers first term. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The U.S. House election, 1956 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1956 which coincided with the re-election of President Dwight Eisenhower. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1958 was an election for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of President Dwight D. Eisenhowers second term. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Image:Chapman Revercomb. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1964 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the re-election of President Lyndon Baines Johnson by an overwhelming majority. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Results -- Conservative pickups in orange, Independent pickups in yellow, Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1970 was an election for the United States Senate which was a midterm election in the term of... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Results -- Independent holds in light yellow, Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1976 was an election for the United States Senate that coincided with Democrat Jimmy Carters election to the presidency. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1982 was an election for the United States Senate following the Republican gains in 1980. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Cleveland Keith Benedict, better known as Cleve Benedict, is a Republican politician in West Virginia. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1988 was an election for the United States Senate in which, in spite of the Republican victory by George Herbert Walker Bush in the presidential election... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Republican holds in light red, Republican pickup in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Stanley Louis Stan Klos (born January 18, 1954) is an Entrepreneur, former Italian basketball player who later became a well-known Historian and Author from Florida. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Republican hold in light red, Republican pickup in dark red, Democratic hold in light blue, Democratic pickup in dark blue. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Seats up for election. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Raese, was a candidate in 1984 and is currently a candidate for the United States Senate as a Republican. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Mountain Party is a minor political party in the state of West Virginia. ...


2006 re-election campaign

Byrd was sworn in for record ninth term as Senator on January 4, 2007 accompanied with fellow Democratic Senator from West Virginia Jay Rockefeller
Byrd was sworn in for record ninth term as Senator on January 4, 2007 accompanied with fellow Democratic Senator from West Virginia Jay Rockefeller

After several major Republican figures in the state decided not to run against Byrd, the Republican party convinced John Raese to run for this seat. Raese is the owner of radio stations and a newspaper in West Virginia. He ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in 1984 against then Governor Jay Rockefeller. In 1988, he ran against Governor Arch Moore for the Republican nomination and lost. Senator Robert C. Byrd The West Virginia United States Senate Election of 2006 will be held on November 7, 2006. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dean of the US Senate Robert Byrd (D-WV), accompanied by fellow Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-WV), takes the Oath of Office for a record... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dean of the US Senate Robert Byrd (D-WV), accompanied by fellow Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-WV), takes the Oath of Office for a record... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937), generally known as Jay Rockefeller, has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... John Raese, was a candidate in 1984 and is currently a candidate for the United States Senate as a Republican. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937), generally known as Jay Rockefeller, has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... Arch Alfred Moore, Jr. ...


Raese won the May 2006 primary with 58 percent of the vote, defeating five other candidates. Byrd defeated him on November 7, 2006, securing a ninth consecutive term in the Senate.


2007 Senate highlights

On July 19, 2007, Sen. Byrd, a self-described dog lover, gave a 25-minute passionate speech against dog fighting, in response to the indictment of football player Michael Vick. Senator Byrd called dog fighting a "brutal, sadistic event motivated by barbarism of the worst sort and cruelty of the worst, worst, worst sadistic kind. One is left wondering: 'Who are real the animals: the creatures inside the ring, or the creatures outside the ring?'"[6] (At 8:02 - 8:59) (See Also [7]) is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Two dogs fighting Dog fighting is a physical fight between canines, sometimes involving the pitting of two dogs against each other for the entertainment of spectators, and for the purpose of gambling. ... Michael Dwayne Vick (born June 26, 1980 in Newport News, Virginia) is an American football quarterback for the National Football Leagues Atlanta Falcons franchise. ...


Recently Byrd was found as the third-most powerful U.S. Senator[51], just behind Majority Leader Harry Reid and Majority Whip Dick Durbin, fellow Democrats. Harry Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Richard Joseph Durbin (born November 21, 1944) is an American politician. ...


Family

Ada Kirby
Ada Kirby

Byrd has two daughters, Mona and Marjorie, as well as several grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Wife: Erma Ora James Byrd (died March 26, 2006)
  • Children: Mona Byrd Fatemi and Marjorie Byrd Moore
  • Sons-in-Law: Mohammad Fatemi and Jon Moore
  • Grandchildren: Erik Fatemi, Darius Fatemi, and Frederik Fatemi, Michael Moore (deceased), Mona Moore, and Mary Anne Moore, Ashlee Moore.
  • Great-grandchildren: Caroline Byrd Fatemi, Kathryn Somes Fatemi, Anna Cristina Fatemi, Michael Yoo Fatemi, Emma James Clarkson and Hannah Byrd Clarkson.

Byrd is not related to Harry F. Byrd and Harry F. Byrd, Jr., both former U.S. Senators from Virginia. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Byrd in popular culture

George Felix Allen (born March 8, 1952, in Whittier, California) is a Republican United States Senator from Virginia. ... For other uses, see Gods and Generals (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Geoffrey Archer. ... Shall We Tell The President? is a 1977 book by English author Jeffrey Archer. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...

Published writing

  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 2005. Robert C. Byrd: Child of the Appalachian Coalfields. ISBN 1-933202-00-9.
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 2004. Losing America: Confronting A Reckless and Arrogant Presidency. ISBN 0-393-05942-1.
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 2004. We Stand Passively Mute: Senator Robert C. Byrd's Iraq Speeches. ISBN 0-9755749-0-6.
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 1995. Senate of the Roman Republic: Addresses on the History of Roman Constitutionalism. ISBN 0-16-058996-7
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 1995. The Senate, 1789–1989: Classic Speeches, 1830–1993, Vol. 3. ISBN 0-16-063257-9
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 1993. The Senate, 1789–1989: Historical Statistics, 1789–1992, Vol. 4. ISBN 0-16-063256-0
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 1991. The Senate, 1789–1989, Vol. 2: Addresses on the History of the United States Senate. ISBN 0-16-006405-8
  • Senator Robert C. Byrd. 1989. The Senate, 1789–1989, Vol. 1: Addresses on the History of the United States Senate. ISBN 0-16-006391-4

Placenames

Byrd is known for having amassed one of the largest number of placenames in the history of Congress. This has caused consternation among some of Senator Byrd's critics, due to the fact that toponyms are typically bestowed posthumously.[citation needed] Others say that the placenames are simply a testament to his long record of public service. [citation needed] Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ...

Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Oglebay Park is a municipal park located on 1,650 acres (6. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... AHDS is part of the Appalachian Regional Commission History In 1964, the President’s Appalachian Regional Commission (PARC) reported to Congress that economic growth in Appalachia would not be possible until the Region’s isolation had been overcome. ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... The Robert C. Byrd Biotechnology Science Center biotechnology research and teaching structure on the campus of Marshall University along 3rd Avenue in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... The Robert C. Byrd Bridge replaced an older bridge, a narrow two lane structure, that was demolished in a spectatular implosion on July 17, 1995, after 69 years of service. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Chesapeake is a village located in Lawrence County, Ohio. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... Morgantown is a city in Monongalia County,GR6 West Virginia, on the banks of the Monongahela River. ... Shepherd University, formerly Shepherd College, is an American university in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... The University of Charleston is a private college in Charleston, West Virginia of approximately 1,000 students. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... The West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine is a public, stand-alone osteopathic medical school located in Lewisburg, West Virginia. ... Lewisburg is a city located in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Pine Grove is a town located in Wetzel County, West Virginia. ... Davis and Elkins College is a small residential liberal arts college of 650 students located in Elkins, West Virginia. ... Davis Avenue in downtown Elkins Elkins is a city in Randolph County, West Virginia, United States. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ... Sophia is a town located in Raleigh County, West Virginia. ... Signs for U-turn ramps on US 22 in Union County, New Jersey United States Highway 22, an east-west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the worlds largest fully steerable radio telescope. ... Green Bank is located within Pocahontas County, West Virginia (Eastern Region), inside the Allegheny Mountain Range, and can be reached via Hwy 28. ... Princeton is a city in Mercer County, West Virginia, United States. ... Bethany College can refer to any of the following colleges: Bethany College in Scotts Valley, California Bethany College in Lindsborg, Kansas Bethany College of West Virginia Bethany Lutheran College This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bethany is a town located in Brooke County, West Virginia. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... Morgantown is a city in Monongalia County,GR6 West Virginia, on the banks of the Monongahela River. ... This fine school is a part of Harrison County Schools. ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ... Rocket Center shares a Zip Code with Keyser, West Virginia but is located 15 miles north along the Potomac River. ... Rocket Center shares a Zip Code with Keyser, West Virginia but is located 15 miles north along the Potomac River. ... Moorefield is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, USA. Moorefield is the county seat of Hardy County. ... Robert C. Byrd Institute The Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing (RCBI) is an independent program administered by Marshall University. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... Bridgeport is a city located in Harrison County, West Virginia. ... Rocket Center shares a Zip Code with Keyser, West Virginia but is located 15 miles north along the Potomac River. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Mountain State University [MSU] is an independent, nonsectarian, coeducational, not-for-profit university based in Beckley, West Virginia. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ... Gallipolis Ferry is an unincorporated community in Mason County, West Virginia on the Ohio River located along WV 2. ... Rocket Center shares a Zip Code with Keyser, West Virginia but is located 15 miles north along the Potomac River. ... Bridgeport is a city located in Harrison County, West Virginia. ... Wheeling Jesuit University is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Shepherd University, formerly Shepherd College, is an American university in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... Alderson-Broaddus College, informally known as A-B, is a private, four-year liberal arts college affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the West Virginia Baptist Convention located in Philippi, West Virginia, USA. Alderson-Broaddus was formed in 1932 by the union of two Baptist institutions: Alderson Academy... Philippi (pronounced FILL-uh-pea) is a city located in Barbour County, West Virginia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 2,870. ... Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... Wheeling Jesuit University is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ...

Further reading

  1. ^ http://www.wargs.com/political/byrd.html
  2. ^ http://www.wvculture.org/hiStory/timetrl/ttfeb.html
  3. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACotE_dgt-k
  4. ^ a b c d e Pianin, Eric. "A Senator's Shame: Byrd, in His New Book, Again Confronts Early Ties to KKK", Washington Post, 2005-06-19, pp. A01. Retrieved on 2006-10-03. (English) 
  5. ^ George Mason University
  6. ^ Robert C. Byrd, in a letter to Sen. Theodore Bilbo (D-MS), 1944
  7. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/18/AR2005061801105_2.html
  8. ^ King, Colbert I.Sen. Byrd: The view from Darrell's barbershop, Washington Post, March 2, 2002
  9. ^ "The Democrats' Lott." The Wall Street Journal, December 28, 2002
  10. ^ "Robert C. Byrd: Child of the Appalachian Coalfields" (June 2005) — West Virginia University Press ISBN 1-933202-00-9
  11. ^ The Hill
  12. ^ http://blogs.usatoday.com/onpolitics/2007/06/another-milesto.html
  13. ^ U.S. Senate
  14. ^ "Byrd Says He Regrets Voting For Patriot Act", Associate Press, 2006-02-28. Retrieved on 2006-10-03. (English) 
  15. ^ http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Civil_Rights_Filibuster_Ended.htm U.S. Senate, June 10, 1964: Civil Rights Filibuster Ended]
  16. ^ http://www.cagw.org/site/PageServer?pagename=news_byrddroppings
  17. ^ Herald-Dispatch
  18. ^ The New York Times
  19. ^ http://www.c-span.org/questions/weekly12.asp
  20. ^ "Robert C. Byrd: A Lifelong Student". Retrieved November 4, 2006.
  21. ^ Historians.org
  22. ^ See U.S. Dept. of Education
  23. ^ Larry King Live, Time frame: 04:05, verified 09 May 2007
  24. ^ 'Gods and Generals'—and Congress
  25. ^ U.S. Senate
  26. ^ Robert Byrd Senate Office
  27. ^ Human Rights Campaign
  28. ^ Robert Byrd 2006 Campaign
  29. ^ US Senate
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ National Journal
  32. ^ ACLU
  33. ^ a b "Top Senate Democrat apologizes for slur", CNN, March 4, 2001.
  34. ^ "What About Byrd?", Slate, 2002-12-18. Retrieved on 2007-09-17. (English) 
  35. ^ "Sen. Robert Byrd Discusses His Past and Present", Inside Politics, CNN, December 20, 1993
  36. ^ C-SPAN
  37. ^ Williams, Juan. "Right Time, Right Man?". American Revolutionary.
  38. ^ Johnson, Scott.Saying Goodbye to a Great One, Weekly Standard, June 1, 2005.
  39. ^ Byrd, Robert. Robert Byrd Speaks Out Against the Appointment of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court 10-14-1991, American Voices, October 14, 1991.
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ National Review
  42. ^ NewsMax
  43. ^ Massie, Mychal. "The lie that keeps on living", WorldNetDaily, September 27, 2005.
  44. ^ NAACP
  45. ^ Robert Byrd Senate Office
  46. ^ "Senate approves Iraq war resolution", CNN, October 11, 2002.
  47. ^ Byrd, Robert (Mar. 23, 2003). Why I weep for my country. The Observer.
  48. ^ Milbank, Dana (May 7, 2003). Explanation for Bush's Carrier Landing Altered. The Washington Post.
  49. ^ Common Dreams
  50. ^ CNN
  51. ^ http://www.congress.org/congressorg/power_rankings/power_card.tt?id=622

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Situation Room is an afternoon newscast on CNN hosted by Wolf Blitzer that first aired on August 8, 2005. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Articles Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... Project Vote Smart (PVS) is a non-profit, non-partisan research organization that collects and distributes information on candidates for public office in the United States. ...

  • If This Is the Senate's Soul... Michael Grunwald, Washington Post, June 18, 2006
  • Why did the Post protect Byrd's image? Byron York, The Hill, June 23, 2005
  • A Senator's Shame Eric Pianin, Washington Post, June 19, 2005
  • The United States Senate designates Robert Byrd as President Pro Tempore Emeritus of the United States Senate The Library of Congress THOMAS, January 15, 2003
Preceded by
E. H. Hedrick
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from West Virginia's 6th congressional district

1953–1959
Succeeded by
John Slack, Jr.
Preceded by
W. Chapman Revercomb
United States Senator (Class 1) from West Virginia
January 3, 1959 – present
Served alongside: Jennings Randolph, John D. Rockefeller IV
Incumbent
Preceded by
Ted Kennedy
Massachusetts
Senate Majority Whip
Senate Democratic Whip

1971–1977
Succeeded by
Alan Cranston
California
Preceded by
Mike Mansfield
Montana
Senate Democratic Leader
1977-1989
Succeeded by
George Mitchell
Maine
Senate Majority Leader
1977–1981
Succeeded by
Howard Baker
Tennessee
Preceded by
Howard Baker
Tennessee
Senate Minority Leader
1981–1987
Succeeded by
Bob Dole
Kansas
Preceded by
Bob Dole
Kansas
Senate Majority Leader
1987–1989
Succeeded by
George Mitchell
Maine
Preceded by
John C. Stennis
Mississippi
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
1989–1995
Succeeded by
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolina
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
1989–1995
Succeeded by
Mark O. Hatfield
Oregon
Preceded by
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolina
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
January 3January 20, 2001
Succeeded by
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolina
Preceded by
Theodore F. Stevens
Alaska
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
January 3January 20, 2001
Succeeded by
Theodore F. Stevens
Alaska
Preceded by
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolina
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
June 6, 2001January 3, 2003
Preceded by
Theodore F. Stevens
Alaska
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
June 6, 2001January 3, 2003
Preceded by
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolina
Dean of the United States Senate
January 4, 2003–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate
January 15, 2003January 3, 2007
Succeeded by
Theodore F. Stevens
Alaska
Preceded by
Theodore F. Stevens
Alaska
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
January 4, 2007–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
W. Thad Cochran
Mississippi
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
January 4, 2007–present
Preceded by
George Smathers
Most Senior Living U.S. Senator
(Sitting or Former)

January 20, 2007
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Nancy Pelosi
Speaker of the House of Representatives
United States Presidential Line of Succession
3rd in line
Succeeded by
Condoleezza Rice
Secretary of State
Current Committee Assignments
Committee Position
Appropriations Committee Chairman, Subcommittee Chairman
Armed Services
Budget
Rules and Administration

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Byrd - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4658 words)
Byrd announced on September 27, 2005 at the State House in Charleston that he is running for a historic ninth term in 2006.
Byrd's use of the term "nigger," a highly charged and deeply insulting epithet in the U.S. that was used against African-Americans, especially in the American South in the segregation era, created immediate controversy, although he was not challenged by interviewer Snow.
Byrd was one of the Senate's most outspoken critics of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Bush Doctrine's support of unilateralism and preemptive warfare.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m