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Encyclopedia > Robert Burns Woodward

Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist. He made many important contributions to modern organic chemistry, especially in the synthesis and structure determination of complex natural products, and worked closely with Roald Hoffmann on theoretical studies of chemical reactions. Woodward won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965. April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... Roald Hoffmann (born July 18, 1937 as Roald Safran --- Hoffmann is the surname of his stepfather) is an American theoretical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ...

Contents


Early life and education

Woodward was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Arthur Woodward (an immigrant from England) and Margaret Woodward, nee Burns (an immigrant from Scotland, born in Glasgow). Nickname: City on a Hill, Beantown, The Hub of the Universe (The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System), Athens of America Location in Massachusetts Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas Menino (D) Area    - City 232. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


From a very early age, Woodward was attracted to chemistry and engaged in private study while he attended the public primary and secondary schools of Quincy, Massachusetts. By the time he entered high school, he had already managed to perform most of the experiments in Paul Gatterman's then widely used textbook of experimental organic chemistry. In 1928, Woodward contacted the Consul-General of the German consulate in Boston, and through him, managed to obtain copies of a few original papers published in German journals. Later, in his Cope lecture, he recalled how he had been fascinated when, among these papers, he chanced upon Diels and Alder's original communication about the Diels-Alder reaction. Throughout his career, Woodward was to repeatedly and powerfully use and investigate this reaction, both in theoretical and experimental ways. In 1933, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but neglected his formal studies badly enough to be expelled the next year. MIT readmitted him in 1935, and by 1936 he had received the Bachelor of Science degree. Only one year later, MIT awarded him the doctorate, when his classmates were still graduating with their bachelor's degrees. Woodward's doctoral work involved investigations related to the synthesis of the female sex hormone estrone. After a short postdoctoral stint at the University of Illinois, he took a Junior Fellowship at Harvard University from 1937 to 1938, and remained at Harvard in various capacities for the rest of his life. In the 1960s, Woodward was named Donner Professor of Science, a title that freed him from teaching formal courses so that he could devote his entire time to research. Chemistry (from the Greek word χημεία (chemeia) meaning cast together or pour together) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms (such as molecules, crystals, and metals). ...   Settled: 1625 â€“ Incorporated: 1792 Zip Code(s): 02169, 02170, 02171 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Location Location in Massachusetts Government County Norfolk County Form of Government Mayor-council city Mayor William J. Phelan Geography Area Total 26. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Its mission and culture are guided by an emphasis on teaching and research grounded in practical applications of science and technology. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... Structural formula of estrone Estrone is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Early work

The first major contribution of Woodward's career in the early 1940s was a series of papers describing the application of ultraviolet spectroscopy in the elucidation of the structure of natural products. Woodward collected together a large amount of empirical data, and then devised a series of rules later called the Woodward rules, which could be applied to finding out the structures of new natural substances, as well as non-natural synthesized molecules. The expedient use of newly developed instrumental techniques was a characteristic Woodward exemplified throughout his career, and it marked a radical change from the extremely tedious and long chemical methods of structural elucidation that had been used until then. Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ...


In 1944, with his post doctoral researcher, William von Doering, Woodward completed the synthesis of the alkaloid quinine, used to treat malaria. Although the synthesis was publicized as a breakthrough in procuring the hard to get medicinal compound from Japanese occupied southeast Asia, in reality it was too long and tedious to adopt on a practical scale. Nevertheless it was a landmark for chemical synthesis. Woodward's particular insight in this synthesis was to realise that the German chemist Paul Rabe had converted a precursor of quinine called quinotoxine to quinine in 1905. Hence, a synthesis of quinotoxine (which Woodward actually synthesized)) would be tantamount to synthesizing quinine. When Woodward accomplished this feat, organic synthesis was still largely a matter of trial and error, and nobody thought that such complex structures could actually be constructed. Woodward showed that organic synthesis could be made into a rational science, and that synthesis could be aided by well-established principles of reactivity and structure. This synthesis was the first one in a series of exceedingly complicated and elegant syntheses that he would undertake. Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ... Quinine, is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Malaria (from Medieval Italian: mala aria — bad air; formerly called ague or marsh fever) is an infectious disease that is widespread in many tropical and subtropical regions. ...


Later work and its impact

Culminating in the 1930s, the British chemists Christopher Ingold and Robert Robinson among others had investigated the mechanisms of organic reactions, and had come up with empirical rules which could predict reactivity of organic molecules. Woodward was perhaps the first synthetic organic chemist who used these ideas as a predictive framework in synthesis. Woodward's style was the inspiration for the work of hundreds of successive synthetic chemists who synthesized medicinally important and structurally complex natural products. Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold (1893-1970) was a British chemist. ... Sir Robert Robinson (1886 - 1975). ...


Organic syntheses and Nobel Prize

During the late 1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex natural products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin, and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of synthesis, sometimes called the 'Woodwardian era' in which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, and by meticulous planning. Quinine, is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Cortisone (IPA:ˈkôrtəˌsōn) is a steroid hormone. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 1 mg/kg), colourless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug known to irreversibly bind to storage vesicles of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. ... Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Colchicine is a highly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ...


Many of Woodward's syntheses were described as spectacular by his colleagues and before he did them, it was thought by some that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab. Woodward's syntheses were also described as having an element of art in them, and since then, synthetic chemists have always looked for elegance as well as utility in synthesis. His work also involved the exhaustive use of the then newly developed techniques of infrared spectroscopy and later, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Another important feature of Woodward's syntheses was their attention to stereochemistry or the particular configuration of molecules in three dimensional space. Most natural products of medicinal importance are effective, for example as drugs, only when they possess a specific stereochemistry. This creates the demand for 'stereospecific synthesis', producing a compound with a defined stereochemistry. While today a typical synthetic route routinely involves such a procedure, Woodward was a pioneer in showing how, with exhaustive and rational planning, one could conduct reactions that were stereospecific. Many of his syntheses involved forcing a molecule into a certain configuration by installing rigid structural elements in it, another tactic that has become standard today. In this regard, especially his syntheses of reserpine and strychnine were landmarks. IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... The different types of isomers. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug known to irreversibly bind to storage vesicles of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 1 mg/kg), colourless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. ...


Woodward also applied the technique of infrared spectroscopy and chemical degradation to determine the structures of complicated molecules. Notable among these structure determinations were santonic acid, strychnine, magnamycin and terramycin. During the war years, Woodward also proposed the correct structure of penicillin as a beta-lactam, as opposed to the thiazolidine-oxazolone structure proposed by Robert Robinson, the then leading organic chemist of his generation. About terramycin, Woodward's colleague and Nobel Laureate Derek Barton said: IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 1 mg/kg), colourless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. ... Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... A lactam (the noun is a grammatical blend from lactone + amide) is a cyclic amide. ... Thiazolidine is a heterocycle. ... Sir Robert Robinson (1886 - 1975). ... Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton was a British physical chemist and Nobel Prize Laureate. ...

The most brilliant analysis ever done on a structural puzzle was surely the solution (1953) of the terramycin problem. It was a problem of great industrial importance, and hence many able chemists had performed an enormous amount of work trying to determine the structure. There seemed to be too much data to resolve the problem, because a significant number of observations, although experimentally correct, were very misleading. Woodward took a large piece of cardboard, wrote on it all the facts and, by thought alone, deduced the correct structure for terramycin. Nobody else could have done that at the time.

In each one of these cases, Woodward again showed how rational facts and chemical principles, combined with chemical intuition, could be used to achieve the task.


In the early 1950s, Woodward, along with the British chemist Geoffrey Wilkinson, then at Harvard, postulated a novel structure for ferrocene, a compound consisting of a combination of an organic molecule with iron. This marked the beginning of the field of organometallic chemistry which grew into an industrially very significant field. Wilkinson won the Nobel Prize for this work in 1973, along with Ernst Otto Fischer. Some historians think that Woodward should have shared this prize along with Wilkinson. Remarkably, Woodward himself thought so, and voiced his thoughts in a letter sent to the Nobel Committee. Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson was an English chemist He was born 14 July 1921 in the village of Springside, near Todmorden in Yorkshire. ... Ferrocene Fe(C5H5)2 is the prototypical metallocene, a type of organometallic chemical compound, consisting of two cyclopentadienyl rings bound on opposite sides of a central iron atom and forming an organometallic sandwich compound. ... Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal. ... Ernst Otto Fischer is a German chemist. ...


Woodward won the Nobel Prize in 1965 for his synthesis of complex organic molecules. In his Nobel lecture, he described the total synthesis of the antibiotic cephalosporin, and claimed that he had pushed the synthesis schedule so that it would be completed around the time of the Nobel ceremony. The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ...


B12 synthesis and Woodward-Hoffmann rules

In the early 1960s, Woodward began work on what was the most complex natural product synthesized to date- Vitamin B12. In a remarkable collaboration with his colleague Albert Eschenmoser in Zurich, a team of almost one hundred students and postdoctoral workers worked for many years on the synthesis of this molecule. The work was finally published in 1973, and it marked a landmark in the history of organic chemistry. The synthesis included almost a hundred steps, and involved the characteristic rigorous planning and analyses that had always characterised Woodward's work. This work, more than any other, convinced organic chemists that the synthesis of any complex substance was possible, given enough time and planning. However, as of 2005, no other total synthesis of Vitamin B12 has been published.


That same year, based on observations that Woodward had made during the B12 synthesis, he and Roald Hoffmann devised rules (now called the Woodward-Hoffmann rules) for elucidating the stereochemistry of the products of organic reactions. Woodward formulated his ideas (which were based on the symmetry properties of molecular orbitals) based on his experiences as a synthetic organic chemist; he asked Hoffman to perform theoretical calculations to verify these ideas, which were done using Hoffmann's Extended Hückel method. The predictions of these rules, called the "Woodward-Hoffmann rules" were verified by many experiments. Hoffmann shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for this work along with Kenichi Fukui, a Japanese chemist who had done similar work using a different approach; Woodward undoubtedly would have received a second Nobel Prize as well had he lived. Roald Hoffmann (born July 18, 1937 as Roald Safran --- Hoffmann is the surname of his stepfather) is an American theoretical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. ... The Woodward-Hoffmann rules devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann are a set of rules in organic chemistry predicting the stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions based on orbital symmetry. ... The different types of isomers. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... Square with symmetry group D4 Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations, and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In quantum chemistry (electronic structure theory), the molecular electronic states, i. ... The extended Huckel method is a way of determining the structural geometry of an organic molecule. ... Kenichi Fukui (福井謙一 Fukui Kenichi, October 4, 1918 – January 9, 1998) was a Japanese chemist. ...


Woodward Institute and later life

While still remaining at Harvard, Woodward took on the directorship of the Woodward Research Institute, based at Basel, Switzerland in 1963. He also became a trustee of his alma mater, MIT, from 1966 to 1971 and of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian, Spanish: Basilea and Czech: Basilej ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second... The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ...


Woodward died in Cambridge, Massachusetts from a heart attack in his sleep. At the time, he was working on the synthesis of an antibiotic, erythromycin. A student of his said about him: Cambridge City Hall Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02139 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins - this is not necessarily a good idea , as after all , erythromycin is itself a penicillin derivative. ...

I owe a lot to R. B. Woodward. He showed me that one could attack difficult problems without a clear idea of their outcome, but with confidence that intelligence and effort would solve them. He showed me the beauty of modern organic chemistry, and the relevance to the field of detailed careful reasoning. He showed me that one does not need to specialize. Woodward made great contributions to the strategy of synthesis, to the deduction of difficult structures, to the invention of new chemistry, and to theoretical aspects as well. He taught his students by example the satisfaction that comes from total immersion in our science. I treasure the memory of my association with this remarkable chemist.

Many regard Woodward to be the pre-eminent organic chemist of the middle of the twentieth century.


Other notes

In 1938 he married Irja Pullman, and in 1946 he married Eudoxia Muller. From the first marriage he had two daughters, and from the second one daughter and one son.


During his lifetime Woodward authored or coauthored 196 publications, of which 85 are full papers, the remainder comprising preliminary communications, the text of lectures, and reviews. The pace of his scientific activity soon outstripped his capacity to publish all experimental details, and much of the work he participated was published even till a few years after his death. Woodward trained more than two hundred talented PhD. students and postdoctoral workers, many of who later went on to distinguished careers. Some of his best-known students include Yoshito Kishi (Harvard), Stuart Schreiber (Harvard), Steven A. Benner (UF), Christopher S. Foote (UCLA), Kendall Houk (UCLA), and world-renowned porphyrin chemist and former Vice Chancellor of the University of California-Davis, Prof. Kevin M. Smith. Smith was recently awarded the Robert Burns Woodward Award for Lifetime Achievement at the International Conference on Porphyrins and Pthalocyanines (ICPP- 4) held at Rome.   Stuart Schreiber Stuart L. Schreiber (b. ... K. N. Houk Kendall Newcomb Houk (b. ...


Woodward was known to be a workaholic and devoted almost all his time to chemistry. He had an encyclopaedic knowledge of chemistry, and an extraordinary memory for detail. Probably the quality that most set him apart from his peers was his remarkable ability to tie together disparate threads of knowledge from the chemical literature and bring them to bear on a chemical problem. His lectures were legendary and frequently used to last for three or four hours. In many of these, he eschewed the use of slides and used to draw beautiful structures by using coloured chalk. His famous Thursday seminars at Harvard also used to frequently last well into the night. He had a fixation with blue, and all his suits, his car, and even his parking space were coloured in blue. He detested exercise, could get along with only a few hours of sleep every night, was a heavy smoker, and enjoyed Scotch whisky and a martini or two.


Honors and awards

For his work, Woodward received many awards, honors and honorary doctorates, including election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1953, and membership in academies around the world. He was also a consultant to many companies such as Polaroid, Pfizer, and Merck. Other awards include: Pfizer, Incorporated (NYSE: PFE), is the worlds largest pharmaceutical company based in New York City. ... Merck may refer to: Merck & Co. ...

Woodward also received over twenty honorary degrees, including honorary doctorates from the following universities: John Scott (1731-1783) of Amwell, Quaker poet and friend of Samuel Johnson John Scott, American (Missouri) politician John Scott, U.S. Senator for Pennsylvania John Scott, editor of the London Magazine, killed in a duel in 1821 John Scott (1874? - September 23, 1951), Canadian newspaper editor and publisher John... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Roger Adams (1889–1971) was an American organic chemist. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science, also called the Presidential Medal of Science, is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area    - City 606. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Hanbury could be Hanbury, Staffordshire Hanbury, Worcestershire This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The Catholic University of Leuven, founded in 1425, is now the names of two Belgian universities, after the original university split in 1968: the Dutch-speaking Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, and the French-speaking Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a...

Wesleyan University founded in 1831, is a private, liberal arts university in Middletown, Connecticut. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Brandeis University is a private university in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ... The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון - מכון טכנולוגי לישראל) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The University of Western Ontario (Western or UWO) is a coeducational, non-denominational, research-intensive university located in London, Ontario. ... The Catholic University of Leuven, founded in 1425, is now the names of two Belgian universities, after the original university split in 1968: the Dutch-speaking Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, and the French-speaking Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a...

References

  1. "Robert Burns Woodward" by Elkan Blout in 'Biographical Memoirs'; National Academy of Sciences Press, Vol. 80, 2001.
  2. Robert Burns Woodward: Architect and Artist in the World of Molecules; Otto Theodor Benfey, Peter J. T. Morris, Chemical Heritage Foundation, April 2001.
  3. Robert Burns Woodward and the Art of Organic Synthesis: To Accompany an Exhibit by the Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry (Publication / Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry); Mary E. Bowden; Chemical Heritage Foundation, March 1992
  4. "Robert Burns Woodward"- Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society: Alexander Todd and John Cornforth (Nov. 1981)

See also

  • Woodward cis-hydroxylation

The Woodward cis-hydroxylation is the chemical reaction of alkenes with iodine and silver acetate in wet acetic acid to form cis-diols. ...

External links

  • Robert Burns Woodward
  • Video podcast of Robert Burns Woodward talking about cephalosporin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Burns Woodward Biography | scit_0712345_package.xml (641 words)
Robert Woodward was a Nobel Prize-winning chemist who developed numerous techniques for producing complex chemical compounds in the laboratory.
Woodward was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1917.
Woodward went on to synthesize many other stereospecific organic compounds, including cortisone (a human hormone), cholesterol, reserpine (a tranquilizing drug that was once obtained from the roots of certain tropical plants), chlorophyll, and cephalosporin C (an antibiotic).
Robert Burns Woodward - definition of Robert Burns Woodward in Encyclopedia (452 words)
Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917-July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist.
Woodward was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Arthur Woodward (an immigrant from England) and Margaret Woodward, nee Burns (an immigrant from Scotland, born in Glasgow).
Woodward formulated his ideas (which were based on the symmetry properties of molecular orbitals) based on his experiences as a synthetic organic chemist; he asked Hoffman to perform theoretical calculations to verify these ideas, which were done using Hoffmann's Extended Hückel method.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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