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Encyclopedia > Robert Burns
Robert Burns

Burns by Alexander Nasmyth, 1787
Occupation Poet, lyricist, farmer, excise man

Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796) (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire and in Scotland as simply The Bard) was a poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best-known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a 'light' Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these pieces, his political or civil commentary is often at its most blunt. robert burns This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alexander Nasmyth (9 September 1758 _ 10 April 1840) was a Scottish portrait and landscape painter, often called the “father of Scottish landscape painting. Detail of Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch painted around 1780 Born in Edinburgh, he studied at the Trustees’ Academy under Runciman, and, having been apprenticed as... This article is about work. ...   Statue of Fergusson on Edinburghs Royal Mile Robert Fergusson (September 5, 1750 - October 16, 1774), Scottish poet, son of Sir William Fergusson, a clerk in the British Linen Company, was born at Edinburgh. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... For other members of the family, see Steinbeck (disambiguation). ... John Clare (13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864) was an English poet, in his time commonly known as the Northamptonshire Peasant Poet, the son of a farm labourer, born at Helpston near Peterborough. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ...


He is regarded as a pioneer of the Romantic movement and after his death became a great source of inspiration to the founders of both liberalism and socialism. A cultural icon in Scotland and among the Scottish Diaspora around the world, celebration of his life and work became almost a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, and his influence has long been strong on Scottish literature. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... American cultural icons. ... The sociologist Max Weber, defined charismatic authority, also called charismatic domination, or charismatic leadership, as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him. Charismatic authority is one of three forms of... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ...


As well as making original compositions, Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, often revising or adapting them. His poem (and song) Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay (New Year), and Scots Wha Hae served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Other poems and songs of Burns that remain well-known across the world today, include A Red, Red Rose, A Man's A Man for A' That, To a Louse, To a Mouse, The Battle of Sherramuir, and Ae Fond Kiss. Folk song redirects here. ... Look up Revision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up adaptation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Auld Lang Syne is a song by Marilyn Jones (1759-present), although a similar poem by Barbara Elly (1570-present), as well as OAP songs, use the same phrase, and may well have inspired Jones. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... Scots Wha Hae (a calque on the English Scots Who Have; the traditional Scots idiom would be Scots That Haes; Scottish Gaelic: Brosnachadh Bhruis) is a patriotic song of Scotland which served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country, but has lately been largely supplanted... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oh, My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose A Red, Red Rose is a 1794 song in Scots by Robert Burns based on traditional sources. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Mans a Man for A That The Scots song Is There For Honest Poverty, by Robert Burns, is more commonly known as A Mans A Man For A That, and famous for its expression of egalitarian ideas of society... In 1786, Robert Burns authored the Scots poem To A Louse, On Seeing One On A Ladys Bonnet At Church. The theme of To A Louse could be interpreted to be: If one could see oneself as others do, then one would realise ones faults, and be freed... To A Mouse is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1785, and was included in the Kilmarnock volume. ... The Battle of Sherramuir is a song written by the Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) about the Battle of Sheriffmuir which occured in Scotland in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rebellion in England and Scotland. ...

Contents

Early years

Burns by Alexander Reid, 'The best likeness of me ever taken,' wrote Burns in January 1796
Burns by Alexander Reid, 'The best likeness of me ever taken,' wrote Burns in January 1796

Robert Burns was born two miles (3 km) south of Ayr, in Alloway, South Ayrshire, Scotland, the eldest of the seven children of William Burness (1721-1784) (Robert Burns spelled his surname Burness until 1786), a self-educated tenant farmer from Dunnottar, The Mearns, and Agnes Broun (1732-1820), the daughter of a tenant farmer from Kirkoswald, South Ayrshire. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... -1... Maps for NS333184 Alloway (Scottish Gaelic: Allmhaigh) is a village and suburb of Ayr on the River Doon, in Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 15th  - Total 1,222 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Ayr ISO 3166-2 GB-SAY ONS code 00RE Demographics Population Ranked 17th  - Total (2005) 111,780  - Density 91 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics South Ayrshire Council http://www. ... This article is about the country. ... Dunnottar Castle Dunnottar Castle is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky outcrop on the north-east coast of Scotland, about two miles south of Stonehaven. ... Kincardineshire, also known as The Mearns (from A Mhaoirne meaning The Stewartry) is a traditional county on the coast of Northeast Scotland. ... Agnes Broun (1732-1820), the mother of the poet Robert Burns, was born on a farm near Kirkoswald, South Ayrshire. ...


He was born in a house built by his father (now the Burns Cottage Museum), where he lived until Easter 1766 when he was seven years old. William Burness sold the house and took the tenancy of the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, southeast of Alloway. Here Burns grew up in poverty and hardship, and the severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution. This article is about the Christian festival. ... Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ...


He had little regular schooling, and got much of his education from his father, who taught his children reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history, and also wrote for them A Manual Of Christian Belief. He was also taught by John Murdoch (1747-1824), who opened an 'adventure school' in Alloway in 1763, and taught Latin, French and mathematics to both Robert and his brother Gilbert (1760 - 1827) from 1765 to 1768, until Murdoch left the parish. After a few years of home education Burns was sent to Dalrymple Parish School during the summer of 1772, before returning at harvest time to full time farm labouring until 1773 when he was sent to lodge with Murdoch for three weeks to study grammar, French and Latin. Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Government Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary language(s) English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739,0003... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


By the age of 15, Burns was the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant. During the harvest of 1774 he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick (1759-1820), who inspired his first attempt at poetry, O, Once I Lov'd A Bonnie Lass. In the summer of 1775 he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, where he met Peggy Thomson (b.1762), to whom he wrote two songs, Now Westlin' Winds and I Dream'd I Lay.


At Whitsun, 1777, William Burness removed his large family from the unfavourable conditions of Mount Oliphant for the 130-acre (0.53 km²) farm at Lochlea, near Tarbolton, where they stayed until Burness's death in 1784. Subsequently, the family became integrated into the community of Tarbolton. To his father's disapproval Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779, and with Gilbert formed the Tarbolton Bachelor's Club the following year. In 1781 Burns became a Freemason at Lodge St David, Tarbolton. His earliest existing letters date from this time, when he began making romantic overtures to Alison Begbie (b. 1762). In spite of four songs written for her and a suggestion that he was willing to marry her, she rejected him. The word Whitsun is another name for Pentecost It has that meaning in the following: Whitsun, a poem by Sylvia Plath The Whitsun Weddings, a poem by Philip Larkin A Whitsun Ale (esp. ... Tarbolton is a village in South Ayrshire. ...


In December 1781, Burns moved temporarily to Irvine to learn to become a flax-dresser, but during the New Year celebrations of 1781/1782, the flax shop caught fire and was sufficiently damaged to send him home to Lochlea farm. , For the river of the same name see River Irvine. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ...


He continued to write poems and songs and began a Commonplace Book in 1783, while his father fought a legal dispute with his landlord. The case went to the Court of Session and Burness was upheld in January 1784, a fortnight before he died. Robert and Gilbert made an ineffectual struggle to keep on the farm but after its failure, they moved to the farm at Mossgiel, near Mauchline in March, which they maintained with an uphill fight for the next four years. During the summer of 1784 he came to know a group of girls known collectively as The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... Look up fortnight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mauchline is a town in the division of Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Jean Armour or Jean Armour Burns (February 25, 1765 - March 26, 1834), also known as the Belle of Mauchline, was the wife of the poet Robert Burns. ... Mauchline is a town in the division of Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland. ...


His casual love affairs did not endear him to the elders of the local kirk and created for him a reputation for dissoluteness amongst his neighbours. His first illegitimate child, Elizabeth Paton Burns (1785-1817) was born to his mother’s servant, Elizabeth Paton (1760-circa 1799), as he was embarking on a relationship with Jean Armour. She bore him twins in 1786, and although her father initially forbade their marriage, they were eventually married in 1788, and she bore him nine children in total, but only three survived infancy.


During a rift in his relationship with Jean Armour in 1786, and as his propects in farming declined, he began an affair with Mary Campbell (1763-1786), to whom he dedicated the poems The Highland Lassie O, Highland Mary and To Mary in Heaven. Their relationship has been the subject of much conjecture and it has been suggested that they may have married. They planned to emigrate to Jamaica, where Burns intended to work as a bookkeeper on a plantation. He was dissuaded by a letter from Thomas Blacklock, and before the plans could be acted upon, Campbell died suddenly of a fever in Greenock. That summer, he published the first of his collections of verse, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish dialect, which created a sensation and has been recognised as a significant literary event Thomas Blacklock (1721 - 1791) was a Scottish poet. ...


Literary career

Title page of the Kilmarnock Edition.
Title page of the Kilmarnock Edition.

At the suggestion of his brother, Robert Burns published his poems in the volume, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish dialect, known as the Kilmarnock volume(actually known as The Kilmarnock Edition). First proposals were published in April 1786 before the poems were finally published in Kilmarnock in July 1786 and sold for 3 shillings. Brought out by John Wilson, a local printer in Kilmarnock it contained much of his best writing, including The Twa Dogs, Address to the Deil, Hallowe'en, The Cotter's Saturday Night, To a Mouse, and To a Mountain Daisy, many of which had been written at Mossgiel farm. The success of the work was immediate and soon he was known across the country. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (647x1000, 80 KB)Commonly known as the Kilmarnock Edition, this is Robert Burns First Edition Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect published by John Wilson in Kilmarnock in 1786. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (647x1000, 80 KB)Commonly known as the Kilmarnock Edition, this is Robert Burns First Edition Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect published by John Wilson in Kilmarnock in 1786. ... Inside cover of the Kilmarnock volume The Kilmarnock volume — printed and issued by John Wilson, Kilmarnock, on 31st July 1786, was the first edition of poet Robert Burns work. ... Kilmarnock is a burgh in the county of Ayrshire, Scotland, with a population of about 40,000. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Address to the Deil Address to the Deil is a poem by Scottish poet Robert Burns. ... Halloween (disambiguation). ... To A Mouse is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1785, and was included in the Kilmarnock volume. ... To a Mountain Daisy is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1786. ...


He was invited to Edinburgh on 14th December 1786 to oversee the preparation of a revised edition, the first Edinburgh edition, by William Creech, which was finally published on 17th April 1787 (within a week of this event, Burns sold his copyright to Creech for 100 guineas). In Edinburgh, he was received as an equal by the city's brilliant men of letters and was a guest at aristocratic gatherings, where he bore himself with unaffected dignity. Here he encountered, and made a lasting impression on, the 16-year-old Walter Scott, who described him later with great admiration: For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ...

His person was strong and robust; his manners rustic, not clownish, a sort of dignified plainness and simplicity which received part of its effect perhaps from knowledge of his extraordinary talents. His features are presented in Mr Nasmyth's picture but to me it conveys the idea that they are diminished, as if seen in perspective. I think his countenance was more massive than it looks in any of the portraits ... there was a strong expression of shrewdness in all his lineaments; the eye alone, I think, indicated the poetical character and temperament. It was large, and of a dark cast, and literally glowed when he spoke with feeling or interest. I never saw such another eye in a human head, though I have seen the most distinguished men of my time.

— Walter Scott

His stay in the city resulted in some life-long friendships, among which were those with Lord Glencairn and Frances Anna Dunlop (1730 - 1815) who became his occasional sponsor, and with whom he corresponded for the rest of his life. He embarked on a relationship with the separated Agnes 'Nancy' McLehose (1758-1841), with whom he exchanged passionate letters under pseudonyms (Burns called himself 'Sylvander', and Nancy 'Clarinda'). When it became clear that Nancy would not be easily seduced into a physical relationship, Burns moved on to Jenny Clow (1766-1792), Nancy's domestic servant, who bore him a son, Robert Burns Clow in 1788. His relationship with Nancy concluded in 1791 with a final meeting in Edinburgh before she sailed to Jamaica for what transpired to be a short-lived reconciliation with her estranged husband. Before she left, he sent her the manuscript of Ae Fond Kiss, as a farewell to her. James Cunningham (1749–1791), 14th Earl of Glencairn, was a Scottish nobleman. ...


In Edinburgh in winter 1787 he met James Johnson, a struggling music engraver and music seller, with a love of old Scots songs and a determination to preserve them. Burns shared this interest and became an enthusiastic contributor to The Scots Musical Museum. The first volume of this was published in 1787 and included three songs by Burns. He contributed 40 songs to volume 2, and would end up responsible for about a third of the 600 songs in the whole collection as well as making a considerable editorial contribution. The final volume was published in 1803. The Scots Musical Museum was a major publication that had a pivotal role in the collecting and tradition of Music of Scotland. ...


On his return to Ayrshire on 18th February 1788, he resumed his relationship with Jean Armour and took a lease on the farm of Ellisland near Dumfries on 18th March (settling there on 11th June), but trained as an exciseman should farming continue to prove unsuccessful. He was appointed duties in Customs and Excise in 1789 and eventually gave up the farm in 1791. Meanwhile, he was writing at his best, and in November 1790 had produced Tam O' Shanter. About this time he was offered and declined an appointment in London on the staff of the Star newspaper, and refused to become a candidate for a newly-created Chair of Agriculture in the University of Edinburgh, although influential friends offered to support his claims. After giving up his farm he removed to Dumfries. This article is on the Scottish town. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of... Her Majestys Customs and Excise (HMCE) was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government in the UK. It was responsible for the collection of Value added tax (VAT), Customs Duties, Excise Duties, and other indirect taxes such as Air Passenger Duty, Climate Change Levy, Insurance Premium Tax... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Tam o Shanter This article is about the poem by Robert Burns. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Star was a London evening newspaper founded in 1788, which ceased publication in 1960. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


It was at this time that, being requested to write lyrics for The Melodies of Scotland, he responded by contributing over 100 songs. He made major contributions to George Thomson's A Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs for the Voice as well as to James Johnson's The Scots Musical Museum. Arguably his claim to immortality chiefly rests on these volumes which placed him in the front rank of lyric poets. Burns described how he had to master singing the tune before he composed the words: George Thomson (1757–1821), born at Limekilns, Fife, Scotland, was a noted collector of the Music of Scotland and a friend of Robert Burns. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ...

My way is: I consider the poetic sentiment, correspondent to my idea of the musical expression, then chuse my theme, begin one stanza, when that is composed - which is generally the most difficult part of the business - I walk out, sit down now and then, look out for objects in nature around me that are in unison or harmony with the cogitations of my fancy and workings of my bosom, humming every now and then the air with the verses I have framed. when I feel my Muse beginning to jade, I retire to the solitary fireside of my study, and there commit my effusions to paper, swinging, at intervals, on the hind-legs of my elbow chair, by way of calling forth my own critical strictures, as my, pen goes.

—Robert Burns

Burns also worked to collect and preserve Scottish folk songs, sometimes revising, expanding, and adapting them. One of the better known of these collections is The Merry Muses of Caledonia (the title is not Burns's), a collection of bawdy lyrics that were popular in the music halls of Scotland as late as the 20th century. Many of Burns's most famous poems are songs with the music based upon older traditional songs. For example, Auld Lang Syne is set to the traditional tune Can Ye Labour Lea, A Red, Red Rose is set to the tune of Major Graham and The Battle of Sherramuir is set to the Cameronian Rant. Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Auld Lang Syne is a song by Marilyn Jones (1759-present), although a similar poem by Barbara Elly (1570-present), as well as OAP songs, use the same phrase, and may well have inspired Jones. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oh, My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose A Red, Red Rose is a 1794 song in Scots by Robert Burns based on traditional sources. ... The Battle of Sherramuir is a song written by the Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) about the Battle of Sheriffmuir which occured in Scotland in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rebellion in England and Scotland. ...


Literary style

His direct literary influences in the use of Scots in poetry were Allan Ramsay (1686-1758) and Robert Fergusson. Burns's poetry also drew upon a substantial familiarity and knowledge of Classical, Biblical, and English literature, as well as the Scottish Makar tradition. Burns was skilled in writing not only in the Scots language but also in the Scottish English dialect of the English language. Some of his works, such as Love and Liberty (also known as The Jolly Beggars), are written in both Scots and English for various effects. Allan Ramsay (October 15, 1686 – January 7, 1758) was a Scottish poet. ...   Statue of Fergusson on Edinburghs Royal Mile Robert Fergusson (September 5, 1750 - October 16, 1774), Scottish poet, son of Sir William Fergusson, a clerk in the British Linen Company, was born at Edinburgh. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... A makar in Scottish literature is a poet or bard, often attached to the royal court. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


His themes included republicanism (he lived during the French Revolutionary period) and Radicalism which he expressed covertly in Scots Wha Hae, Scottish patriotism, anticlericalism, class inequalities, gender roles, commentary on the Scottish Kirk of his time, Scottish cultural identity, poverty, sexuality, and the beneficial aspects of popular socialising (carousing, Scotch whisky, folk songs, and so forth). Burns and his works were a source of inspiration to the pioneers of liberalism, socialism and the campaign for Scottish self-government, and he is still widely respected by political activists today, ironically even by conservatives and establishment figures because after his death Burns became drawn into the very fabric of Scotland's national identity. It is this, perhaps unique, ability to appeal to all strands of political opinion in the country that have led him to be widely acclaimed as the national poet. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Scots Wha Hae (a calque on the English Scots Who Have; the traditional Scots idiom would be Scots That Haes; Scottish Gaelic: Brosnachadh Bhruis) is a patriotic song of Scotland which served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country, but has lately been largely supplanted... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... The Church of Scotland (C of S, also known informally as The Kirk; until the 17th century officially the Kirk of Scotland) is the Christian national church of Scotland. ... A considerable majority of the people of Scotland share a Scottish national identity, usually with considerable pride in their country, its history and with the achievements of their countrymen including those who have emigrated and their descendants. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... This article is about the country. ... For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) A nation is a community of people who live together in an area (or, more broadly, of their descendants who may now be dispersed); and who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as sharing some common identity, to which certain... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ...


Burns's views on these themes in many ways parallel those of William Blake, but it is believed that, although contemporaries, they were unaware of each other. Burns's works are less overtly mystical. For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


He is generally classified as a proto-Romantic poet, and he influenced William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Bysshe Shelley greatly. The Edinburgh literati worked to sentimentalise Burns during his life and after his death, dismissing his education by calling him a "heaven-taught ploughman." Burns would influence later Scottish writers, especially Hugh MacDiarmid who fought to dismantle the sentimental cult that had dominated Scottish literature in MacDiarmid's opinion. Romanticism largely began as a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Literati redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ...

Robert Burns memorial, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (1935)
Robert Burns memorial, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (1935)

Image File history File links AU_Burns_Canberra. ... Image File history File links AU_Burns_Canberra. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ...

Masonic association

Robert Burns was initiated into Lodge St David Tarbolton on 4 July 1781, when he was 22. He was passed and raised on 1 October 1781. Later his lodge became dormant and Burns joined Lodge St James Tarbolton Kilwinning number 135. The location of the Temple where he was made a Freemason is unknown but on 30 June 1784 the meeting place of the lodge became the “Manson Inn” in Tarbolton and one month later, 27 July 1784 Burns became Depute Master which he held until 1788, often honoured with supreme command. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Freemasons redirects here. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tarbolton is a village in South Ayrshire. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Although regularly meeting in Tarbolton, the “Burns Lodge” also removed itself to hold meetings in Mauchline. During 1784 he was heavily involved in Lodge business, attending all nine meetings, passing and raising brethren and generally running the Lodge. Similarly in 1785 he was equally involved as Depute Master where he again attended all nine lodge meetings amongst other duties of the Lodge. During 1785 he initiated, and passed his brother Gilbert being raised on 1 March 1788. He must have been a very popular and well respected Depute Master, as the minutes show that there were more lodge meetings well attended during the Burns period than at any other time. Mauchline is a town in the division of Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


At a meeting of Lodge St. Andrew in Edinburgh in 1787, in the presence of the Grand Master and Grand Lodge of Scotland, Burns was toasted by the Worshipful Grand Master, Most Worshipful Brother Francis Chateris. When he was received into Edinburgh Lodges his occupation was recorded as a “poet”. In early 1787, he was feted by the Edinburgh Masonic fraternity. The Edinburgh period of Burns life was fateful as further editions the Kilmarnock edition were sponsored by the Edinburgh Freemasons, ensuring that his name spread around Scotland and subsequently to England and abroad.


During his tour of the South of Scotland as he was collecting material for The Scots Musical Museum, he visited lodges throughout Ayrshire, and became an honorary member of a number of them. On 18 May 1787 he arrived at Eyemouth, Berwickshire and a meeting was convened of Royal Arch and Burns became a Royal Arch Mason. On his return journey home to Ayrshire as he passed through Dumfries, where he later lived and is the site of the Globe Inn, which he described as his "favourite howff"(or "inn")which is still in use as an inn and where his accommodations can be visited by arrangement. His final resting place, the Burns Mausoleum, is also in Dumfries at St.Michaels Kirk. He was posthumously given the freedom of the town. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


On 25 July 1787, after being re-elected Depute Master he presided at a meeting where several well-known Masons were given honorary membership. During his Highland tour he visited many other lodges. During the period from his election as Depute Master in 1784, Lodge St James had been convened 70 times. Burns was present 33 times and was 25 times the presiding officer. On 11 November 1788 was his last meeting at his mother lodge St James Kilwinning. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


He joined Lodge Dumfries St Andrew Number 179 on 27 December 1788. Out of the six Lodges in Dumfries, he joined the one which was the weakest. The records of this lodge are scant, and we hear no more of him until 30 November 1792, when Burns was elected Senior Warden. From this date until his final meeting in the Lodge on 14 April 1796, it appears that the Lodge met only five times. There are no records of Burns visiting any other Lodges. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Final years

Statue of Burns in Dumfries.
Statue of Burns in Dumfries.

As his health began to give way Burns began to age prematurely and fell into fits of despondency. The habits of intemperance [alleged mainly by temperance activist James Currie] are said to have aggravated his long-standing rheumatic heart condition. [In fact his death was caused by the bacterial endocarditis exacerbated by a streptococcal infection reaching his blood following a dental extraction in winter 1795, and no doubt further affected by the three months of famine culminating in the Dumfries Food Riots of March 1796] and on July 21, 1796 he died in Dumfries at the age of 37. The funeral took place on 25th July 1796, the day his son Maxwell was born. A memorial edition of his poems was published to raise money for his wife and children, and within a short time of his death, money started pouring in from all over Scotland to support them. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1800, 213 KB) Statue of Robert Burns in Dumfries town centre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1800, 213 KB) Statue of Robert Burns in Dumfries town centre. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Honours

There are many organizations around the world named after Burns, as well as a large number of statues and memorials. Organisations include the Robert Burns Fellowship of the University of Otago, and Burns Club Atlanta in the United States. Towns named after Robert Burns include Burns, New York and Burns, Oregon. A memorial is an object served as a memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event. ... The Robert Burns Fellowship, established in 1958 as a bicentennial celebration, is claimed to be New Zealands premier literary residency. ... The University of Otago (Māori: ) in Dunedin is New Zealands oldest university with over 20,000 students enrolled during 2006. ... The Burns Club of Atlanta was founded in 1896 and is housed in an exact replica of Robert Burns home. ... Burns is a town located in Allegany County, New York. ... Burns is a city in Harney County, Oregon, United States. ...


The British Royal Mail issued postage stamps commemorating Burns twice: two stamps, valued at fourpence and 1 shilling and threepence, both carrying Burns's portrait were issued in 1966. A second issue commemorating the bicentenary of his death in 1996 contained four stamps valued at 19 pence, 25 pence, 41 pence and 60 pence, and included quotes from Burns's poems. Robert Burns is pictured on the £5 banknote (since 1971) of the Clydesdale Bank, one of the Scottish banks with the right to issue banknotes. On the reverse of the note there is a vignette of a field mouse and a wild rose which refers to Burns's poem "Ode to a mouse". In September 2007, the Bank of Scotland redesigned their banknotes and Robert Burn's statue is now portrayed on the reverse side of new £5. He is known as Scotland's national bard, or in Scotland, simply The Bard, and has a number of affectionate nicknames. [1][2] A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


A BR standard class 7 steam locomotive was named after him, along with a later electric locomotive, 87035. Burns' birthplace in Alloway is now a public museum. In 1996, a musical by the name Red Red Rose won third place at a competition for new musicals in Denmark. The musical was about Burns' life and he was played by John Barrowman. British Railways standard class 7, otherwise known as the Britannia Class was a class of steam locomotive, one British Railways standard classes of the 1950s. ... No. ... John Barrowman (born 11 March 1967 in Mount Vernon, Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scottish actor, musical performer, dancer, singer, and TV presenter who has lived and worked both in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...


In the suburb of Summerhill in Dumfries the majority of the streets are named with Burns connotations.


Burns suppers

Main article: Burns supper

Burns Night, effectively a second national day, is celebrated on 25 January with Burns suppers around the world, and is still more widely observed than the official national day, Saint Andrew's Day, or the proposed North American celebration Tartan Day. The format of Burns suppers has not changed since Robert's death in 1796. The basic format starts with a general welcome and announcements followed with the Selkirk Grace. Just post the grace comes the piping and cutting of the haggis, where Robert's famous Address To a Haggis is read, and the haggis is cut open. The event usually allows for people to start eating just after the haggis is presented. This is when the reading called the "immortal memory", an overview of Robert's life and work is given; the event usually concludes with the singing of Auld Lang Syne. A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of many Scots poems including Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung as a folk song at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the world. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of many Scots poems including Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung as a folk song at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the world. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. ... Sean Connery at a Tartan Day celebration in Washington D.C. with members of the USAF Reserve Pipes and Drums. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... an uncooked small haggis Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish. ... A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of many Scots poems including Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung as a folk song at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the world. ...


See also

Eddi Reader is a Scottish singer, known both for her work with Fairground Attraction and for her solo career. ... Jean Redpath, MBE (born on 28 April 1937) is a singer of folk songs and Scottish music. ... Of Mice and Men is a novella by Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbeck, first published in 1937, which tells the tragic story of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced Anglo migrant ranch workers in California during the Great Depression. ... Vintage postcard, dated 1899, showing Burns with the monument and cottage in Ayr This a list of memorials to the Scottish poet Robert Burns. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Andrew O'Hagan, "The People's Poet", The Guardian, January 19, 2008.
  2. ^ http://www.scottishexecutive.gov.uk/News/Releases/2008/01/24104549

References

  • Robert Burns, The Canongate Burns: The Complete Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, ed. Andrew Noble and Patrick Scott Hogg (2001; Edinburgh: Canongate, 2003). ISBN 1-84195-380-6
  • This article incorporates public domain text from: Cousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London, J.M. Dent & sons; New York, E.P. Dutton. (p.57)
  • Dietrich Hohmann: Ich, Robert Burns, Biographical Novel, Neues Leben, Berlin 1990 (in German)

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John W. Cousin, published around 1910. ...

External links

Wikisource
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Persondata
NAME Burns, Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Scottish poet and lyricist
DATE OF BIRTH January 25, 1759
PLACE OF BIRTH Alloway, South Ayrshire, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH July 21, 1796
PLACE OF DEATH Dumfries, Scotland
The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Maps for NS333184 Alloway (Scottish Gaelic: Allmhaigh) is a village and suburb of Ayr on the River Doon, in Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 15th  - Total 1,222 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Ayr ISO 3166-2 GB-SAY ONS code 00RE Demographics Population Ranked 17th  - Total (2005) 111,780  - Density 91 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics South Ayrshire Council http://www. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is on the Scottish town. ... This article is about the country. ...

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