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Encyclopedia > Robert A. Heinlein
Robert A. Heinlein

Heinlein signing autographs at the 1976 Worldcon
Born: July 7, 1907(1907-07-07)
Flag of the United States Butler, Missouri
Died: May 8, 1988 (aged 80)
Flag of the United States Carmel, California
Occupation: Novelist, short story author, essayist, screenwriter
Genres: Science fiction, Fantasy
Literary movement: Science Fiction, Fantasy
Debut works: Life-Line
Influences: H. G. Wells, James Branch Cabell, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Rudyard Kipling, Mark Twain
Influenced: Allen Steele, Spider Robinson, George R. R. Martin, Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle, John Varley

Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of "hard" science fiction. He set a high standard for science and engineering plausibility and helped to raise the genre's standards of literary quality. He was the first writer to break into mainstream, general magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post, in the late 1940s, with unvarnished science fiction. He was among the first authors of bestselling, novel-length science fiction in the modern, mass-market era. For many years, Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke were known as the "Big Three" of science fiction.[1][2] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that World Science Fiction Society be merged into this article or section. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Butler is a city located in Bates County, Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Carmel-by-the-Sea is a city located in Monterey County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. ... ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... James Branch Cabell photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 James Branch Cabell (April 14, 1879 - May 5, 1958) was an American author of fantasy fiction and belles lettres. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... This article is about the British author. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Allen Mulherin Steele, Jr. ... Spider Robinson (born November 24, 1948 in New York City) is a Canadian science fiction writer. ... George Raymond Richard Martin, sometimes called GRRM, born September 20, 1948 in Bayonne, New Jersey is an American author and screenwriter of science fiction, horror, and fantasy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... The Varley surname arrived from the french de Verley during the conquest of England in 1066. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A cover of the Saturday Evening Post from 1903 The Saturday Evening Post was a weekly magazine published in the United States from August 4, 1821 to February 8, 1969. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ...


Within the framework of his science fiction stories Heinlein repeatedly integrated recognizable social themes: The importance of individual liberty and self-reliance, the obligation individuals owe to their societies, the influence of organized religion on culture and government, and the tendency of society to repress non-conformist thought. He also examined the relationship between physical and emotional love, speculated about unorthodox family relationships, and the influence of space travel on human cultural practices. His iconoclastic approach to these themes led to wildly divergent perceptions of his works and attempts to place mutually contradictory labels on his work. For example, his 1959 novel Starship Troopers was widely viewed as an advocacy of militarism and even to contain some elements of fascism, although many passages in the book disparage the inflexibility and stupidity of a purely militaristic mindset. By contrast, his 1961 novel Stranger in a Strange Land put him in the unexpected role of pied piper to the sexual revolution and the counterculture. Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Self-Reliance is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson. ... In English history, a non-conformist is any member of a Protestant congregation not affiliated with the Church of England. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The oldest picture of Pied Piper (watercolour) copied from the glass window of Marktkirche in Hamelin by Freiherr Augustin von Moersperg. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Heinlein won four Hugo Awards for his novels. In addition, fifty years after publication, three of his works were awarded "Retro Hugos" — awards given retrospectively for years in which no Hugos had been awarded. He also won the first Grand Master Award given by the Science Fiction Writers of America for lifetime achievement. The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award is an award given by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. ... Science Fiction Writers of America, or SFWA (pronounced // or //), was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight. ...


After his death, his wife Virginia Heinlein issued a compilation of Heinlein's correspondence and notes into a somewhat autobiographical examination of his career, published in 1989 under the title Grumbles from the Grave. In his fiction, Heinlein coined words that have become part of the English language, including "grok", "TANSTAAFL" and "waldo." Robert and Virginia Heinlein in Tahiti, 1980. ... Grumbles from the Grave contains an assortment of bits of writing by Robert Heinlein, edited by his wife Virginia Heinlein, published a year and a half after his death. ... Grok (IPA (GA) or (RP), both rhyming with rock) is a verb that connotes knowledge greater than that which can be sensed by an outside observer. ... TANSTAAFL is an acronym for the adage There Aint No Such Thing As A Free Lunch, popularized by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein and promulgated in his 1966 novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, which deals with a libertarian utopia. ... A remote manipulator, also known as a telefactor, telemanipulator, or waldo (after the short story Waldo by Robert Heinlein which features a man who uses such devices), is a device which, through electronic, hydraulic, or mechanical linkages, allows a hand-like mechanism to be controlled by a human operator in...

Contents

Life

Heinlein from the 1929 US Naval Academy yearbook
Heinlein from the 1929 US Naval Academy yearbook

Heinlein (pronounced Hine-line)[3][4] was born on July 7, 1907, to Rex Ivar and Bam Lyle Heinlein, in Butler, Missouri. His childhood was spent in Kansas City, Missouri.[5] The outlook and values of this time and place (in his own words, "The Bible Belt") had a definite influence on his fiction (especially his later works, as experiences from his childhood were heavily drawn upon both for setting and for cultural atmosphere in Time Enough for Love and To Sail Beyond the Sunset, among others); however, he would later break with many of its values and mores — especially those concerning morality as it applies to issues such as religion and sexuality — both in his writing and in his personal life. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1929, and served as an officer in the United States Navy. On June 21, 1929, he married the former Eleanor Curry of Kansas City in Los Angeles[6], but this marriage lasted only about a year.[3] He served on the USS Lexington, in 1931. He married his second wife, Leslyn Macdonald, in 1932. Leslyn was a political radical, and Isaac Asimov recalled Robert during those years as being, like her, "a flaming liberal."[7] Heinlein served aboard USS Roper in 1933–1934, reaching the rank of lieutenant. In 1934, Heinlein was discharged from the Navy due to pulmonary tuberculosis. 1929 Naval Academy yearbook photo of Robert Anson Heinlein (Public domain as US Government publication) File links The following pages link to this file: Robert A. Heinlein Categories: U.S. Navy images ... Teamwork: Fourth Class Midshipmen lock arms and use ropes made from uniform items as they brace themselves climbing the Herndon Monument The United States Naval Academy, or USNA, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ... A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a book to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school or a book published annually. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Butler is a city located in Bates County, Missouri. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... USN redirects here. ... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... USS Roper (DD-147) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy, later converted to a high-speed transport and redesignated APD-20. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


During a lengthy hospitalization, he developed the idea of the waterbed, and his detailed descriptions of it in three of his books later prevented others from patenting it. The military was the second great influence on Heinlein; throughout his life, he strongly believed in loyalty, leadership, and other ideals associated with the military. A waterbed or water mattress is a bed or mattress filled with water. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


After his discharge, Heinlein attended a few weeks of graduate classes in mathematics and physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, but quit either because of his health or from a desire to enter politics.[8] Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ...


He supported himself at several occupations, including real estate and silver mining, but for some years found money in short supply. Heinlein was active in Upton Sinclair's socialist End Poverty in California movement in the early 1930s. When Sinclair gained the Democratic nomination for governor of California in 1934, Heinlein worked actively in the unsuccessful campaign. Heinlein himself ran for the California State Assembly in 1938, but was unsuccessful.[9] In later years, Heinlein kept his socialist past secret, writing about his political experiences coyly, and usually under the veil of fictionalization. In 1954, he wrote, "...many Americans ... were asserting loudly that McCarthy had created a 'reign of terror.' Are you terrified? I am not, and I have in my background much political activity well to the left of Senator McCarthy's position."[10] General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Short for End Poverty in California, EPIC was an effort for then well-known muckraking writer and former Socialist Upton Sinclair to implement Socialist reforms through Californias Democratic Party during the Great Depression by recruiting supporters into the party and then securing that partys nomination for Governor of... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ...

Robert A. Heinlein, L. Sprague de Camp, and Isaac Asimov, Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1944.
Robert A. Heinlein, L. Sprague de Camp, and Isaac Asimov, Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1944.

While not destitute after the campaign — he had a small disability pension from the Navy — Heinlein turned to writing in order to pay off his mortgage (possibly on his house at 8777 Lookout Mountain Avenue, Los Angeles, referred to in "—And He Built a Crooked House—"[11]), and in 1939, his first published story, "Life-Line," was printed in Astounding Science-Fiction magazine. He was quickly acknowledged as a leader of the new movement toward "social" science fiction. During World War II, he did aeronautical engineering for the Navy, recruiting Isaac Asimov and L. Sprague de Camp to work at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Download high resolution version (1200x966, 143 KB)Robert Heinlein, L. Sprague de Camp, and Isaac Asimov, Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1944. ... Download high resolution version (1200x966, 143 KB)Robert Heinlein, L. Sprague de Camp, and Isaac Asimov, Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1944. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... The Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, formerly Navy Yard, was the first naval shipyard of the United States. ... April 1997 issue of Analog. ... Social science fiction is a term used to describe a subgenre of science fiction concerned less with gadgets and space opera and more with speculation about human society. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... The Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, formerly Navy Yard, was the first naval shipyard of the United States. ...


As the war wound down in 1945, Heinlein began re-evaluating his career. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, along with the outbreak of the Cold War, galvanized him to write nonfiction on political topics; in addition, he wanted to break into better-paying markets. He published four influential stories for The Saturday Evening Post, leading off, in February 1947, with "The Green Hills of Earth", which made him the first science fiction writer to break out of the "pulp ghetto". In 1950, Destination Moon — the documentary-like film for which he had written the story and scenario, co-written the script, and invented many of the effects — won an Academy Award for special effects. Most importantly, he embarked on a series of juvenile novels for Scribner's that was to last through the 1950s. The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A cover of the Saturday Evening Post from 1903 The Saturday Evening Post was a weekly magazine published in the United States from August 4, 1821 to February 8, 1969. ... The Green Hills of Earth is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1950 films | Science fiction films ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... Jane Frank: illustration from Thomas Yoseloffs The Further Adventures of Till Eulenspiegel (1957). ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ...

Robert and Virginia Heinlein in a 1952 Popular Mechanics article, titled "A House to Make Life Easy." The Heinleins, both engineers, designed the house themselves with many innovative features.
Robert and Virginia Heinlein in a 1952 Popular Mechanics article, titled "A House to Make Life Easy." The Heinleins, both engineers, designed the house themselves with many innovative features.

Heinlein divorced his second wife in 1947, and the following year married Virginia "Ginny" Gerstenfeld, to whom he would remain married until his death forty years later. Shortly thereafter the couple moved to Colorado, but in 1965 her health was affected by the altitude, so the couple moved to Bonny Doon, California. Heinlein’s circular California house, which, like his Colorado house, he designed with Virginia and built himself, can be seen on Google Maps for "6000 Bonny Doon Road, Santa Cruz, California", on the east side of Bonny Doon Road just north of where Shake Mill Road dead-ends into Bonny Doon Road from the west. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x462, 94 KB)photos from a 1952 Popular Mechanics article showing Robert and Virginia Heinleins house in Colorado, which they designed source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x462, 94 KB)photos from a 1952 Popular Mechanics article showing Robert and Virginia Heinleins house in Colorado, which they designed source: http://www. ... Robert and Virginia Heinlein in Tahiti, 1980. ... Bonny Doon, California is a small town on Ben Lomond Mountain, north of Santa Cruz, California. ...


Ginny undoubtedly served as a model for many of his intelligent, fiercely independent female characters. In 1953–1954, the Heinleins voyaged around the world (mostly via ocean liner), which Heinlein described in Tramp Royale, and which also provided background material for science fiction novels set aboard spaceships, such as Podkayne of Mars. Asimov believed that Heinlein made a drastic swing to the right politically at the same time he married Ginny. The couple formed the Patrick Henry League in 1958 and worked on the 1964 Barry Goldwater campaign, and Tramp Royale contains two lengthy apologias for the McCarthy hearings. However, this perception of a drastic shift may result from a tendency to make the mistake of trying to place libertarianism on the traditional right-left spectrum of American politics, as well as from Heinlein's iconoclasm and unwillingness to let himself be pigeonholed into any ideology (including libertarianism). The evidence of Ginny's influence is clearer in matters literary and scientific. She acted as the first reader of his manuscripts, and was reputed to be a better engineer than Heinlein himself.[12] Tramp Royale is a nonfiction travelogue by science fiction writen Robert A. Heinlein, describing how he and his wife went around the world by ship and plane in 1953-1954. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Patrick Henry League was founded in 1958 by Robert Heinlein and his wife, Virginia Ginny Gerstenfield, to oppose then President of the United States Dwight Eisenhowers proposal for a unilateral cessation of United States nuclear weapons testing in 1958. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ...

Robert and Virginia Heinlein in Tahiti, 1980.
Robert and Virginia Heinlein in Tahiti, 1980.

The Heinlein juveniles, novels for young adults, may turn out to be the most important work he ever did, building an audience of scientifically and socially aware adults. He had used topical materials throughout his series, but in 1959, his Starship Troopers was regarded by the Scribner's editorial staff as too controversial for their prestige line and was rejected summarily. Heinlein felt himself released from the constraints of writing for children and began to write "my own stuff, my own way," and came out with a series of challenging books that redrew the boundaries of science fiction, including his best-known work, Stranger in a Strange Land (1961), and The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (1966). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x596, 73 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert A. Heinlein Virginia Heinlein ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x596, 73 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Robert A. Heinlein Virginia Heinlein ... Heinlein juveniles is a phrase that collectively refers to the twelve novels written annually by Robert A. Heinlein and published by Scribners between 1947 and 1958. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to young adults. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ...


Beginning in 1970, however, Heinlein had a series of health crises, punctuated by strenuous activity in his hobby of stonemasonry. (In a private correspondence, he referred to that as his "usual and favorite occupation between books."[13]) The decade began with a life-threatening attack of peritonitis, recovery from which required more than two years, but as soon as he was well enough to write, he began work on Time Enough for Love (1973), which introduced many of the themes found in his later fiction. Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ...


In the mid-1970s, he wrote two articles for the Britannica Compton Yearbook.[14] He and Ginny crisscrossed the country helping to reorganize blood donation in the United States, and he was guest of honor at a World Science Fiction Convention for the third time at Kansas City, Missouri in 1976. While vacationing in Tahiti in early 1978, he suffered a transient ischemic attack. Over the next few months, he became more and more exhausted, and his health again began to decline. The problem was determined to be a blocked carotid artery, and he had one of the earliest carotid bypass operations to correct it. Asked to appear before a Joint Committee of the U.S. House and Senate that year, he testified on his belief that spin-offs from space technology were benefiting the infirm and the elderly. His surgical treatment re-energized Heinlein, and he wrote five novels from 1980 until he died in his sleep from emphysema and congestive heart failure on May 8, 1988. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... “Give blood” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that World Science Fiction Society be merged into this article or section. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... A transient ischemic attack (TIA, often colloquially referred to as mini stroke) is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. ... A Joint Committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is a Select Committee consisting of members of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... A spin-off (or spinoff) is a new organization or entity formed by a split from a larger one such as a new company formed from a university research group. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood through the body. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


At the time, he was putting together the early notes for another World as Myth novel. Several of his works have been published posthumously.[15] Pantheistic solipsism is a technical term that has been advanced for the World as Myth idea proposed by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in several of his books and stories, although the concept has nothing in common with either Pantheism (the universe is God) or Solipsism (nothing exists but...


Works

Early work, 1939–1958

The first novel that Heinlein wrote, For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs (1939), did not see print during his lifetime, but Robert James later tracked down the manuscript and it was published in 2003. Widely regarded as a failure as a novel,[5] being little more than a disguised lecture on Heinlein's social theories, it is intriguing as a window into the development of Heinlein's radical ideas about man as a social animal, including his interest in free love. The root of many themes found in his later stories can be found in this book. It also contained much material that could be considered background for his other novels, including a detailed description of the protagonist's treatment to avoid being forced to enter Coventry. For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ...


It appears that Heinlein at least attempted to live in a manner consistent with these ideals, even in the 1930s, and had an open relationship in his marriage to his second wife, Leslyn. He was also a nudist;[3] nudism and body taboos are frequently discussed in his work. At the height of the cold war, he built a bomb shelter under his house, like the one featured in Farnham's Freehold.[3] Naturists find going without clothing both enjoyable and relaxing. ... Male Nudist in the 1970s The meanings of nudism and naturism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Air raid shelters are structures for the protection of the civil population as well as military personnel against enemy attacks (Bombing) from the air. ... Farnhams Freehold is a science fiction tale set in the near future by Robert Heinlein. ...

Red Planet, a 1949 juvenile illustrated by Clifford Geary.
Red Planet, a 1949 juvenile illustrated by Clifford Geary.

After For Us, The Living, Heinlein began selling (to magazines) first short stories, then novels, set in a Future History, complete with a time line of significant political, cultural, and technological changes. A chart of the future history was published in the May 1941 issue of Astounding. Over time, Heinlein wrote many novels and short stories that deviated freely from the Future History on some points, while maintaining consistency in some other areas. The Future History was also eventually overtaken by actual events. These discrepancies were explained, after a fashion, in his later World as Myth stories. Image File history File links Red-planet-cover. ... Image File history File links Red-planet-cover. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Clifford N. Geary is an American illustrator, noted for illustrating science books and science fiction novels, especially Robert A. Heinleins juvenile series published by Scribner 1948 to 1956. ... Universe was a 1941 story from Heinleins Future History series (shown here in the 1951 Dell edition). ... Pantheistic solipsism is a technical term that has been advanced for the World as Myth idea proposed by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in several of his books and stories, although the concept has nothing in common with either Pantheism (the universe is God) or Solipsism (nothing exists but...


Heinlein's first novel published as a book, Rocket Ship Galileo, was initially rejected because going to the moon was considered too far out, but he soon found a publisher, Scribner's, that began publishing a Heinlein juvenile once a year for the Christmas season.[16] Eight of these books were illustrated by Clifford Geary in a distinctive white-on-black scratch board style.[17] Some representative novels of this type are Have Space Suit—Will Travel, Farmer in the Sky, and Starman Jones.[18] There has been speculation that Heinlein's intense obsession with his privacy[19] was due at least in part to the apparent contradiction between his unconventional private life and his career as an author of books for children, but For Us, The Living also explicitly discusses the political importance Heinlein attached to privacy as a matter of principle. Rocket Ship Galileo is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein in which boys build a rocket ship in their backyard and take it to the moon. ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to young adults. ... Clifford N. Geary is an American illustrator, noted for illustrating science books and science fiction novels, especially Robert A. Heinleins juvenile series published by Scribner 1948 to 1956. ... Have Space Suit—Will Travel is a juvenile science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialised in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (August, September, October 1958) and published by Scribners in hardcover in 1958 as the last of the Heinlein juveniles. ... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... Starman Jones is a 1953 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a farm boy with an eidetic memory who wants to go to the stars. ...


The novels that he wrote for a young audience are a mixture of adolescent and adult themes. Many of the issues that he takes on in these books have to do with the kinds of problems that adolescents experience. His protagonists are usually very intelligent teenagers who have to make a way in the adult society they see around them. On the surface, they are simple tales of adventure, achievement, and dealing with stupid teachers and jealous peers. “Young Men” redirects here. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ...


However, Heinlein was a vocal proponent of the notion that juvenile readers were far more sophisticated and able to handle complex or difficult themes than most people realized. Thus even his juvenile stories often had a maturity to them that make them readable for adults. Red Planet, for example, portrays some very subversive themes, including a revolution in which young students are involved; his editor demanded substantial changes in this book's discussion of topics such as the use of weapons by children and the misidentified gender of the Martian character. Heinlein was always aware of the editorial limitations put in place by the editors of his novels and stories, and while he observed those restrictions on the surface, was often successful in introducing ideas not often seen in other authors' juvenile SF. Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


In 1957, James Blish wrote that one reason for Heinlein's success "has been the high grade of machinery which goes, today as always, into his story-telling. Heinlein seems to have known from the beginning, as if instinctively, technical lessons about fiction which other writers must learn the hard way (or often enough, never learn). He does not always operate the machinery to the best advantage, but he always seems to be aware of it."[20] James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ...


1959–1960: The Seminal Years

Heinlein decisively ended his juvenile novels with likely the most controversial work in science fiction, the 1959 Starship Troopers, his personal riposte to leftist calls to President Eisenhower in 1958 to stop nuclear testing. "[Heinlein] called for the formation of the Patrick Henry League and spent the next several weeks writing and publishing his own polemic that lambasted 'Communist-line goals concealed in idealistic-sounding nonsense' and urged Americans not to become 'soft-headed.' ... Critics labeled Heinlein everything from a Nazi to a racist." Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ...


""The 'Patrick Henry' ad shocked 'em," he wrote many years later. " 'Starship Troopers' outraged 'em."


A coming-of-age story about duty, citizenship, and the role of the military in a free society, "Starship Troopers" resonates with modern concerns." [21] The book posits that suffrage be given only to those who have earned it through military or other arduous service, with no conscription. Fundamentally, Heinlein propounded that votes or political decisions are best made by individuals who have previously made decisions of conscience.


Mid-Period work, 1961–1973

From about 1961 (Stranger in a Strange Land) to 1973 (Time Enough for Love), Heinlein wrote some of his more libertarian novels (in terms of sexual mores). His work during this period explored his most important themes, such as individualism, libertarianism, and free expression of physical and emotional love. To some extent, the apparent discrepancy between these works and the more naïve themes of his earlier novels can be attributed to his own perception, which was probably correct, that readers and publishers in the 1950s were not yet ready for some of his more radical ideas. He did not publish Stranger in a Strange Land until some time after it was written, and the themes of free love and radical individualism are prominently featured in his long-unpublished first novel, For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs.[22] The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress tells of a war of independence of Lunar colonies, with significant commentary regarding the threat posed by any government — including a republic — to individual freedom. Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ...


Although Heinlein had previously written a few short stories in the fantasy genre, during this period he wrote his first fantasy novel, Glory Road, and in Stranger in a Strange Land and I Will Fear No Evil, he began to mix hard science with fantasy, mysticism, and satire of organized religion. Critics William H. Patterson, Jr., and Andrew Thornton[23] believe that this is simply an expression of Heinlein's longstanding philosophical opposition to positivism. Heinlein stated that he was influenced by James Branch Cabell in taking this new literary direction. The next-to-last novel of this period, I Will Fear No Evil, is according to critic James Gifford "almost universally regarded as a literary failure," and he attributes its shortcomings to Heinlein's near-death from peritonitis.[24] Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. ... Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Glory Road is a fantasy novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1963. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... I Will Fear No Evil is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1970. ... Positivism is a philosophy developed by Auguste Comte in the beginning of the 19th century, which stated that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge. ... James Branch Cabell photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 James Branch Cabell (April 14, 1879 - May 5, 1958) was an American author of fantasy fiction and belles lettres. ... I Will Fear No Evil is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1970. ...


Later work, 1980–1987

After a seven-year hiatus brought on by poor health, Heinlein produced five new novels in the period from 1980 (The Number of the Beast) to 1987 (To Sail Beyond the Sunset). These books have a thread of common characters and time and place. They most explicitly communicated Heinlein's philosophies and beliefs, and many long, didactic passages of dialog and exposition deal with government, sex, and religion. These novels are controversial among his readers, and some critics have written about them very negatively.[25] Heinlein's four Hugo awards were all for books written before this period. The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ...


Some of these books, such as The Number of the Beast and The Cat Who Walks Through Walls, start out as tightly constructed adventure stories, but transform into philosophical fantasias at the end. It is a matter of opinion whether this demonstrates a lack of attention to craftsmanship or a conscious effort to expand the boundaries of science fiction into a kind of magical realism, continuing the process of literary exploration that he had begun with Stranger in a Strange Land. Most of the novels from this period are recognized by critics as forming an offshoot from the Future History series, and referred to by the term World as Myth.[26] Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ... Pantheistic solipsism is a technical term that has been advanced for the World as Myth idea proposed by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in several of his books and stories, although the concept has nothing in common with either Pantheism (the universe is God) or Solipsism (nothing exists but...


The tendency toward authorial self-referentialism begun in Stranger in a Strange Land and Time Enough For Love becomes even more evident in novels such as The Cat Who Walks Through Walls, whose first-person protagonist is a disabled military veteran who becomes a writer, and finds love with a female character who, like all of Heinlein's strong female characters, appears to be based closely on his wife Ginny.


The 1982 novel Friday, a more conventional adventure story (borrowing a character and backstory from the earlier short story "Gulf") continued a Heinlein theme of expecting what he saw as the continued disintegration of Earth's society, to the point where the title character is strongly encouraged to seek a new life off-planet. It concludes with a traditional Heinlein note, as in "The Moon is a Harsh Mistress" or "Time Enough for Love" that freedom is to be found on the frontiers. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Friday is a 1982 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ...


The 1984 novel Job: A Comedy of Justice is a sharp satire of organized religion. Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984. ...


Posthumous publications

Several Heinlein works have been published since his death, including the aforementioned For Us, The Living as well as 1989's Grumbles from the Grave, a collection of letters between Heinlein and his editors and agent, 1992's Tramp Royale, a travelogue of a southern hemisphere tour the Heinleins took in the 1950s, Take Back Your Government, a how-to book about participatory democracy written in 1946, and a tribute volume called Requiem: Collected Works and Tributes to the Grand Master, containing some additional short works previously unpublished in book form. Off the Main Sequence, published in 2005, includes three short stories never before collected in any Heinlein book (Heinlein called them "stinkeroos.") For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... Grumbles from the Grave contains an assortment of bits of writing by Robert Heinlein, edited by his wife Virginia Heinlein, published a year and a half after his death. ... Tramp Royale is a nonfiction travelogue by science fiction writen Robert A. Heinlein, describing how he and his wife went around the world by ship and plane in 1953-1954. ... Take Back Your Government!: A Practical Handbook for the Private Citizen Who Wants Democracy to Work was an early work by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Requiem: New Collected Works by Robert A. Heinlein and Tributes to the Grand Master (1992, ISBN 0-312-85168-5, TOR Books) is a retrospective on Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988), after his death, edited by Yoji Kondo. ... Off the Main Sequence: The Other Science Fiction Stories of Robert A. Heinlein (ISBN 1-58288-184-7) is a collection of 27 Robert A. Heinlein short stories, including three that Heinlein never collected in book form. ...


Spider Robinson, a colleague, friend, and admirer of Heinlein, wrote Variable Star, based on an outline and notes for a juvenile novel that Heinlein prepared in 1955. The novel was published as a collaboration, with Heinlein's name above Robinson's on the cover, in 2006. Spider Robinson (born November 24, 1948 in New York City) is a Canadian science fiction writer. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ...


Ideas, themes, and influence

Politics

Heinlein's writing may appear to oscillate wildly across the political spectrum. His first novel, For Us, The Living, consists largely of speeches advocating the Social Credit system, and the early story "Misfit" deals with an organization that seems to be Franklin D. Roosevelt's Civilian Conservation Corps translated into outer space. While Stranger in a Strange Land was embraced by the hippie counterculture, and Glory Road can be read as an antiwar piece, some have deemed Starship Troopers militaristic, and To Sail Beyond the Sunset, published during the Reagan administration, was stridently right-wing. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... Social Credit (often called Socred for short) is an economic ideology and a social movement which started in the early 1920s. ... Misfit is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein about Andrew Jackson Libby, in this story called Pinky, a boy from Earth with extraordinary mathematical ability and meager education who joins a crew creating a permanent outpost in the Jovian asteroids. ... FDR redirects here. ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families established on March 19, 1933 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first hundred days. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia Hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) refers to a member of a subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, becoming an established social group by 1965, and expanding to other countries before declining in the mid-1970s. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Glory Road is a fantasy novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1963. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti-war is a term that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Starship Troopers cover

There are, however, certain threads in Heinlein's political thought that remain constant. A strong current of libertarianism runs through his work, as expressed most clearly in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. His early juvenile novels often contain a surprisingly strong anti-authority message, as in his first published novel Rocket Ship Galileo, which has a group of boys blasting off in a rocket ship in defiance of a court order. A similar defiance of a court order to take a moon trip takes place in the short story "Requiem." In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, the unjust Lunar Authority that controls the lunar colony is usually referred to simply as "Authority," which points to a clear interpretation of the book as a parable for the evils of authority in general, rather than the evils of one particular authority. cover of Starship Troopers, by Robert Heinlein (an old edition) This image is a book cover. ... cover of Starship Troopers, by Robert Heinlein (an old edition) This image is a book cover. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Rocket Ship Galileo is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein in which boys build a rocket ship in their backyard and take it to the moon. ... A Public Authority is a public corporation, chartered by a State. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, is the hypothetical permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ...


Heinlein was opposed to any encroachment of religion into government; he pilloried organized religion in Job: A Comedy of Justice, and, with more subtlety and ambivalence, in Stranger in a Strange Land. His future history includes a period called the Interregnum, in which a backwoods revivalist becomes dictator of the United States. Revolt in 2100 depicts a revolutionary underground overthrowing a religious dictatorship in America. Positive descriptions of the military (Between Planets, The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, Red Planet, Starship Troopers) tend to emphasize the individual actions of volunteers in the spirit of the Minutemen of colonial America. Conscription and the military as an extension of the government are portrayed in Time Enough for Love, Glory Road, and Starship Troopers as being poor substitutes for the volunteers who, ideally, should be defending a free society. Churchianity is a negative description of organized religion that characterizes it as emphasizing the institutional forms of Christianity (traditions, rituals, committees, and programs) and omitting the actual gospel teachings of Jesus Christ that forms the basis of Christianity. ... Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984. ... A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those outside of it to become part of it. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Between Planets is a 1951 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Lexington Minuteman representing John Parker Minutemen is a name given to members of the militia of the American Colonies, who would be ready for battle in a minutes notice. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... Glory Road is a fantasy novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1963. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... The philosophy of liberalism originated in 18th century Europe, in the writings of philosophers such as John Locke. ...


To those on the right, Heinlein's ardent anti-communism during the Cold War era might appear to contradict his earlier efforts in the socialist EPIC and Social Credit movements; however, it should be noted that both the Socialist Party and the Communist Party were very active during the 1930s, and the distinction between socialism and Soviet communism was well understood by those on the left. Heinlein spelled out his strong concerns regarding communism in a number of nonfiction pieces, including "Who are the heirs of Patrick Henry?", an anti-communist polemic published as a newspaper advertisement in 1958; and articles such as "Pravda Means Truth" and "Inside Intourist," in which he recounted his visit to the USSR and advised Western readers on how to evade official supervision on such a trip. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Short for End Poverty in California, EPIC was an effort for then well-known muckraking writer and former Socialist Upton Sinclair to implement Socialist reforms through Californias Democratic Party during the Great Depression by recruiting supporters into the party and then securing that partys nomination for Governor of... Social Credit (often called Socred for short) is an economic ideology and a social movement which started in the early 1920s. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ... Intourist was the state travel agency of the Soviet Union. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


Many of Heinlein's stories explicitly spell out a view of history that could be compared to Marx's: social structures are dictated by the materialistic environment. Heinlein would perhaps have been more comfortable with a comparison with Frederick Jackson Turner's frontier thesis. In Red Planet, Doctor MacRae links attempts at gun control to the increase in population density on Mars. (This discussion was edited out of the original version of the book at the insistence of the publisher.) In Farmer in the Sky, overpopulation of Earth has led to hunger, and emigration to Ganymede provides a "life insurance policy" for the species as a whole; Heinlein puts a lecture in the mouth of one of his characters toward the end of the book in which it is explained that the mathematical logic of Malthusianism can lead only to disaster for the home planet. A subplot in Time Enough for Love involves demands by farmers upon Lazarus Long's bank, which Heinlein portrays as the inevitable tendency of a pioneer society evolving into a more dense (and, by implication, more decadent and less free) society. This episode is an interesting example of Heinlein's tendency (in opposition to Marx) to view history as cyclical rather than progressive. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ... Gun politics fundamentally involves the politics of two related questions: Does a government have valid authority to impose regulations on guns? And, assuming such authority, should a government regulate guns and to what extent?[1] The answer to these questions and the nature of the politics varies and depends on... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution on the basis of the writings of Thomas Malthus. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ...


Race

Heinlein grew up in the era of racial segregation in the United States and wrote some of his most influential fiction at the height of the US civil rights movement. His early juveniles were very much ahead of their time both in their explicit rejection of racism and in their inclusion of non-white protagonists — in the context of science fiction before the 1960s, the mere existence of dark-skinned characters was a remarkable novelty, with green occurring more often than brown. For example, his second juvenile, the 1948 Space Cadet, explicitly uses aliens as a metaphor for human racial minorities: "That's just race prejudice. A Venerian is easier to like than a man." "...that's not fair ... Matt hasn't got any race prejudice. .. Take Lieutenant Peters — did it make any difference to us that he's as black as the ace of spades?" In this example, as in books written throughout his career, Heinlein challenges his readers' possible racial stereotypes by introducing a strong, sympathetic character, only to reveal much later that he is of African descent. This also occurs in, e.g., The Cat Who Walks Through Walls and Tunnel in the Sky; in several cases, the covers of the books show characters as being light-skinned, when in fact the text states, or at least implies, that they are dark-skinned or of African descent.[27] The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress and Podkayne of Mars both contain incidents of racial prejudice or injustice against their protagonists.[28] Heinlein repeatedly denounced racism in his non-fiction works, including numerous examples in Expanded Universe. The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Space Cadet is a 1948 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about Matt Dodson, who joins the Space Patrol that keeps the peace in the solar system. ... Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... Tunnel in the Sky is a science fiction book written by Robert Heinlein and published in 1955. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... The full title of this book by Robert A. Heinlein is Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, copyright 1980 by Heinlein. ...


Race was a central theme in some of Heinlein's fiction. The most prominent example is Farnham's Freehold, which casts a white family into a future in which white people are the slaves of black rulers. In the 1941[29] novel Sixth Column (also known as The Day After Tomorrow), a resistance movement defends itself against an invasion by an Asian fascist state (the "Pan-Asians") using a "super-science" technology that allows ray weapons to be tuned to specific races. The idea for the story was pushed on Heinlein by editor John W. Campbell, and Heinlein wrote later that he had "had to reslant it to remove racist aspects of the original story line" and that he did not "consider it to be an artistic success";[30] the reslanting may have been another instance of Heinlein’s subtle inclusion of non-white sympathetic characters.[31] Sixth Column concentrates more on the Japanese, and was first serialized in 1941, the year of the Pearl Harbor attack, although it was not published in book form until 1949, the year of the revolution in China. Tunnel in the Sky and Farmer in the Sky were both written after the revolution. The protagonist in Starship Troopers is Filipino, and "Tiger" Kondo in The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a cameo appearance by Yoji Kondo, a NASA scientist of Heinlein's acquaintance who also edited the tribute volume Requiem. The protagonist in Between Planets is assisted by a Chinese restaurant owner, a major character in the book. In The Star Beast, a harried African bureaucrat is sympathetically portrayed as the behind-the-scenes master of the world government's foreign policy, while several other (presumably white) officials are portrayed variously as misguided, foolish, or well-meaning but parochial and prejudiced. Farnhams Freehold is a science fiction tale set in the near future by Robert Heinlein. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sixth Column, also published under the title The Day After Tomorrow, is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, set in a United States that has been conquered by a foreign invader. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Sixth Column, also published under the title The Day After Tomorrow, is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, set in a United States that has been conquered by a foreign invader. ... Tunnel in the Sky is a science fiction book written by Robert Heinlein and published in 1955. ... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... Dr. Yoji Kondo is an astrophysicist who also writes science fiction under the pseudonym Eric Kotani. ... Requiem: New Collected Works by Robert A. Heinlein and Tributes to the Grand Master (1992, ISBN 0-312-85168-5, TOR Books) is a retrospective on Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988), after his death, edited by Yoji Kondo. ... Between Planets is a 1951 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... The Star Beast is a 1954 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about a high school senior who discovers that his late fathers extra-terrestrial pet is more than it appears to be. ...

Some of the alien species in Heinlein's fiction can be interpreted in terms of an allegorical representation of human ethnic groups. Double Star, Red Planet, and Stranger in a Strange Land all deal with tolerance and understanding between humans and Martians. Several of his stories, such as "Jerry Was a Man," The Star Beast, and Red Planet, involve the idea of non-humans who are incorrectly judged as being less than human. Although it has been suggested that the strongly hierarchical and anti-individualistic "bugs" in Starship Troopers were meant to represent the Chinese or Japanese, Heinlein wrote the book in response to the unilateral ending of nuclear testing by the U.S., so it is more likely that they were intended to represent communism. Indeed, Heinlein suggests in the book that the bugs are a good example of communism being something that humans cannot adhere successfully to, since humans are of individual minds, whereas the bugs, being a collective, can all contribute to the whole without consideration of individual desire. The slugs in The Puppet Masters are likewise explicitly and repeatedly identified as metaphors for communism. A problem with interpreting aliens as stand-ins for races of Homo sapiens is that Heinlein's aliens generally occupy an entirely different mental world than humans. For example, an alien race depicted in Methuselah's Children, the Jockaira, are sentient domesticated animals ruled by a second, godlike species. In his early juvenile fiction, the Martians and Venerians are usually depicted as ancient, wise races who seldom deign to interfere in human affairs. Robert A. Heinlein, Methuselahs Children This image is a book cover. ... Robert A. Heinlein, Methuselahs Children This image is a book cover. ... Methuselahs Children is a 1941 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... When two stars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a single star to the naked eye but may be separated by the use of telescopes, they are referred to as a double star. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Jerry Was a Man (1947) is a novella by Robert A. Heinlein, concerning the attempt by a genetically modified chimpanzee to achieve human rights. ... The Star Beast is a 1954 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about a high school senior who discovers that his late fathers extra-terrestrial pet is more than it appears to be. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Methuselahs Children is a 1941 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ...


Individualism and self-determination

Many of Heinlein's novels are stories of revolts against political oppression, for example:

  • Residents of a lunar penal colony, aided by a self-aware computer, rebel against the Warden and Lunar Authority (and eventually Earth) in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress.
  • Colonists rebel against Earth in Between Planets and Red Planet, and in the back story to Podkayne of Mars
  • A break—implicitly of a revolutionary nature—between Earth and colonial Ganymede is predicted in Farmer in the Sky. The visiting Earth official who makes the prediction announces that he will be staying with the colony.
  • Secularists overthrow a religious dictatorship in "'If This Goes On—'."
  • A group of soldiers take on the mantle of power after the governments of the world break down as part of the back story in Starship Troopers.

But in keeping with his belief in individualism, his work for adults — and sometimes even his work for juveniles — often portrays both the oppressors and the oppressed with considerable ambiguity. In titles such as Double Star and Glory Road, a monarch is depicted positively, and in The Star Beast, a publicity-shy bureaucrat is sympathetically portrayed as the behind-the-scenes controller of the planetary government's foreign relations — while his boss, a career politician, is portrayed as a fool. In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, prerevolutionary life under the Lunar Authority is portrayed as a kind of anarchist or libertarian utopia; projections of economic disaster are the true (and secret) justification for the revolution, which brings with it the evils of republican government. Novels such as Stranger in a Strange Land and Friday revolve around individual rebellions against oppression by society rather than by government. The common thread, then, is the struggle for self-determination of individuals, rather than of nations. However, many of Heinlein's stories revolve around the protagonist's duty (which may be to a nation or to a stray kitten), and a common theme is the character's free choice as to whether to make a self-sacrificing decision. The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Between Planets is a 1951 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... “If This Goes On—” is a science fiction short novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first serialized in 1940 in Astounding Science-Fiction and revised and expanded for inclusion in the 1953 collection Revolt in 2100. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... When two stars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a single star to the naked eye but may be separated by the use of telescopes, they are referred to as a double star. ... Glory Road is a fantasy novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1963. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... The Star Beast is a 1954 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about a high school senior who discovers that his late fathers extra-terrestrial pet is more than it appears to be. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Friday is a 1982 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Heinlein believed that individualism did not go hand-in-hand with ignorance. He believed that an appropriate level of adult competence was achieved through a wide-ranging education, whether this occurred in a classroom or not (as in Citizen of the Galaxy). In his juvenile novels, more than once a character looks with disdain at a student's choice of classwork, saying "Why didn't you study something useful?" In Time Enough For Love, Lazarus Long gives a long list of capabilities that anyone should have, concluding, "Specialization is for insects." Cover: 1987 Del Rey paperback Citizen of the Galaxy is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1957. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... Spoiler warning: Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The Competent Man is a stock character who can do anything well. ...


The ability of the individual to create himself is explored deeply in stories such as I Will Fear No Evil, "'All You Zombies—'," and "By His Bootstraps." We are invited to wonder, what would humanity be if we shaped customs to benefit us, and not the other way around? In Heinlein's view, as outlined in For Us, The Living, humanity would not only be happier, but perceptually, behaviorally, and morally aligned with reality. I Will Fear No Evil is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1970. ... —All You Zombies— is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein, first published in 1959 in Fantasy and Science Fiction magazine. ... By His Bootstraps is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein that plays with some of the inherent paradoxes that would be caused by time travel. ... For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ...


Sexual liberation

For Heinlein, personal liberation included sexual liberation, and free love was a major subject of his writing starting from the 1939 For Us, The Living. Beyond This Horizon (1942) cleverly subverts traditional gender roles in a scene in which the protagonist demonstrates his archaic gunpowder gun for his friend and discusses how useful it would be in dueling — after which the discussion turns to the shade of his nail polish. "All You Zombies—" (1959) is the story of a person who undergoes a sex change operation, goes back in time, has sex with herself, and gives birth to herself. The sexual revolution was a substantial change in sexual morality and sexual behaviour throughout the West in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... Beyond This Horizon is a 1942 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... All You Zombies— is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein, written in a single day, July 11, 1958, and first published in the March 1959 issue of Fantasy and Science Fiction magazine. ... A clownfish Sex change in animals Some species are known to change sex, including reproductive functions, in special circumstances, such as the clownfish. ...


Sexual freedom and the elimination of sexual jealousy are a major theme of Stranger in a Strange Land (1961), in which the progressive minded yet culturally canalized reporter, Ben Caxton, acts as a dramatic foil for the less parochial characters, Jubal Harshaw and Mike. Paralleling Ben's gradual philosophical awakening, the nurse Gillian Boardman learns to embrace her innate tendency toward exhibitionism and to be more accepting of other people's sexuality (e.g., Duke's fondness for pornography). Stranger's treatment of homosexuality is ambiguous. As discussed in more detail in the book's Wikipedia article, two negative references to homosexuality have been interpreted by some readers as being homophobic, but both deal with Jill's hang-ups, and one is a discussion of Jill's thoughts. It is therefore unclear if they reflect Heinlein's own point of view. In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, homosexuality is ill-regarded, but accepted as necessary, in an overwhelmingly male society, by the book's point-of-view character. In contrast, homosexuality is regarded with approval — even gusto — in books such as 1970s I Will Fear No Evil, which posits the social recognition of six innate genders, consisting of all possible combinations of male and female, with straight, gay, and bisexual. In The Number of the Beast, a male character discusses unsuccessful homosexual experimentation as a teenager, eventually stating that, while his previous experimentation had failed, if his friend and son-in-law Zeb Carter was to display a sexual interest in him, he would do his best to enjoy the experience and make Zeb feel as if he had desired it all along. Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jubal Harshaw is a fictional character featured in Stranger in a Strange Land, a novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... An exhibitionist exposing himself at a soccer game. ... Porn redirects here. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... I Will Fear No Evil is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1970. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Bisexuality is a sexual orientation which refers to the romantic and/or sexual attraction of individuals to other individuals of both their own and the opposite gender or sex. ... The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ...


In later books, Heinlein dealt with incest and the sexual nature of children. In Time Enough For Love, Lazarus Long uses genetic arguments to initially dissuade a brother and sister he has adopted from sexual experimentation with each other, but he later arranges for them to be married, having discovered that they (in an extremely rare but scientifically possible circumstance) are not brother and sister on a genetic level; he also consummates his strong sexual attraction to his own mother, whom he goes back in time to see again. In some of Heinlein's books, To Sail Beyond the Sunset, for instance, sexual urges between daughters and fathers are exemplified and briefly discussed on several occasions. Later in the same book, the protagonist/narrator (Maureen Johnson) discovers that her two youngest children are engaged in heterosexual incest. After failing to dissuade them from the relationship, she forcibly returns the two to their father, and never mentions them again. The protagonist of The Cat Who Walks Through Walls recalls a homosexual experience with a Boy Scouts leader, which he didn't find unpleasant. In Heinlein's treatment of the possibility of sex between adults and adolescents, some readers may feel that he dodges many of the valid reasons for the taboo by portraying the sexual attractions or actual sex as taking place only between Nietzschean supermen, who are so enlightened that they can avoid all the ethical and emotional pitfalls. Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... Spoiler warning: Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ... Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, so that they may play constructive roles in society. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Perhaps the greatest form of sexual liberation found in Heinlein's work, from first to last, was his treatment of females. Beginning with For Us, the Living, Heinlein's female characters of all ages were generally competent, intelligent, courageous, powerful, and in control of their lives and situations to the extent circumstances permitted. Those few of his female characters who are weak or helpless are held in contempt by other characters (including other females). For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ...


Nonetheless, Heinlein did occasionally incorporate elements of the mid-twentieth century female stereotype in certain characters. In Double Star, for example, the secretary, Penny, while smart and competent, allows her emotions to affect her work — and eventually fulfills the dream of many Fifties secretaries by marrying her boss. Elspeth, in Starman Jones, pretends to be less intelligent than she is and permits Max to "teach" her three-dimensional chess (of which she is a champion) in order to have a better chance to catch his romantic interest. A character in Citizen of the Galaxy similarly allows Thorby to "teach" her mathematics for a similar purpose. However, many of the juveniles feature intelligent young women who help save the day (from The Star Beast to Between Planets) — and are romantically inclined towards the protagonist, though not all such relationships end in marriage. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Philosophy

In To Sail Beyond the Sunset, Heinlein has the main character, Maureen, state that the purpose of metaphysics is to ask questions: Why are we here? Where are we going after we die? (and so on), and that "you are not allowed to answer the questions." Asking the questions is the point for metaphysics, but answering them is not, because once you answer them, you cross the line into religion. Maureen does not state a reason for this; she simply remarks that such questions are "beautiful" but lack answers. Maureen's son/lover Lazarus Long makes a related remark in Time Enough For Love. In order for us to answer the "big questions" about the universe, Lazarus states at one point, it would be necessary to stand outside the universe. To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Spoiler warning: Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ...


During the 1930s and 1940s, Heinlein was deeply interested in Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics and attended a number of seminars on the subject. His views on epistemology seem to have flowed from that interest, and his fictional characters continue to express Korzybskian views to the very end of his writing career. Many of his stories, such as "Gulf," "'If This Goes On—'," and Stranger in a Strange Land, depend strongly on the premise, extrapolated from the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, that by using a correctly designed language, one can liberate oneself mentally, or even become a superman. He was also strongly affected by the religious philosopher P. D. Ouspensky.[5] Freudianism and psychoanalysis were at the height of their influence during the peak of Heinlein's career, and stories such as Time for the Stars indulged in psychoanalysis. However, he was skeptical about Freudianism, especially after a struggle with an editor who insisted on reading Freudian sexual symbolism into his juvenile novels. He was strongly committed to cultural relativism, and the sociologist Margaret Mader in his novel Citizen of the Galaxy is clearly a reference to Margaret Mead. In the World War II era, cultural relativism was the only intellectual framework that offered a clearly reasoned alternative to racism, which Heinlein was ahead of his time in opposing. Many of these sociological and psychological theories have been criticized, debunked, or heavily modified in the last fifty years, and Heinlein's use of them may now appear credulous and dated to many readers. The critic Patterson says "Korzybski is now widely regarded as a crank,"[32] although others disagree. Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski is a philosopher and scientist born on July 3, 1879 in Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire and died on March 1, 1950, in Lakeville, Connecticut, USA. He is probably best-remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. ... General Semantics is a school of thought founded by Alfred Korzybski in about 1933 in response to his observations that most people had difficulty defining human and social discussions and problems and could almost never predictably resolve them into elements that were responsive to successful intervention or correction. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Gulf (1949) is a novella by Robert A. Heinlein, originally published as a serial in the November and December 1949 issues of Astounding Science Fiction. ... “If This Goes On—” is a science fiction short novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first serialized in 1940 in Astounding Science-Fiction and revised and expanded for inclusion in the 1953 collection Revolt in 2100. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Time for the Stars is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1956. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to young adults. ... Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual humans beliefs and activities are interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ... Cover: 1987 Del Rey paperback Citizen of the Galaxy is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1957. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Racism is a belief or concept of Ryan Dunbar who inhereted differences between people, in particular those upon which the concept of Stupitidy is based, determine cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones self-identified race or ethnic group or others race or ethnic group...


Influence

Heinlein is usually identified, along with Isaac Asimov and Arthur C. Clarke, as one of the three masters of science fiction to arise in the so-called Golden Age of science fiction, associated with John W. Campbell and his magazine Astounding. However, in the 1950s he was a leader in bringing science fiction out of the low-paying and less prestigious pulp ghetto. Most of his works, including short stories, have been continuously in print in many languages since their initial appearance and are still available as new paperbacks years after his death. Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... Flynns Detective Fiction from 1941. ...

Heinlein crater on Mars.
Heinlein crater on Mars.

He was at the top of his form during, and himself helped to initiate, the trend toward social science fiction, which went along with a general maturing of the genre away from space opera to a more literary approach touching on such adult issues as politics and human sexuality. In reaction to this trend, hard science fiction began to be distinguished as a separate subgenre, but paradoxically Heinlein is also considered a seminal figure in hard science fiction, due to his extensive knowledge of engineering, and the careful scientific research demonstrated in his stories. Heinlein himself stated — with obvious pride — that in the days before pocket calculators, he once worked for several days on a mathematical equation describing an Earth-Mars rocket orbit, which was then subsumed in a single sentence of one of his short stories. Heinlein crater on Mars. ... Heinlein crater on Mars. ... Social science fiction is a term used to describe a subgenre of science fiction concerned less with gadgets and space opera and more with speculation about human society. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ...


Heinlein has had a nearly ubiquitous influence on other science fiction writers. In a 1953 poll of leading science fiction authors, he was cited more frequently as an influence than any other modern writer.[33] In 1974, he won the first Grand Master Award given by the Science Fiction Writers of America for lifetime achievement. Critic James Gifford writes that "Although many other writers have exceeded Heinlein's output, few can claim to match his broad and seminal influence. Scores of science fiction writers from the prewar Golden Age through the present day loudly and enthusiastically credit Heinlein for blazing the trails of their own careers, and shaping their styles and stories."[34] The Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award is an award given by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. ... Science Fiction Writers of America, or SFWA (pronounced // or //), was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight. ...


Outside the science fiction community, several words and phrases coined or adopted by Heinlein have passed into common English usage: waldo, TANSTAAFL, moonbat,[35] and grok. TANSTAAFL is an acronym for the adage There Aint No Such Thing As A Free Lunch, popularized by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein and promulgated in his 1966 novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, which deals with a libertarian utopia. ... Moonbat (also barking moonbat and moonbat crazy) is a term often used currently in U.S. politics as a political epithet referring to anyone that is liberal or on the left. ... Grok (IPA (GA) or (RP), both rhyming with rock) is a verb that connotes knowledge greater than that which can be sensed by an outside observer. ...


He was influential in making space exploration seem to the public more like a practical possibility. His stories in publications such as The Saturday Evening Post took a matter-of-fact approach to their outer-space setting, rather than the "gee whiz" tone that had previously been common. The documentary-like film Destination Moon advocated a Space Race with the Soviet Union almost a decade before such an idea became commonplace, and was promoted by an unprecedented publicity campaign in print publications. Many of the astronauts and others working in the U.S. space program grew up on a diet of the Heinlein juveniles, best evidenced by the naming of a crater on Mars after him, and a tribute interspersed by the Apollo 15 astronauts into their radio conversations while on the moon.[36] Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... A cover of the Saturday Evening Post from 1903 The Saturday Evening Post was a weekly magazine published in the United States from August 4, 1821 to February 8, 1969. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1950 films | Science fiction films ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to young adults. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ...


Heinlein was also a guest commentator for Walter Cronkite during Neil Armstrong's Apollo 11 moon landing. Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1730) is a current American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and naval aviator. ... The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ...


There is an active campaign to persuade the Secretary of the Navy to name the new Zumwalt class destroyer DDG-1001 the USS Robert A. Heinlein. [7] Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... The Zumwalt-class destroyer (DDG-1000) is a planned class of United States Navy destroyers, designed as a multi-mission ship with a focus on land attack. ...


Bibliography

Main article is the Robert A. Heinlein bibliography.

Heinlein published 32 novels, 59 short stories and 16 collections during his life. Four films, two TV series, several episodes of a radio series, and a board game derived more or less directly from his work. He wrote a screenplay for one of the films. Heinlein edited an anthology of other writers' SF short stories. The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress cover The science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988) was productive during a writing career that spanned the last 49 years of his life and thus the Robert A. Heinlein bibliography includes 32 novels, 59 short stories and 16 collections published during his...


Three non-fiction books and two poems have been published posthumously. One novel has been published posthumously and another, based on a sketchy outline by Heinlein, was published in September 2006. Four collections have been published posthumously. For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... In 2004, Spider Robinson pronounced himself overjoyed to begin working on a lengthy 1955 novel outline by the late Robert A. Heinlein in order to expand it into a novel, thus making it a collaborative effort. ...


See also: List of Robert A. Heinlein characters This is a list of characters in the fiction of Robert A. Heinlein: // A Alex - Job: A Comedy of Justice Allucquere - The Puppet Masters Security Chief Juan Alvarez - The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress Richard Ames (aka Colin Campbell) - The Cat Who Walks Through Walls Sam Anderson - Starman Jones Anne...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bibliography links are in the Robert A. Heinlein bibliography article.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress cover The science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988) was productive during a writing career that spanned the last 49 years of his life and thus the Robert A. Heinlein bibliography includes 32 novels, 59 short stories and 16 collections published during his... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Robert J. Sawyer. The Death of Science Fiction
  2. ^ Sir Arthur Clarke Named Recipient of 2004 Heinlein Award. Heinlein Society Press Release. May 22, 2004.
  3. ^ a b c d Houdek, D. A. (2003). FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions about Robert A. Heinlein, the person. The Heinlein Society. See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261.
  4. ^ Say How? A Pronunciation Guide to Names of Public Figures. Library of Congress, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) (2006-09-21). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  5. ^ a b c William H. Patterson, Jr. (1999). "Robert Heinlein - A biographical sketch". The Heinlein Journal 1999 (5): 7–36.  Also available at Robert A. Heinlein, a Biographical Sketch. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  6. ^ "Social Affairs Of The Army And Navy," Los Angeles Times; Sep 1, 1929; p. B8.
  7. ^ Isaac Asimov, I, Asimov
  8. ^ Afterword to For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 245.
  9. ^ Heinlein was running as a left-wing Democrat in a conservative district, and never made it past the Democratic primary because of trickery by his Republican opponent (afterword to For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 247, and the story "A Bathroom of Her Own"). Also, an unfortunate juxtaposition of events had Konrad Henlein making headlines in the Sudetenlands.
  10. ^ Tramp Royale, 1992, uncorrected proof, ISBN 0-441-82184-7, p. 62
  11. ^ Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader’s Companion, James Gifford, p. 47.
  12. ^ The Passing of Ginny Heinlein. January 18, 2003.
  13. ^ Virginia Heinlein to Michael A. Banks, 1988
  14. ^ On Paul Dirac and antimatter, and on blood chemistry. A version of the former, titled "Paul Dirac, Antimatter, and You," was published in the anthology Expanded Universe, and demonstrates both Heinlein's skill as a popularizer and his lack of depth in physics; an afterword gives a normalization equation and presents it, incorrectly, as being the Dirac equation.
  15. ^ Based on an outline and notes created by Heinlein in 1955, Spider Robinson has written the novel Variable Star. Heinlein's posthumously published nonfiction includes a selection of letters edited by his wife, Virginia, his book on practical politics written in 1946, a travelogue of their first around-the-world tour in 1954. Podkayne of Mars and Red Planet, which were edited against his wishes in their original release, have been reissued in restored editions. Stranger In a Strange Land was originally published in a shorter form, but both the long and short versions are now simultaneously available in print.
  16. ^ Robert A. Heinlein, Expanded Universe, foreword to "Free Men," p. 207 of Ace paperback edition.
  17. ^ Heinlein in Dimension, Chapter 3, Part 1
  18. ^ Many of these were first published in serial form under other titles, e.g., Farmer in the Sky was published as "Satellite Scout" in the Boy Scout magazine Boys' Life.
  19. ^ The importance Heinlein attached to privacy was made clear in his fiction (e.g., For Us, the Living), but also in several well known examples from his life. He had a falling out with Alexei Panshin, who wrote an important book analyzing Heinlein's fiction; Heinlein stopped cooperating with Panshin because he accused Panshin of "[attempting to] pry into his affairs and to violate his privacy." Heinlein wrote to Panshin's publisher threatening to sue, and stating, "You are warned that only the barest facts of my private life are public knowledge..." [1]. In his 1961 speech at WorldCon, where he was guest of honor, he advocated building bomb shelters and caching away unregistered weapons,[2] and his own house in Colorado Springs included a bomb shelter.<ref></ref> Heinlein was a nudist, and built a fence around his house in Santa Cruz to keep out the counterculture types who had learned of his ideas through Stranger in a Strange Land.<ref></ref> In his later life, Heinlein studiously avoided revealing his early involvement in left-wing politics,[3], and made strenuous efforts to block publication of information he had revealed to prospective biographer Sam Moskowitz.[4]
  20. ^ James Blish, The Issues at Hand, page 52.
  21. ^ Centenary a modern sci-fi giant
  22. ^ The story that Stranger in a Strange Land was used as inspiration by Charles Manson appears to be an urban folk tale; although some of Manson's followers had read the book, Manson himself later said that he had not; however, at one point the Heinleins took the idea seriously enough that they took special precautions against possible targeting by the Manson family, as mentioned in a letter from Virginia Heinlein reprinted in Grumbles from the Grave.[5] // It is true that other individuals formed a religious organization called the Church of All Worlds, after the religion founded by the primary characters in Stranger, but Heinlein played no part in this except for some private correspondence with Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Heinlein's insistence on paying for his subscription to Green Egg Magazine, refusing a complimentary subscription. (see http://www.heinleinsociety.org/rah/faqworks.html)
  23. ^ Patterson and Thornton, 2001.
  24. ^ Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion, James Gifford, Nitrosyncretic Press, Sacramento, California, 2000, p. 102.
  25. ^ See, e.g., Review of Vulgarity and Nullity by Dave Langford]. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  26. ^ William H. Patterson, Jr., and Andrew Thornton, The Martian Named Smith: Critical Perspectives on Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land, p. 128: "His books written after about 1980 ... belong to a series called by one of the central characters 'World as Myth.'" The term Multiverse also occurs in the print literature, e.g., Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion, James Gifford, Nitrosyncretic Press, Sacramento, California, 2000. The term World as Myth occurs for the first time in Heinlein's novel The Cat Who Walks Through Walls.
  27. ^ The reference in Tunnel in the Sky is subtle and ambiguous, but at least one college instructor who teaches the book reports that some students always ask, "Is he black?" (see [6]). Critic and Heinlein scholar James Gifford (see bibliography) states: "A very subtle point in the book, one found only by the most careful reading and confirmed by Virginia Heinlein, is that Rod Walker is black. The most telling clues are Rod's comments about Caroline Mshiyeni being similar to his sister, and the "obvious" (to all of the other characters) pairing of Rod and Caroline." The Cat Who Walks Through Walls was published with a dust jacket painting showing the protagonist as pale-skinned, although the book clearly states that he is dark-skinned (see Gifford, p. 68). This was also true of the paperback release of Friday, in which the title character is revealed early on to be fairly dark-skinned (she describes herself as having a "permanent tan"). However, she conceals her skin pigment many times in the course of the novel, and she does indeed take on the identity of a white female at one point.
  28. ^ The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress includes an incident in which the protagonist visits the Southern U.S., and is briefly jailed for polygamy, later learning that the "...range of color in Davis family was what got judge angry enough..." to have him arrested. Podkayne of Mars deals briefly with racial prejudice against the protagonist due to her mixed-race ancestry.
  29. ^ The novel was published as a serial in 1941, the year of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was published in book form in 1949.
  30. ^ Robert A. Heinlein, Expanded Universe, foreword to "Solution Unsatisfactory," p. 93 of Ace paperback edition.
  31. ^ Citations at Sixth Column.
  32. ^ Patterson and Thornton, 2001, p. 120
  33. ^ Panshin, p. 3, describing de Camp's Science Fiction Handbook
  34. ^ Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion, p. xiii
  35. ^ The New York Times Magazine, On Language, by William Safire, 3 September 2006
  36. ^ The Hammer and the Feather. Corrected Transcript and Commentary.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... A Bathroom of Her Own is a short story by Robert A. Heinlein about a political campaign in the U.S. after World War II. Written in 1946, it was unpublished until printed in Heinleins Expanded Universe (1980). ... Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... Tramp Royale is a nonfiction travelogue by science fiction writen Robert A. Heinlein, describing how he and his wife went around the world by ship and plane in 1953-1954. ... The full title of this book by Robert A. Heinlein is Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, copyright 1980 by Heinlein. ... In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. ... Spider Robinson (born November 24, 1948 in New York City) is a Canadian science fiction writer. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The cover of Boys Life from July 1917. ... Alexei Adam Panshin (born August 14, 1940) is an American author and critic of science fiction (SF). ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... Charles Milles Manson (born November 12, 1934) was the leader of what came to be known as the Manson Family, a commune, which most consider a cult, that began to form around him in the U.S. city of San Francisco in 1967. ... Grumbles from the Grave contains an assortment of bits of writing by Robert Heinlein, edited by his wife Virginia Heinlein, published a year and a half after his death. ... The Church of All Worlds (CAW) is a religious group whose stated mission is to evolve a network of information, mythology, and experience that provides a context and stimulus for re-awakening Gaia, and re_uniting her children through tribal community dedicated to responsible stewardship and evolving consciousness. ... Oberon Zell-Ravenheart (b. ... The Green Egg was a Neopagan magazine published by the Church of All Worlds from 1968 through 2001. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Friday is a 1982 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... Sixth Column, also published under the title The Day After Tomorrow, is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, set in a United States that has been conquered by a foreign invader. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... William Safire receiving the 2006 Presidential Medal of Freedom. ...

References

Critical

  • H. Bruce Franklin. 1980. Robert A. Heinlein: America as Science Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502746-9.
A critique of Heinlein from a Marxist perspective. Somewhat out of date, since Franklin was not aware of Heinlein's work with the EPIC Movement. Includes a biographical chapter, which incorporates some original research on Heinlein's family background, but contains many of the same omissions and inaccuracies as other 20th century bios of Heinlein.
  • James Gifford. 2000 Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion. Sacramento: Nitrosyncretic Press. ISBN 0-9679874-1-5 (hardcover), 0967987407 (trade paperback).
A comprehensive bibliography, with roughly one page of commentary on each of Heinlein's works.
  • Alexei Panshin. 1968. Heinlein in Dimension. Advent. ISBN 0-911682-12-0. Online edition at [8]
  • William H. Patterson, Jr. and Andrew Thornton. 2001. The Martian Named Smith: Critical Perspectives on Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land. Sacramento: Nitrosyncretic Press. ISBN 0-9679874-2-3.
  • Powell, Jim. The Triumph of Liberty (New York: Free Press, 2000). See profile of Heinlein in the chapter "Out of this World."
  • Tom Shippey. 2000. "Starship Troopers, Galactic Heroes, Mercenary Princes: the Military and its Discontents in Science Fiction," in Alan Sandison and Robert Dingley, ed.s, Histories of the Future: Studies in Fact, Fantasy and Science Fiction. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-23604-2.
  • James Blish, writing as William Atheling, Jr. 1970. More Issues at Hand. Chicago: Advent:Publishers, Inc.

H. Bruce Franklin (born 1934) is an American professor of English and radical Marxist. ... Short for End Poverty in California, EPIC was an effort for then well-known muckraking writer and former Socialist Upton Sinclair to implement Socialist reforms through Californias Democratic Party during the Great Depression by recruiting supporters into the party and then securing that partys nomination for Governor of... Alexei Adam Panshin (born August 14, 1940) is an American author and critic of science fiction (SF). ... Thomas Alan Shippey (born 1943) is a scholar of medieval literature, including Anglo-Saxon England, and of modern fantasy and science fiction, in particular the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, about whom he has written several scholarly studies. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ...

Biographical

  • Robert A. Heinlein. 2004. For Us, the Living. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-5998-X.
Includes an introduction by Spider Robinson, an afterword by Robert E. James with a long biography, and a shorter biographical sketch.
A lengthy essay that treats Heinlein's own autobiographical statements with skepticism.
Contains a shorter version of the Patterson bio.
  • Robert A. Heinlein. 1989. Grumbles From the Grave. New York: Del Rey.
Incorporates a substantial biographical sketch by Virginia Heinlein, which hews closely to his earlier official bios, omitting the same facts (the first of his three marriages, his early left-wing political activities) and repeating the same fictional anecdotes (the short story contest).
  • Elizabeth Zoe Vicary. 2000. American National Biography Online article, Heinlein, Robert Anson. Retrieved June 1, 2005 (not available for free).
Repeats many incorrect statements from Heinlein's fictionalized professional bio.
Autobiographical notes are interspersed between the pieces in the anthology.
Reprinted by Baen, hardcover October 2003, ISBN 0-7434-7159-8
Reprinted by Baen, paperback July 2005, ISBN 0-7434-9915-8
Electronic edition available at: webscription.net (not free)
Robert A. Heinlein novels, major collections, and nonfiction (Bibliography)
Robert A. Heinlein at the 1976 Worldcon

Future History and World as Myth: Methuselah's Children (1958) • The Past Through Tomorrow (1967) • Time Enough for Love (1973) • The Number of the Beast (1980) • The Cat Who Walks Through Walls (1985) • To Sail Beyond the Sunset (1987) Spider Robinson (born November 24, 1948 in New York City) is a Canadian science fiction writer. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The full title of this book by Robert A. Heinlein is Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, copyright 1980 by Heinlein. ... The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress cover The science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988) was productive during a writing career that spanned the last 49 years of his life and thus the Robert A. Heinlein bibliography includes 32 novels, 59 short stories and 16 collections published during his... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Universe was a 1941 story from Heinleins Future History series (shown here in the 1951 Dell edition). ... Pantheistic solipsism is a technical term that has been advanced for the World as Myth idea proposed by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in several of his books and stories, although the concept has nothing in common with either Pantheism (the universe is God) or Solipsism (nothing exists but... Methuselahs Children is a 1941 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... The Past Through Tomorrow was a collection of Robert Heinleins famed Future History stories The stories, for the most part, follow the same storyline of a rapidly collapsing American sanity, followed by a theocratic dictatorship (If This Goes On. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... Book cover The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1985. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ...


Scribner's juveniles: Rocket Ship Galileo (1947) • Space Cadet (1948) • Red Planet (1949) • Farmer in the Sky (1950) • Between Planets (1951) • The Rolling Stones (1952) • Starman Jones (1953) • The Star Beast (1954) • Tunnel in the Sky (1955) • Time for the Stars (1956) • Citizen of the Galaxy (1957) • Have Space Suit—Will Travel (1958) Heinlein juveniles is a phrase that collectively refers to the twelve novels written annually by Robert A. Heinlein and published by Scribners between 1947 and 1958. ... Rocket Ship Galileo is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein in which boys build a rocket ship in their backyard and take it to the moon. ... Space Cadet is a 1948 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about Matt Dodson, who joins the Space Patrol that keeps the peace in the solar system. ... Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about students at boarding school on Mars. ... Farmer In The Sky is a 1950 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy who emigrates to Jupiters moon Ganymede, which is in the process of being terraformed, and who creates a farm out of gravel. ... Between Planets is a 1951 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... The Rolling Stones (also published under the name Space Family Stone in the United Kingdom) is a 1952 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein June 1, 1952, Atheneum, library binding, ISBN 0684923033 June 13, 1985, Del Rey, paperback reissue edition, 256 pages, ISBN 034532451X May 12, 1977, Del Rey, paperback... Starman Jones is a 1953 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a farm boy with an eidetic memory who wants to go to the stars. ... The Star Beast is a 1954 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein about a high school senior who discovers that his late fathers extra-terrestrial pet is more than it appears to be. ... Tunnel in the Sky is a science fiction book written by Robert Heinlein and published in 1955. ... Time for the Stars is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1956. ... Cover: 1987 Del Rey paperback Citizen of the Galaxy is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1957. ... Have Space Suit—Will Travel is a juvenile science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialised in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (August, September, October 1958) and published by Scribners in hardcover in 1958 as the last of the Heinlein juveniles. ...


Other novels: For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs (1939/2003) • Beyond This Horizon (1942) • Sixth Column (1949) • The Puppet Masters (1951) • Double Star (1956) • The Door into Summer (1957) • Starship Troopers (1959) • Stranger in a Strange Land (1961) • Podkayne of Mars (1963) • Glory Road (1963) • Farnham's Freehold (1965) • The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (1966) • I Will Fear No Evil (1970) • Friday (1982) • Job: A Comedy of Justice (1984) • Variable Star (1955/2006) For Us, The Living: A Comedy of Customs is a 1939 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published for the first time on November 28, 2003. ... Beyond This Horizon is a 1942 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Sixth Column, also published under the title The Day After Tomorrow, is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, set in a United States that has been conquered by a foreign invader. ... In 1951, Robert A. Heinlein published a science fiction novel, The Puppet Masters, in which American secret agents battle parasitic invaders from outer space. ... When two stars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a single star to the naked eye but may be separated by the use of telescopes, they are referred to as a double star. ... The Door into Summer is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published in 1957. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ... Glory Road is a fantasy novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1963. ... Farnhams Freehold is a science fiction tale set in the near future by Robert Heinlein. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... I Will Fear No Evil is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1970. ... Friday is a 1982 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ...


Nonfiction: Take Back Your Government (1946/1992) • Tramp Royale (1954/1992) • Expanded Universe (1980) • Grumbles from the Grave (1989) Take Back Your Government!: A Practical Handbook for the Private Citizen Who Wants Democracy to Work was an early work by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Tramp Royale is a nonfiction travelogue by science fiction writen Robert A. Heinlein, describing how he and his wife went around the world by ship and plane in 1953-1954. ... The full title of this book by Robert A. Heinlein is Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, copyright 1980 by Heinlein. ... Grumbles from the Grave contains an assortment of bits of writing by Robert Heinlein, edited by his wife Virginia Heinlein, published a year and a half after his death. ...

Persondata
NAME Robert A. Heinlein
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Robert Anson Heinlein, Anson McDonald, Lyle Monroe, John Riverside, Caleb Saunders, Simon York
SHORT DESCRIPTION Science fiction writer
DATE OF BIRTH July 7, 1907
PLACE OF BIRTH Butler, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH May 8, 1988
PLACE OF DEATH Carmel, California

Universe was a 1941 story from Heinleins Future History series (shown here in the 1951 Dell edition). ... The Past Through Tomorrow was a collection of Robert Heinleins famed Future History stories The stories, for the most part, follow the same storyline of a rapidly collapsing American sanity, followed by a theocratic dictatorship (If This Goes On. ... 1964 hardback edition Orphans of the Sky is a 1951 science fiction novella by Robert A. Heinlein, consisting of two parts: Universe and Common Sense. ... The full title of this book by Robert A. Heinlein is Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, copyright 1980 by Heinlein. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “Let There Be Light” a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein, originally published in Super Science Stories magazine in May 1940 under the pseudonym Lyle Monroe. ... The Roads Must Roll is a 1940 science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein about wide, rapidly moving passenger platforms (like moving sidewalks, but much faster). ... Blowups Happen is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Cover of Shasta edition collection The Man Who Sold the Moon is a science fiction novella by Robert A. Heinlein written in 1949 and first published on February 23,1951, part of his Future History of stories sharing a common background from Life-Line to Da Capo. This story, which... Delilah and the Space Rigger, a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein, is arguably one of the best feminist works of fiction ever written by a male author. ... For other uses, see Space Jockey (disambiguation). ... Requiem is a short story by Robert A. Heinlein, serving as a sequel to his short science fiction novel, The Man Who Sold the Moon. ... The Long Watch is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Gentlemen, Be Seated! is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein about a visit to a tunnel on the surface of the moon which goes awry when a pressure seal fails, trapping two men. ... The Black Pits of Luna is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein about a boy scout on a trip to the moon and his novel way of finding his lost brother. ... Its Great to Be Back! is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... —We Also Walk Dogs is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Searchlight is a very short science fiction story by Robert A. Heinlein about a little blind girl whose spaceship crashes on the moon. ... Ordeal in Space is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The Green Hills of Earth is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Logic of Empire is a short science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The Menace From Earth is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... If This Goes On— is a science fiction short, yet still really, really boring, novel by Robert A. Heinlein, published as part of the book Revolt in 2100. ... Coventry is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein and part of his Future History series. ... Misfit is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein about Andrew Jackson Libby, in this story called Pinky, a boy from Earth with extraordinary mathematical ability and meager education who joins a crew creating a permanent outpost in the Jovian asteroids. ... 1964 hardback edition Orphans of the Sky is a 1951 science fiction novella by Robert A. Heinlein, consisting of two parts: Universe and Common Sense. ... 1964 hardback edition Orphans of the Sky is a 1951 science fiction novella by Robert A. Heinlein, consisting of two parts: Universe and Common Sense. ... Methuselahs Children is a 1941 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... To Sail Beyond the Sunset is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1987. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Butler is a city located in Bates County, Missouri. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Carmel-by-the-Sea is a city located in Monterey County, California. ...


 
 

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