FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
English Royalty
House of Normandy
Henry I
   Matilda, Countess of Anjou
   William Adelin
   Robert, Earl of Gloucester

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called the Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'earl'. The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... Empress Matilda (February, 1101 — September 10, 1167; Saxon form Maud or Maude) — was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... William Adelin (1103 – November 25, 1120) was the only legitimate son of Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ...

Contents

Birth and Youth

Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. His mother is not known for certain, though recent scholarship (D. Crouch) suggests she was a member of the Gay or Gayt family, minor English nobility in Oxfordshire one of whose members was called his cousin. Another suggestion (K. Thompson) is that his mother was a Norman woman who was connected to the Gays. William of Malmesbury refers to Robert's "Norman, Flemish, and French" and not English ancestry, but this may be a reference only to his father's side of the family. Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ...


Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Bishop Samson of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a royal chaplain and treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of the bishop of Lincoln. The city of Worcester (pronounced ) is a city and the county town of Worcestershire in England, situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham and 29 miles (47 km) north of Gloucester. ... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ...


Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honor of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honors of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him earl of Gloucester. Robert Fitzhamon (died March 1107) was Lord of Gloucester and the conqueror of Glamorgan. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in the English county of Gloucestershire, close to the Welsh border. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... Évrecy is a commune of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Creully is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ...


At the Court of Henry I

Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and captains. In 1119, he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the king's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the king's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When King Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the king's body till it was buried. The king died a week after falling ill, on 1 December 1135. The Battle of Bremule was fought in 1119 between Henry I of England against Louis VI (the Fat) of France. ... William Adelin (1103 – November 25, 1120) was the only legitimate son of Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland. ... Empress Matilda (February, 1101 — September 10, 1167; Saxon form Maud or Maude) — was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Cardiff (English:  Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Lyons-la-Forêt is a commune of the Eure département, in Normandy, northern France. ...


Robert and King Stephen

After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as king Theobald IV, count of Blois and King Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as king in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new king's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Mathilda, and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out: Theobald II of Champagne was Count of Champagne from 1125 to 1152. ... Empress Matilda (February, 1101 — September 10, 1167; Saxon form Maud or Maude) — was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ...

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new king's rule. Henry II of England (5 March 1133-6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[], eastern Ireland, and western France. ...


Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh magnates of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself king of Glamorgan. In England, Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with King Stephen, and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the king regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran, count of Meulan and Robert, earl of Leicester. In 1138, Robert declared his support for Matilda. Unfortunately he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran of Meulan and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol. William of Ypres was King Stephen of Englands chief lieutenant and mercenary captain during the English civil wars of 1139-54 known as the Anarchy. ... Meulan is a commune of the Yvelines département. ... Clifton Suspension Bridge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and between the cities of Bath, Gloucester and Newport. ...


The Civil War, 1139-1147

Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139, and were welcomed into the castle there, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by King Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The king in the end let the empress and countess depart under escort to Bristol. This article is about the town in England. ... Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) was queen consort of England from 1121 to 1135, the second wife of King Henry I of England. ...


With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the west country and Severn Valley, the civil war had begun. The earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The king succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills, with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it. The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... Wareham is a historic market town in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced ) is a city and the county town of Worcestershire in England, situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham and 29 miles (47 km) north of Gloucester. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... The Cotswolds are a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the heart of England, a hilly area reaching nearly 300 m or 1000 feet. ... Statistics Population: 84,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: ST745645 Administration District: Bath and North East Somerset Region: South West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Somerset Historic county: Somerset Services Police force: Avon and Somerset Fire and rescue: Avon Ambulance: South Western Post office...


Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140, when King Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotations with the king to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141, including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the earls met and defeated King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the king captive, Empress Matilda should have secured the throne, but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with King Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester, where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks, and the earl apparently assured the king that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned. Ranulf II, inherited his palatine earldom in 1128, upon the death of his father, aged 28. ... Map sources for Castle Donington at grid reference SK446272 Castle Donington is a village with a population of around 7000 in the North of Leicestershire, close to Derby and Nottingham and on the edge of the National Forest. ... Combatants Blesevin (Royal) Angevin Commanders King Stephen of England Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of Lincoln or First Battle of Lincoln occurred on 2 February 1141. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... Stockbridge is a village in Hampshire, United Kingdom. ... Rochester is a small town in Kent, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ...


The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England, only agreeing to discuss matters with the earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there till the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements, but with his nephew Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her, and she had to manage her own escape from the castle. Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...


Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The king also had limited resources, but managed slowly to push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147, and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces, but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle. Cricklade is a small town in north Wiltshire in the UK, midway between Swindon and Cirencester. ... Cirencester is a market town in Gloucestershire, England, 93 miles (150 km) west northwest of London. ... Castle Street Farnham is a small town in Surrey, England. ...


Family and children

He married, around 1114, Mabel of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery. Their children were: Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Robert Fitzhamon (died March 1107) was Lord of Gloucester and the conqueror of Glamorgan. ...

  1. William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, died 1183
  2. Mabira, wife of Jordan de Cambernon.
  3. Roger, Bishop of Worcester, (died 9 August 1179, Tours).
  4. Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
  5. Robert.
  6. Matilda, (died 1189), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester.
  7. Philip, Castellan of Cricklade, (died after 1147).

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133) William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (died 1183) was the son and heir of Sir Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Mabel of Gloucester, daughter of Robert Fitzhamon. ... Arms of the Bishop of Worcester Worcester Cathedral - the seat of the Bishop of Worcester The Bishop of Worcester is the ordinary in the see of Worcester and has his seat in Worcester Cathedral. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Ranulf II, inherited his palatine earldom in 1128, upon the death of his father, aged 28. ... Cricklade is a small town in north Wiltshire in the UK, midway between Swindon and Cirencester. ... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ...


References

  • J. Bradbury,Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139-53 (Stroud, 1996)
  • D. Crouch, "Robert of Gloucester's Mother and Sexual Politics in Norman Oxfordshire", Historical Research, 72 (1999) 323-332.
  • D. Crouch, 'Robert, earl of Gloucester and the daughter of Zelophehad,' Journal of Medieval History, 11 (1985), 227-43.
  • D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
  • C. Given-Wilson & A. Curteis. The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (London, 1984)
  • The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911-1204, ed. David S. Spear (London, 2006)
  • Earldom of Gloucester Charters, ed. R.B. Patterson (Oxford, 1973)
  • R.B. Patterson, 'William of Malmesbury's Robert of Gloucester: a re-evaluation of the Historia Novella,' American Historical Review, 70 (1965), 983-97.
  • K. Thompson, 'Affairs of State: the illegitimate children of Henry I,' Journal of Medieval History, 29 (2003), 129-151.
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl of Gloucester
1122-1147
Succeeded by
William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester

  Results from FactBites:
 
Earls of Pembroke - LoveToKnow 1911 (3386 words)
The title of earl of Pembroke was next revived in favour of SIR William Herbert (C. 1501-1570), whose father, Richard, was an illegitimate son of the ist earl of Pembroke of the house of Herbert.
William Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (1580-1630), son of the 2nd earl and his famous countess, was a conspicuous figure in the society of his time and at the court of James I.
George Robert Charles, the 13th earl (1850-1895), was a grandson of the 11th earl and a son of Baron Herbert of Lea, whose second son Sidney (b.
Earls of Essex - LoveToKnow 1911 (2547 words)
ESSEX The first earl of Essex was probably Geoffrey de Mandeville, who became earl about 1139, the earldom being subsequently held by his two sons, Geoffrey and William, until the death of the latter in 1189.
With the earldom of Hereford the earldom of Essex became extinct in 1373; afterwards it was held by Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, a son of Edward III.
Essex, Walter Devereux, 1sT 2 Earl Of (1541-1576), the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux, was born in 1541.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m