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Encyclopedia > Roaring Twenties
A scene typical of the "Follies" of Florenz Ziegfeld, the most popular Broadway impresario of the decade. This film still is from the 1929 Follies-based Glorifying the American Girl with Mary Eaton and Johnny Weismuller.
A scene typical of the "Follies" of Florenz Ziegfeld, the most popular Broadway impresario of the decade. This film still is from the 1929 Follies-based Glorifying the American Girl with Mary Eaton and Johnny Weismuller.

Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s, principally in North America, that emphasizes the period's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. Normality returned to politics in the wake of World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, Art Deco peaked, and finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 served to punctuate the end of the era, as The Great Depression set in. The era was further distinguished by several inventions and discoveries of far-reaching import, unprecedented industrial growth and accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle. The Roaring Twenties is a 1939 crime thriller starring James Cagney, Priscilla Lane & Humphrey Bogart. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. ... A film still, sometimes called a publicity still, is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production and used for promotional purposes. ... Glorifying the American Girl is a 1929 musical comedy film produced by Florenz Ziegfeld and highlighting his Ziegfeld Follies girls. ... Mary Eaton in the 1920s. ... Weissmuller, left (with actor George OBrien) Johnny Weissmuller (June 2, 1904 – January 20, 1984) was an Austrian-born American swimmer and actor. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... North American redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other article subjects named Jazz see jazz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flapper (disambiguation). ... Asheville City Hall. ... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ...


The social and societal upheaval known as the Roaring Twenties began in North America and spread to Europe in the aftermath of World War I. Europe spent these years rebuilding and coming to terms with the vast human cost of the conflict. The Government of the United States did little to aid Europe, opting rather for an isolationist stance. By the middle of the decade, economic development soared in Europe, and the Roaring Twenties broke out in Germany (the Weimar Republic), Britain and France, the second half of the decade becoming known as the "Golden Twenties". In France and Canada, they were also called the "années folles" ("Crazy Years").[1] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... It is a term, mostly used in Europe, to describe the 1920s, in which most of the continent had an economic boom following the First World War and the severe economic downturns that took place between 1919-1923. ...


The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, a break with traditions. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, movies and radio proliferated 'modernity' to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality, in architecture as well as in daily life. At the same time, amusement, fun and lightness were cultivated in jazz and dancing, in defiance of the horrors of World War I, which remained present in people's minds. The period is also often called "The Jazz Age". Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... The Jazz Age , 1929 movie poster: A Scathing Indictment of the Bewidered Children of Pleasure. ...

Contents

Economy

The Roaring Twenties is traditionally viewed as an era of great economic prosperity driven by the introduction of a wide array of new consumer goods. The North American economy, particularly the economy of the US, transitioned from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy; the economy subsequently boomed. The United States augmented its standing as the richest country in the world, its industry aligned to mass production and its society acculturated into consumerism. In Europe, the economy did not start to flourish until 1924. Definitions of consumer goods by Ben Murray New goods acquired by households for their own consumption. ... The economy of North America comprises more than 514 million people in 23 soverign states and 15 dependent territories. ... Overview The United States has the largest economy by country, second-largest by economic union (after the EU), and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $39,689 (2nd Quarter 2004 annualized) . In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Consumerist redirects here. ...


In spite of the social, economic and technological advances, African Americans, recent immigrants and farmers—along with a large part of the working class population—were not much affected by this period. In fact, millions of people lived below the poverty line of US $2,000 per year per family. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


The Great Depression demarcates the conceptualization of the Roaring Twenties from the 1930s. The hopefulness in the wake of World War I that had initiated the Roaring Twenties gave way to the debilitating economic hardship of the later era. The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ...

Chart 1: GDP annual pattern and long-term trend, 1920-40, in billions of constant dollars
Chart 1: GDP annual pattern and long-term trend, 1920-40, in billions of constant dollars[2]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Demobilization

At the end of World War I, soldiers returned to the United States and Canada with money in their pockets and many new products on the market on which to spend it. At first, the recession of wartime production caused a brief but deep recession, known as the Post-WWI recession. Quickly, however, the U.S. and Canadian economies rebounded as returning soldiers re-entered the labor force and factories were retooled to produce consumer goods. This article is about a military rank. ... The post-WWI recession was an economic recession that hit much of the world after the First World War. ...


Republican economic policies

Various policies initiated by the Republican Party had a horrendous impact on the boom. The government was associated with laissez faire economics, which helped create the conditions for the boom. In 1922, the Fordney-McCumber tariff was passed, allowing American businesses to flourish by protecting them from foreign competition. The Secretary to the Treasury from 1921 to 1932, Andrew Mellon, cut surtax from above 50% to 20%. This aided corporate industries, allowing them to dominate their respective markets. The same laissez faire approach to the economy, particularly financial speculation, eventually led to the Great Depression GOP redirects here. ... Laissez-faire (pronunciation: French, ; English, IPA: ) is a French phrase meaning let do. From the French diction first used by the 18th century physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it became used as a synonym for strict free market economics during the early and mid-19th century. ... The Fordney-McCumber tariff of 1922 was a law in the United States that created a Tariff Commission to raise or lower rates by 50%. This was a post-World War I Republican defense against expected Europeans exports. ... In the United Kingdom, there are at least five Secretaries to the Treasury, officials officially acting as secretaries to the Treasury board. ... Mellon portrait Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855–August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. ... A surtax, in its simplest form, is essentially a tax levied upon a tax. ... Corporate may refer to either A corporation, a type of legal entity, often formed to conduct business Corporate (film), a 2006 Bollywood film starring Bipasha Basu. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


New products and technologies

Mass production made technology affordable to the middle class. Many of the devices that became commonplace had been developed before the war but had been unaffordable to most people. The automobile, movie, radio, and chemical industries skyrocketed during the 1920s. Of chief importance was the automobile industry. Before the war, cars were a luxury. In the 1920s, cheap mass-produced vehicles became common throughout the U.S. and Canada. By 1927, Henry Ford had sold 15 million Model Ts. Only about 300,000 vehicles were registered in 1918 in all of Canada, but by 1929, there were 1.9 million. The automobile industry's effects were widespread, contributing to such disparate economic pursuits as gas stations, motels, and the oil industry. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Car redirects here. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... 1908 Ford Model T advertisement The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1928. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ...


Radio became the first mass broadcasting medium. Radios were affordable, and their mode of entertainment proved revolutionary. Radio became the grandstand for mass marketing. Its economic importance led to the mass culture that has dominated society since. During the "golden age of radio", radio programming was as varied as TV programming today. The 1927 establishment of the Federal Radio Commission introduced a new era of regulation. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Mass-marketing is the process of widely marketing a mass-produced item. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Before television, radio was the dominant home entertainment medium. ... Radio broadcasts have been a popular entertainment since the 1910s, though popularity has declined a little in some countries since television became widespread. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... Federal Radio Commission Seal The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934. ...


Advertisement reels, shown before early films, augmented the already booming mass market. The "golden age of film", during the 1930s and 1940s, evolved from its humble 1900s origins of short, silent films. Like radio, film was a medium for the masses. Watching a film was cheap compared to other forms of entertainment, and it was accessible to factory and other blue-collar workers. A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ...


New infrastructure

The new technologies led to an unprecedented need for new infrastructure, largely funded by the government. Road construction was crucial to the motor vehicle industry; several roads were upgraded to highways, and expressways were constructed. A class of Americans emerged with surplus money and a desire to spend more, spurring the demand for consumer goods, including the automobile. For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ...


Electrification, having slowed during the war, progressed greatly as more of the U.S. and Canada was added to the electric grid. Most industries switched from coal power to electricity. At the same time, new power plants were constructed. In America, electricity production almost quadrupled. Electrification refers to changing a thing or system to operate using electricity. ... The term grid has several meanings in various fields: in mathematics and geometry, a grid is a system of two sets of lines that intersect each other at a fixed angle, usually a right angle (i. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


Telephone lines also were being strung across the continent. Indoor plumbing and modern sewer systems were installed for the first time in many regions. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ...


These infrastructure programs were mostly left to the local governments in both Canada and the United States. Most local governments went deeply into debt under the assumption that an investment in such infrastructure would pay off in the future.[citation needed] This caused major problems during the Great Depression. In both Canada and the United States, the federal governments did the reverse, using the decade to pay down war debts and roll back some of the taxes that had been introduced during the war. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... War debt often refers to war reparations, or monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war, generally paid by the losing side to the victor as part of the terms of a peace treaty. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...


Demographics

Urbanization was one of the most important trends. For the first time, more Americans and Canadians lived in cities than in small towns or rural areas. Mass transit systems, the first skyscrapers, and the growing importance of industry contributed to this. A growing service sector was also increasingly important, with the finance and insurance industries doubling or tripling in size. The basic pattern of the modern white collar job is often believed to have been established during this period. Many of the clerical jobs went to women, who entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers. In Canada, one in five workers were women by the end of the decade. The fastest growing cities were those in the Midwest and the Great Lakes region, including Chicago and Toronto. These cities prospered because of their vast agricultural hinterlands. Cities on the West Coast received increasing benefits from the 1914 opening of the Panama Canal. In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... The Great Lakes region can refer to: The Great Lakes region of North America The Great Lakes region of Africa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... The Pacific Coast is any coast fronting the Pacific Ocean. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ...


Culture

Suffrage

Main article: Women's Suffrage

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the last of 36 states needed to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the right to vote. Equality at the polls marked a pivotal moment in the women's rights movement. The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


Lost Generation

Main article: Lost Generation

The Lost Generation were young people who came out of World War I disillusioned and cynical about the world. The term usually refers to American literary notables who lived in Paris at the time. Famous members included Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein. For other uses, see Lost Generation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ...


Social criticism

As the average American in the 1920s became more enamored of wealth and everyday luxuries, some began satirizing the hypocrisy and greed they observed. Of these social critics, Sinclair Lewis was the most popular. His popular 1920 novel Main Street satirized the dull and ignorant lives of the residents of a Midwestern town. He followed with Babbitt, about a middle-aged businessman who rebels against his safe life and family, only to realize that the young generation is as hypocritical as his own. Lewis satirized religion with Elmer Gantry, which followed a con man who teams up with an evangelist to sell religion to a small town. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sinclair Lewis Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 — January 10, 1951) was an American novelist and playwright. ... Main Street book cover The satirical novel Main Street by Sinclair Lewis was published in 1920. ... Babbitt is a classic novel by the American novelist and playwright Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1922. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... For information on the UK singer Elmer Gantry, aka Dave Terry, see Elmer Gantry’s Velvet Opera Elmer Gantry is a 1927 novel by Sinclair Lewis. ... Scam and Confidence Man redirect here. ...

Climax of the new architectural style: the Chrysler Building in New York City was built after the European wave of Art Deco reached the United States.

Other social critics included Sherwood Anderson and H.L. Mencken. Anderson published a collection of short stories titled Winesburg, Ohio, which studied the dynamics of a small town. Mencken criticized narrow American tastes and culture in various essays and articles. Download high resolution version (150x745, 21 KB)Chrysler Building at dusk, New York City. ... Download high resolution version (150x745, 21 KB)Chrysler Building at dusk, New York City. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Sherwood Anderson in 1933. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880 - January 29, 1956) was a twentieth century journalist and social critic, a cynic and a freethinker, known as the Sage of Baltimore and the American Nietzsche. He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th... Winesburg, Ohio is a 1919 short story cycle by the American author Sherwood Anderson. ...


Art Deco

Art Deco was the style of design and architecture that marked the era. Starting in France, it spread to the rest of western Europe and North America towards the mid-1920s. In the U.S., one of the most remarkable buildings featuring this style was constructed as the tallest building of the time: the Chrysler Building. The forms of art deco were pure and geometric, even though the artists often drew inspiration from nature. In the beginning, lines were curved, though rectilinear designs would later become more and more popular. Asheville City Hall. ... The Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is currently the worlds tallest man-made stucture. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ...


Expressionism and Surrealism

Painting in North America during the 1920s developed in a different direction than that of Europe. In Europe, the 1920s were the era of expressionism, and later surrealism. As Man Ray stated in 1920 after the publication of a unique issue of New York Dada: "Dada cannot live in New York". For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Max Ernst. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ...


Cinema

Felix the Cat, the most popular cartoon character of the decade, exhibits his famous pace.
Felix the Cat, the most popular cartoon character of the decade, exhibits his famous pace.
Movie Poster for Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929), the second all-color all-talking feature film.
Movie Poster for Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929), the second all-color all-talking feature film.

At the beginning of the decade, films were silent and colorless. In 1922, the first all-color feature, Toll of the Sea, was released. In 1926, Warner Bros. released Don Juan, the first feature with sound effects and music. In 1927, Warner released The Jazz Singer, the first sound feature to include limited talking sequences. The famous Felix pace as seen in Oceantics (1930) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The famous Felix pace as seen in Oceantics (1930) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about the cartoon character. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GoldDiggersBroadway2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GoldDiggersBroadway2. ... Winnie Lightner and Albert Gran. ... The Toll of the Sea was a motion picture produced by the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, and released by Metro Pictures in 1922. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Don Juan is a 1926s Warner Bros silent film, directed by Alan Crosland. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ...


The public went wild for talkies, and movie studios converted to sound almost overnight. In 1928, Warner released Lights of New York, the first all-talking feature film. In the same year, the first sound cartoon, Dinner Time, was released. Warner ended the decade by unveiling, in 1929, the first all-color, all-talking feature film, On with the Show. A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... The Lights of New York (1928) was the first ever feature film that had complete sound sychronization. ... Dinner Time is a 1928 animated short subject produced and directed by Paul Terry and co-directed by John Foster. ... Color Fragment from Film. ...


Harlem Renaissance

African-American literary and artistic culture developed rapidly during the 1920s under the banner of "The Harlem Renaissance". In 1921, the Black Swan Corporation opened. At its height, it issued ten recordings per month. All-African-American musicals also started in 1921. In 1923, the Harlem Renaissance Basketball Club was founded by Bob Douglas. During the later 1920s, and especially in the 1930s, the basketball team became known as the best in the world. The Harlem Renaissance (also known as the Black Literary Renaissance and The New Negro Movement) refers to the flowering of African American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Black Swan Records was a United States record label in the 1920s; it was the first to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. ... The New York Renaissance, also known as the Rens, were an all-black professional basketball team founded in 1922, a few years before the Harlem Globetrotters. ... Robert L. Douglas (b. ... This article is about the sport. ...


The first issue of Opportunity was published. The African-American playwright, Willis Richardson, debuted his play The Chip Woman's Fortune, at the Frazee Theatre (also known as the Wallacks theatre).[1] Notable African-American authors such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston began to achieve a level of national public recognition during the 1920s. African American culture has contributed the largest part to the rise of jazz. The name Opportunity may refer to: Opportunity Asset Management , a Brazilian investment bank based in Rio de Janeiro Opportunity, Washington, a city in the U.S. Opportunity rover (MER-B), one of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Wallack’s Theatre, located on 254 West 42nd Street in New York, United States, was opened on December 5th, 1904 by a man named Oscar Hammerstein. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ...


Jazz Age

Main article: Jazz Age

The first commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA, began broadcasting in Pittsburgh in 1922. Radio stations subsequently proliferated at a remarkable rate, and with them spread the popularity of jazz. Jazz became associated with all things modern, sophisticated, and also decadent. Men tended to sing in a high pitched voice, typified by Harold Scrappy Lambert, one of the popular recording artists of the decade. The Jazz Age , 1929 movie poster: A Scathing Indictment of the Bewidered Children of Pleasure. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... KDKA is the callsign of two broadcast stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: KDKA AM 1020, the first commercial station in the U.S. KDKA-TV, channel 2 (DTV 25) KDKA-FM 92. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


The music that people consider today as "jazz" tended to be played by minorities. In the 1920s, the majority of people listened to what we would call today "sweet music", with hardcore jazz categorized as "hot music" or "race music." Louis Armstrong marked the time with improvisations and endless variations on a single melody, popularizing scat singing, an improvisational vocal technique in which nonsensical syllables are sung or otherwise vocalized, often as part of a call-and-response interaction with other musicians on-stage. Apart from the clarinet, Sidney Bechet popularized the saxophone. Dance venues increased the demand for professional musicians and jazz adopted the 4/4 beat of dance music. Tap dancers entertained people in Vaudeville theaters, out in the streets or accompanying bands. At the end of the Roaring Twenties, Duke Ellington initiated the big band era. Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Call and response is a form of spontaneous verbal and non-verbal interaction between speaker and listener in which all of the statements (calls) are punctuated by expressions (responses) from the listener, as stated by Smitherman. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Sidney Bechet Sidney Bechet (May 14, 1897 – May 14, 1959) was a jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, and composer. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tap dance was born in the United States during the 19th century, and today is popular all around the world. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ...


Dance

Starting in the 1920s, ballrooms across the U.S. sponsored dance contests, where dancers invented, tried, and competed with new moves. Professionals began to hone their skills in tap dance and other dances of the era throughout the Vaudeville circuit across the United States. Electric lighting made evening social entertainment more comfortable, giving rise to an era of dance halls and live music. The most popular dances were the fox-trot, waltz and tango, and the Charleston. Dance hall in its general meaning is a hall for dancing. ... For other uses, see Concert (disambiguation). ... This article is about the comic strip; for other uses, see Foxtrot (disambiguation). ... Josephine Baker dancing the Charleston at the Folies Bergère, Paris, in 1926 A USPS stamp from the Celebrate the Century series: Flappers Doing the Charleston by John Held Jr. ...


Harlem played a key role in the development of dance styles. With several entertainment venues, people from all walks of life, all races, and all classes came together. The Cotton Club featured black performers and catered to a white clientele, while the Savoy Ballroom catered to a mostly black clientele. For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... The Savoy Ballroom located in Harlem, New York City, was a medium sized ballroom for music and public dancing that was in operation from 1926 to 1958. ...


From the early 1920s, a variety of eccentric dances were developed. The first of these were the Breakaway and Charleston. Both were based on African-American musical styles and beats, including the widely popular blues. The Charleston's popularity exploded after its feature in two 1922 Broadway shows. A brief Black Bottom craze, originating from the Apollo Theater, swept dance halls from 1926 to 1927, replacing the Charleston in popularity. By 1927, the Lindy Hop, a dance based on Breakaway and Charleston and integrating elements of tap, became the dominant social dance. Developed in the Savoy Ballroom, it was set to stride piano ragtime jazz. The Lindy Hop remained popular for over a decade, before evolving into Swing dance. These dances, nonetheless, were never mainstreamed, and the overwhelming majority of people continued to dance the fox-trot, waltz and tango throughout the decade. From 1919 to 1927, Breakaway was a popular swing dance developed from the Texas Tommy. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Black Bottom is a dance that was popularized in the 1920s in New York City during the Flapper era. ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... Dancing the Lindy Hop at the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee, Sacramento, California, USA (2006) Lindy Hop is an African American dance that evolved in New York City in 1927. ... Social dance is a major category or classification of danceforms or dance styles, where sociability and socializing are the primary focuses of the dancing. ... Stride is a pioneering jazz piano style. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Swing Dancing The term swing dance is commonly used to refer either to a group of dances developing in response to swing music in the 1920s, 30s and 40s, or to lindy hop, a popular partner dance today. ...


Fashion and the changing role of women

Main article: Flapper

After World War I, many American and European families needed to replace the incomes of the family fathers lost in battle; women often accepted jobs and moved outside the home. The change was reflected in the media: the garçonne-look portrayed the ideal woman as an androgynous, working woman that had reached equality with men while simultaneously possessing the appeal of the femme fatale. Pantsuits, hats and canes gave women a sleek look without frills while avoiding the fickleness of fashion. The style was named after the novel La Garçonne by Victor Margueritte. In Europe, this look featured women with short hair (Bubikopf) for the first time; in the U.S., the bob was popularized by actresses in the early 1920s. As a result of this move towards practical androgyny, corsets went out of style, and some women even bandaged their breasts to make them look flatter. Flappers, as these women were called in the U.S., wore short dresses with a straight loose silhouette. By 1927, hemlines had risen to just below the knee and they remained there until 1930 when they dropped back down again. For other uses, see Flapper (disambiguation). ... If referring to a flower, see disambiguation under bisexual Androgyny is the state of indeterminate gender, or characteristics of gender. ... Convicted spy Mata Hari made her name synonymous with femme fatale during WWI. A femme fatale (plural: femmes fatales) is an alluring and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers in bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations. ... A pantsuit is a womans suit of clothing consisting of trousers and a matching or coordinating coat or jacket. ... Victor Margueritte (1866 -1942) and his brother Paul Margueritte,(1860-1918), French novelists, both born in Algeria, were the sons of General Jean Auguste Margueritte (1823-1870), who after an honorable career in Algeria was mortally wounded in the great cavalry charge at Sedan, and died in Belgium, on the... A luxury hourglass corset from 1878. ... For other uses, see Flapper (disambiguation). ...


Minorities and homosexuals

Sheet music poking fun at the feminine traits many men adopted during the 1920s.
Sheet music poking fun at the feminine traits many men adopted during the 1920s.

In urban areas, minorities were treated with more equality than they had been accustomed to previously. This was reflected in some of the films of the decade. Redskin (1929) and Son of the Gods (1929), for instance, deal sympathetically with Native Americans and Asian Americans, openly reviling social bias. On the stage and in movies, black and white players appeared together for the first time. It became possible to go to nightclubs and see whites and minorities dancing and eating together. Even popular songs poked fun at the new social acceptance of homosexuality. One of these songs had the title "Masculine Women, Feminine Men."[3] It was released in 1926 and recorded by numerous artists of the day and included the following lyrics:[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 688 pixel, file size: 78 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sheet music for the song We Men Must Grow A Mustache. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 688 pixel, file size: 78 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sheet music for the song We Men Must Grow A Mustache. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Redskin 1929 is a feature film with a Synchronized Score and Sound Effects that was photographed partially in Technicolor. ... Son of the Gods (1930) is an All-Talking musical drama film with Technicolor sequences. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... A nightclub (often dance club or club, particularly in the UK) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ...


Masculine women, Feminine men


Which is the rooster, which is the hen?


It's hard to tell 'em apart today! And, say!


Sister is busy learning to shave,


Brother just loves his permanent wave,


It's hard to tell 'em apart today! Hey, hey!


Girls were girls and boys were boys when I was a tot,


Now we don't know who is who, or even what's what!


Knickers and trousers, baggy and wide,


Nobody knows who's walking inside,


Those masculine women and feminine men! [5]


Homosexuals also received a level of acceptance that was not seen again until the 1960s[citation needed] . Until the early 1930s, gay clubs were openly operated, commonly known as "pansy clubs".[citation needed] The relative liberalism of the decade is demonstrated by the fact that the actor William Haines, regularly named in newspapers and magazines as the number-one male box-office draw, openly lived in a gay relationship with his lover, Jimmy Shields.[6] Other popular gay actors/actresses of the decade included Alla Nazimova and Ramon Novarro.[7] In 1927, Mae West wrote a play about homosexuality called The Drag, and alluded to the work of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs. It was a box-office success. West regarded talking about sex as a basic human rights issue, and was also an early advocate of gay rights. With the return of conservatism in the 1930s, the public grew intolerant of homosexuality, and gay actors were forced to choose between retiring or agreeing to hide their sexuality.[citation needed] For the song Gay Bar by Electric Six, see Electric Six. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... William Haines as he appeared in his first part-talkie Alias Jimmy Valentine in 1928. ... Jimmy Shields (c 1896 - 1974) was an interior designer and actor who lived openly as a homosexual man with former movie idol William Haines from 1926 until his death. ... Alla Nazimova, born Mariam Edez Adelaida Leventon (May 22, 1879 – July 14, 1945) was an American theater and film actress, scriptwriter, and producer. ... Ramón Novarro (February 6, 1899 – October 30, 1968) was a Mexican actor who achieved fame as a Latin lover in silent films. ... MAE-West is a major Internet peering point located in San Jose, California. ... A portion of Guadalupe Street that runs along the western edge of the University of Texas campus is known as The Drag. ... -1... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... Gay actors include the following performers, who have identified themselves as being gay or bisexual or have been identified as such by others: Rock Hudson James Dean Anthony Perkins Leslie Cheung Ian McKellen Rupert Everett Richard Chamberlain Robert Gant Raymond Burr Tommy Kirk Stephen Fry Alex McCowen Simon Callow John...


Society

Immigration laws

The United States, and to a lesser degree Canada, became more xenophobic or, at least, anti-immigrant. The American Immigration Act of 1924 limited immigration from countries where 2% of the total U.S. population, per the 1890 census (not counting African Americans), were immigrants from that country. Thus, the massive influx of Europeans that had come to America during the first two decades of the century slowed to a trickle. Asians and citizens of India were prohibited from immigrating altogether. Alien Land Laws, such as California's Webb-Haney Act in 1913, prevented aliens ineligible for citizenship, (except Filipinos, who were subjects of U.S.) of the right to own land in California. It also limited the leasing of land by said aliens to three years. Many Japanese immigrants, or Issei, circumvented this law by transferring the title of their land to their American-born children, or Nisei, who were citizens. Similar laws were passed in 11 other states. Xenophobia means fear of strangers or the unknown and comes from the Greek ξενοφοβια, xenophobia, literally meaning fear of the strange. It is often used to describe fear of or dislike of foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, as are such prejudices as... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Motto Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)  (Devanagari) Truth Alone Triumphs[1] Anthem Jana Gana Mana Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people[2] Vande Mataram I bow to thee, Mother[4] Capital New Delhi Largest city Mumbai Official Languages: Scheduled Languages: Hindi, English Hindi in the Devanagari script is... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Webb-Haney Act, also known as the Alien Land Law, was a law passed in the state of California in 1913. ...


In Canada, the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 prevented almost all immigration from Asia. Other laws curbed immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. A Gentlemen's Act gave America the right to prevent any Japanese immigrants from entering the country. The Chinese Immigration Act 1923, known in the Chinese-Canadian community as the Chinese Exclusion Act, was an act passed by the federal government of Canada, banning most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Prohibition

In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol was prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in an attempt to alleviate various social problems; this came to be known as "Prohibition". It was enacted through the Volstead Act, supported greatly by churches and leagues such as 'The Anti Saloon League'. America's continued desire for alcohol under prohibition led to the rise of organized crime, smuggling and gangster associations all over the U.S. In Canada, prohibition was never imposed nationally, but the American liquor laws nonetheless had an important impact. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Volstead Act is the popular name for the National Prohibition Act (1919). ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Liquor laws is a term that refers to any legislation dealing with the abolishment, restriction, or regulation of the sale, consumption, and manufacture of alcoholic beverages. ...


Rise of the speakeasy

Speakeasies became popular and numerous as the Prohibition years progressed and led to the rise of gangsters such as Al Capone. They commonly operated with connections to organized crime and liquor smuggling. While police and U.S. Federal Government agents raided such establishments and arrested many of the small figures and smugglers, they rarely managed to get the big bosses; the business of running speakeasies was so lucrative that such establishments continued to flourish throughout the nation. In major cities, speakeasies could often be elaborate, offering food, live bands, and floor shows. Police were notoriously bribed by speakeasy operators to either leave them alone or at least give them advance notice of any planned raid. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ...


Literature

Further information: 1920s literature

The Roaring Twenties was a period of literary creativity, and works of several notable authors appeared during the period. D.H. Lawrence's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover was a scandal at the time because of its explicit descriptions of sex. D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... This article is about the novel. ...


Books that take the 1920s as their subject include:

This article is about the novel. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... For the films, see All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film) and All Quiet on the Western Front (1979 film). ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... This Side of Paradise is the debut novel of F. Scott Fitzgerald. ... This article is about the novel. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ...

Solo flight across the Atlantic

Charles Lindbergh gained sudden great international fame as the first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Roosevelt Airfield (Nassau County, Long Island), New York to Paris on May 20-May 21, 1927. He had a single-engine airplane, "The Spirit of St. Louis", which had been designed by Donald Hall and custom built by Ryan Airlines of San Diego, California. His flight took 33.5 hours. The President of France bestowed on him the French Legion of Honor and, on his arrival back in the United States, a fleet of warships and aircraft escorted him to Washington, D.C., where President Calvin Coolidge awarded him the Distinguished Flying Cross. Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974) (aka Lucky Lindy; The Lone Eagle) was an American aviator who was made world famous by being the pilot of the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic made solo from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris on 20 May-21... Roosevelt Airfield was an airfield in Garden City, Nassau County, New York. ... Theodore Roosevelt home at Sagamore Hill Nassau County is a suburban county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about an aircraft. ... Donald Hall (born September 20, 1928) is an American poet and the U.S. Poet Laureate. ... The Ryan Aeronautical Company was founded by T. Claude Ryan in San Diego, California, USA in 1934. ... San Diego redirects here. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (in Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... For other uses, see Distinguished Flying Cross. ...


Sports

The Roaring Twenties is seen as the breakout decade for sports in America. Citizens from all parts of the country flocked to see the top athletes of the day compete in arenas and stadiums. Their exploits were loudly and highly praised in the new "gee whiz" style of sports journalism that was emerging; champions of this style of writing included the legendary writers Grantland Rice and Damon Runyon. Sports journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topics and events. ... Grantland Rice (November 1, 1880–July 13, 1954) was an early 20th century American sportswriter. ... Damon Runyon Damon Runyon (October 4, 1884 – December 10, 1946) was a newspaperman and writer. ...


The most popular American athlete of the twenties was baseball player Babe Ruth. His characteristic home run hitting heralded a new epoch in the history of the sport (the "Live-ball era"), and his high style of living fascinated the nation and made him one of the highest-profile figures of the decade. Fans were enthralled in 1927 when Ruth hit 60 home runs, setting a new single-season home run record that was not broken until 1961. Together with another up-and-coming star named Lou Gehrig, Ruth laid the foundation of future New York Yankees dynasties. This article is about the baseball player. ... Homerun redirects here. ... The live-ball era, also referred to as the lively ball era, is the period in Major League Baseball beginning in 1920, following the dead-ball era. ... Henry Louis Lou Gehrig (June 19, 1903 â€“ June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig[2], was an American baseball player in the 1920s and 1930s, who set several Major League records and was popularly called the The Iron Horse[2] for his durability. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as...


A former bar room brawler named Jack Dempsey won the world heavyweight boxing title and became the most celebrated pugilist of his time. College football also captivated fans, partly because of Red Grange, running back of the University of Illinois. Grange played a role in the development of professional football in the mid-1920s by signing on with the NFL's Chicago Bears. Bill Tilden thoroughly dominated his competition in tennis, cementing his reputation as one of the greatest tennis players of all time. And Bobby Jones popularized golf with his spectacular successes on the links; the game did not see another major star of his stature come along until Jack Nicklaus. Ruth, Dempsey, Grange, Tilden, and Jones are collectively referred to as the "Big Five" sporting icons of the Roaring Twenties. For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... This article covers college football played in the United States. ... Harold (Red) Edward Grange (June 13, 1903 – January 28, 1991), was a professional and college American football player. ... P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... City Chicago, Illinois Other nicknames Da Bears, The Monsters of the Midway Team colors Navy Blue and Orange Head Coach Lovie Smith Owner Virginia Halas McCaskey Chairman Michael McCaskey General manager Jerry Angelo Fight song Bear Down, Chicago Bears Mascot Staley Da Bear League/Conference affiliations Independent (1919) National Football... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Bobby Jones won the first Grand Slam of golf in 1930. ... This article is about the sport. ... Jack William Nicklaus (born January 21, 1940), also known as The Golden Bear,[1] is widely regarded as the greatest professional golfer of all time, in large part because of his records in major championships. ...


American politics

Warren G. Harding

Warren G. Harding ran on a promise to "Return to Normalcy", a term he coined, which reflected three trends of his time: a renewed isolationism in reaction to World War I, a resurgence of nativism, and a turning away from the government activism of the reform era. Throughout his administration, Harding adopted laissez-faire policies. Harding's "Front Porch Campaign" during the late summer and fall of 1920 captured the imagination of the country. It was the first campaign to be heavily covered by the press and to receive widespread newsreel coverage, and it was also the first modern campaign to use the power of Hollywood and Broadway stars who traveled to Marion for photo opportunities with Harding and his wife. Al Jolson, Lillian Russell, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford, were among the luminaries to make the pilgrimage to central Ohio. Business icons Thomas Edison, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone also lent their cachet to the Front Porch Campaign. From the onset of the campaign until the November election, over 600,000 people traveled to Marion to participate. His administration was plagued with scandals with which he was likely not involved. On the scandals, he commented, "My God, this is a hell of a job!" and, "I have no trouble with my enemies, but my damn friends, they're the ones that keep me walking the floors at night." Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... ... Marion is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Marion County[4]. The city is located in northern Ohio, approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of Columbus. ... A photo op, short for photo opportunity, is a carefully planned human event that results in a memorable and effective photograph. ... Al Jolson (May 26, 1886–October 23, 1950) was a highly acclaimed American singer, comedian and actor of Jewish heritage whose career lasted from 1911 until his death in 1950. ... Lillian Russell (Helen Louise Leonard) (December 4, 1860 - June 6, 1922) was an American actress and singer. ... Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... For the Katie Melua song, see Mary Pickford (Used to Eat Roses). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Edison redirects here. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Harvey Samuel Firestone was the founder of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, one of the first global makers of automobile tires and an important contributor to North American economic growth in the 20th century. ...

See also: U.S. presidential election, 1920

Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Calvin Coolidge

Calvin Coolidge was inaugurated as president after the death of President Harding. He was easily elected in 1924 when he ran on a basis of order and prosperity. Coolidge made use of the new medium of radio and made radio history several times while president: his inauguration was the first presidential inauguration broadcast on radio; on 12 February 1924, he became the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech on radio, and only ten days thereafter, on 22 February, he also became the first to deliver such a speech from the White House. He is famous for his quotation "The chief business of the American people is business". John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover was the final president of the 1920s, taking office in 1929. He stated in 1928, "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land." Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Fall of labor unions

Main article: Trade union

Several labor strikes in 1918 and 1919 marked a turning point in American's view of labor unions. State militias began to be used to break up strikes and state officials started enacting criminal laws against disturbances. Labor union membership fell drastically throughout the country. Radical unionism declined as well, in large part because of Federal repression during World War I by means of the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act of 1918. Socialist Eugene V. Debs had been sentenced to prison for 10 years as a result of the latter, although he was released early by Harding. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Strike action (or simply strike) describes collective action undertaken by groups of workers in the form of a refusal to perform work. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Unionism is a movement based on the ideal of syndicalism and support for the trade union movement, but which exists within the framework of an open capitalist society as an independent participatory private entity. ... The Espionage Act was passed by the 65th United States Congress on June 15, 1917, during World War I. This act made it a crime, punishable by a $10,000 fine and 20 years in jail, for a person to convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere... The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who was concerned that dissent, in time of war, was a significant threat to morale. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ...


Canadian politics

Canadian politics were dominated federally by the Liberal Party of Canada under William Lyon Mackenzie King. The federal government spent most of the decade disengaged from the economy and focused on paying off the large debts amassed during the war and during the era of railway over expansion. After the booming wheat economy of the early part of the century, the prairie provinces were troubled by low wheat prices. This played an important role in the development of Canada's first highly successful third party, the Progressive Party of Canada that won the second most seats in the 1921 national election. However the 1920s were also a decade of independence for Canada as the Balfour Declaration of 1926 made them equal in status with Britain and the other former colonies (exempting India) within the Commonwealth of Nations. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... In any two-party system of politics, a third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


End of the Roaring Twenties

Black Tuesday

The Dow Jones Industrial Stock Index had continued its upward move for weeks, and coupled with heightened speculative activities, it gave an illusion that the bull market of 1928 to 1929 would last forever. On October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday, stock prices on Wall Street collapsed. The events in the United States were the final shock to an unsound economic system, leading to a worldwide depression that put millions of people out of work across the capitalist world throughout the 1930s. Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... A bull market is a prolonged period of time when prices are rising in a financial market faster than their historical average. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... WORLD OF WARCRAFT IS THE BEST GAME EVER INVENTED AND PLAY IT. IF YOU DONT PLAY WORLD OF WARCRAFT, YOU ARE A nOOb. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Repeal of Prohibition

The 21st Amendment, which repealed the 18th Amendment, was proposed on February 20, 1933. The choice to legalize alcohol was left up to the states, and many states quickly took this opportunity to allow alcohol. Amendment XXI in the National Archives The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The Golden Twenties, in Berlin, Germany, were an exciting and extremely vibrant time in the history of Berlin, German history, and European history in general. ... It is a term, mostly used in Europe, to describe the 1920s, in which most of the continent had an economic boom following the First World War and the severe economic downturns that took place between 1919-1923. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). War, Peace, and All That Jazz. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 41-46. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ based on data in Susan Carter, ed. Historical Statistics of the US: Millennial Edition (2006) series Ca9
  3. ^ The song was written by Edgar Leslie (words) and James V. Monaco (music) and featured in Hugh J. Ward's Musical Comedy "Lady Be Good."
  4. ^ Artists who recorded this song include: 1. Frank Harris (Irving Kaufman), (Columbia 569D,1/29/26) 2. Bill Meyerl & Gwen Farrar (UK, 1926) 3. Joy Boys (UK, 1926) 4. Harry Reser's Six Jumping Jacks (UK, 2/13/26) 5. Hotel Savoy Opheans (HMV 5027, UK, 1927, aka Savoy Havana Band) 6. Merrit Brunies & His Friar's Inn Orchestra on Okeh 40593, 3/2/26
  5. ^ A full reproduction of the original sheet music with the complete lyrics (including the amusing cover sheet) can be found at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.mus-an6301650
  6. ^ Mann, William J., Wisecracker : the life and times of William Haines, Hollywood's first openly gay star. New York, N.Y., U.S.A. : Viking, 1998: 2-6.
  7. ^ Mann, William J., Wisecracker : the life and times of William Haines, Hollywood's first openly gay star. New York, N.Y., U.S.A. : Viking, 1998: 12-13, 80-83.

Bibliography

  • Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday:An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties. 1931.
  • Best, Gary Dean. The Dollar Decade: Mammon and the Machine in 1920s America. Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Cohen, Lizabeth. Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939 (1990)
  • Cohen, Lizabeth. "Encountering Mass Culture at the Grassroots: The Experience of Chicago Workers in the 1920s," American Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 6-33 in JSTOR
  • Conor, Liz. The Spectacular Modern Woman: Feminine Visibility in the 1920s. (Indiana University Press, 2004. 329pp.).
  • Cowley, Malcolm. Exile's Return: A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s. (1934) online 1999 edition
  • Dumenil, Lynn. The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s. 1995
  • Fass, Paula. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. 1977.
  • Hicks, John D. Republican Ascendancy, 1921-1933. (1960) political and economic survey
  • Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Harlem Renaissance. 1971.
  • Kallen, Stuart A. The Roaring Twenties Greenhaven Press (2001) ISBN 0-7377-0885-9
  • Kyvig, David E.; Daily Life in the United States, 1920-1939: Decades of Promise and Pain Greenwood Press, 2002 online edition
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. The Perils of Prosperity, 1914-1932 (1958), influential survey by scholar
  • Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. Middletown:A Study in Contemporary American Culture. 1929
  • Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925 (1980)
  • Noggle, Burl. Into the Twenties: The United States from Armistice to Normalcy. 1974.
  • Lois Scharf and Joan M. Jensen, eds. The American Housewife between the Wars. Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940. Greenwood, 1983 .
  • Frank Stricker, "Afluence for Whom? Another Look at Prosperity and the Working Classes in the 1920s," Labor History 24#1 (1983): 5-33
  • Starr, Kevin. Material Dreams: Southern California through the 1920s. (1996) online edition
  • Tindall, George Brown. The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945 (1967) comprehensive history

External links

  • The 1920s
  • Quiz: Life in the Roaring Twenties
  • Teaching the American Twenties Exhibit from the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin
  • 1920s timeline, Harlem

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Roaring Twenties (0 words)
American Culture in the Twenties - "The decade of the 1920s is often characterized as a period of American prosperity and optimism.
Chicago: The Roaring Twenties - An overview of the 1920s......this is not a brief overview!!!
The Roaring Twenties - This is a unit on the Twenties for a high school class in the UK.
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